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Rector of St. Mark s Church, Richmond, and Secretary 
of the Council. 



7)2. e 









There is not in our land a Diocese so truly historic as 
Virginia. It was within her borders that the first services 
of the mother Church were enjoyed in the United States. 
It was upon her shores that there were undertaken the first 
efforts to introduce into our country the light of the gospel 
as it is reflected from our Liturgy and other standards. 
Within her bounds there are still extant the remains of the 
first sanctuary built within the limits of the Union. An 
account of the early work of the Church in Virginia must 
possess great interest for all who have a regard for what is 
heroic. A mere outline of its facts will no doubt be read 
with eagerness by all who sympathize with the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. They cannot read with unconcern of 
the first light that was kindled a mere spark ; then grow 
ing in warmth and brilliancy, and afterwards becoming 
feebler and feebler, until it seemed about to expire. They 
must rejoice in that wondrous grace which raised the kind 
of men that were needed for the work and then blessed 
their labors so that, in spite of all that was untoward, the 
feeble and almost expiring flame was rekindled until the 
Church in Virginia became, as it is this day, a pillar of fire 
to her children, and not to them only, but to many who are 
afar off. It is not with self-complacency, but with humble 


gratitude to God, we should read of the days in which the 
preservation of this Church illustrates most conspicuously 
the intervention of our fathers God. She was then like 
the bush that was burning but never consumed. Now she 
is the prolific mother of bishops, presbyters, deacons and 
laymen, whom she has sent abroad to every Diocese in the 
Union and whose influence is thus felt in parishes from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific; from the lakes to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and upon the distant shores of heathendom. 

A full history of the Church in Virginia would necessi 
tate the annals of many a community in our own Diocese, 
in which she has become powerful for service in the Mas 
ter s cause ; of many a feeble parish in which there has 
been always a struggle for life. It would, in all fairness, 
include the history of religion as it has gained a footing 
and exerted its force in many Dioceses that are now vig 
orous. It would require us to follow her children to their 
isolated homes in our western wilds and to observe the 
beamings of truth from many a solitary household. It 
would oblige us to read, and in turns to rejoice and weep 
over the successes and the sorrows of those who have been 
gospel pioneers to the savages upon our own soil and to 
the brutalized of Asia and Africa. Could such a history 
be fully written out, what a precious volume it would be ! 
What a record it would furnish of the power of grace, and 
how it would serve to stimulate the zeal and to quicken 
the piety of believers everywhere! Even an outline of this 
history as might be taken from Convention records, is evi- 


dently very much desired. For many years the stock of 
journals of hy-gone Virginia Conventions has been ex 
hausted. The demand for them from every quarter of 
the country has heen constant. Such a demand it will 
be the effort of this volume to meet. 

It is not proposed in these pages to give a history that 
will satisfy the antiquarian or the inquisitive, but to fur 
nish such a statement of facts as will be of real service to 
the laymen who are in our Annual Councils; to the clergy, 
who for many reasons ought to be posted in the events of 
Virginia Church history, and to our postulants and candi 
dates who might well be encouraged to increase their interest 
in the times of Madison, Moore and Meade, whilst not feel 
ing less interest in the times of Irenaeus, Augustine and 


In some degree this chapter is a departure from the 
author s intention. It will be inserted as a brief state 
ment preliminary to the full list of colonial clergy. The 
first religious service in Virginia was held at Jamestown, 
on the 14th of May, 1607. The charter to the London 
Company to found a colony in Virginia was issued on the 
10th of April, 1606. Amongst those who were petitioners 
to the King for the grant of this charter was the Kev. 
Kobert Hunt, a clergyman of the Church of England. The 
colonists embarked on the 19th of December, 1606, and 
landed at Jamestown on the 13th of May, 1607. Dissen 
sions of a dangerous character had arisen between prominent 
men in the colony. Through the judicious intervention of 
Mr. Hunt the strife was healed, and on the 14th of May, 
1607, they all united in the worship to which they had been 
accustomed in England, and the parties lately at variance 
knelt together in receiving the Holy Communion. 

Under such auspices was the colony inaugurated and the 
foundation laid for the Church in Virginia. 

In the next year, 1608, occurred the first marriage service 
ever performed in Virginia, the Rev. Mr. Hunt being the 
officiating clergyman. 

One of the first matters engaging the efforts of the colo 
nists was the erection of a church. It seems to have been 
done very promptly. It was an humble building, but was 
set apart for the worship of Almighty God. In a few 
months it was consumed by a fire which destroyed the place. 
The character of the Rev. Mr. Hunt came out most nobly in 


this distressing time. The fire burnt up all that he had 
shelter, clothing and books. The colonists were disheart 
ened, not only by this catastrophe, but by their many other 
adversities. Disease had, in the short space of four months, 
taken off one-half their number. But for the example of 
Mr. Hunt they would probably have given way entirely to 
their depressions. The minister s faith and hope rose with 
the occasion. By exhortation and example he encouraged 
them to set to work again. In the spring of 1608, the 
town was rebuilt and a new and substantial church erected. 
Travelers upon James river can still perceive upon the 
shore at Jamestown island the ruins of the brick tower 
which once formed a part of this building. 

The Rev. Mr. Hunt, who seems to have been a man of 
great holiness and pious enthusiasm, was the only minister 
in Virginia for three years. The next clerical arrival was 
the Rev. Richard Bucke, who came over with Lord De La 
War. The arrival of this nobleman led to a change in the 
government of the colony ; up to this time it had been in 
the hands of a president and council. In the charter it 
was ordained that no one should have the privilege of in 
gress into Virginia, unless he should first take the oath 
of supremacy. The object was to keep out every invasion 
of Romanism. With the exception of this prohibition of 
popery the colonists were not subjected to any other enact 
ments in the way of religion, except the general require 
ments of conformity to the Church of England. 

Lord De La War s regime was marked by prudence, 
and had a good effect upon the interests of the colony. 
His health failed, however, after he had charge but a few 
months. In May, 1611, he resigned the government into 
the hands of Sir Thomas Dale. It was under this adminis 
tration that penal enactments were instituted in connection 
with religion. The idea was perhaps to ensure good order, 


industry and all the accompaniments of a high order of 
piety, and hence, in order to make the colonists decidedly 
religious, martial law was declared in connection with the 

It is not worth while to reproduce the laws literatim 
but the substance of them is given. 

The first required "all captaines and officers, of what 
qualitie or nature soever, to have a care that Almightie God 
bee duly and daily served ; that they call vpon their people 
to heare sermons ; that they diligently frequent morning and 
evening praier themselves, * * encouraging others thereto, 
and that such who shall often and wilfully absent them 
selves, be duly punished according to the martiall law in 
that case provided." 

The second forbids, upon pain of death, to "speake impi 
ously or maliciously against the holy and blessed Trinitie, 
or any of the Three Persons, * * * or against the 
known articles of the Christian faith." 

The third forbids profanity "vpon paine of severe punish 
ment for the first offence so committed, and for the second 
to have a bodkin thrust through his tongue, for the third to 
be brought to a martiall court and there receive censure of 
death for his offence." 

The fifth forbids, "vpon paine of death," to "speake any 
word, or do any act which may tend to the derision or de- 
spight of God s Holy Word." It also condemns any one 
who shall "vnworthily demeane himself vnto any preacher 
or minister of the word of God, to be whipt openly three 
times and aske public forgiveness in the assembly of the 
congregation three severall Sabboth daies." 

The sixth, "euerie man and woman duly twice aday vpon 
the first towling of the bell, shall vpon the working daies 
repaire vnto the church to heare diuine service vpon paine 
of losing his or her daye s allowance for the first omis- 


sion, for the second to be whipt, and for the third to be con 
demned to the gallies for six months. Likewise no man or 
woman shall dare to violate or breake the Sabboth by any 
gaming, publique or private, abroad or at home, but duly 
sanctifie and obserue the same by preparing themselves at 
home by priuate praier that they may be the better fitted 
for the publique according to the Commandments of Grod 
and the orders of our Church; as also euerie man and 
woman shall repaire in the morning to diuine seruice and 
sermons preached vpon the Sabboth daie, and in the after 
noon to diuine service and catechising ; vpon paine for the 
first fault to lose their prouision and allowance for the whole 
we eke following ; for the second to lose the said allowance, 
and also to be whipt; and for the third to suffer death." 

The seventh enjoins upon all ministers, diligence in 
preaching every Sabboth morning and catechising in the 
afternoon; to "say the diuine seruice twice euery Daie in 
the weeke and preach euerie Wednesday;" * * * "to 
chusse vnto him foure of the most religious and better dis 
posed" to keep watch over the people and to keep the 
church in repair; "likewise euerie minister shall keep a 
faithfull and true record or church booke of all christen 
ings, &c., &c., vpon the burthen of a neglectfull conscience 
and vpon paine of losing their entertainment." 

The thirty-third makes it the duty of every man or wo 
man in the colony to hold conference with the minister. If 
he finds them not properly instructed in religion they must 
often seek him for advice. "The governour shall cause the 
offender for the first time to be whipt; for the second time 
to be whipt twice, and to acknowledge his fault vpon the 
Sabboth daie in the assembly of the Congregation ; and for 
the third time to be whipt eueri daie vntil he hath made 
the same acknowledgement, and asked forgiuenesse of the 
same; and shall repaire vnto the minister to be further 


instructed as aforesaid; and vpon the Sabboth when the 
minister shall catechise and of him demand any question 
concerning his faith and knowledge he shall not refvse to 
make answer vpon the same peril." 

We may forbear any criticism upon the intentions of the 
authority that would promulgate such a code. We cannot 
disagree in these times as to the want of discreetness in 
such plans to make men love the Church and worship of 
God. It is sufficient to say as to the history of those laws 
that their severity prevented their enforcement. The gov 
ernor himself made no effort to carry out their provisions, 
and if he had made the attempt the people would not have 

The administration of Sir Thomas Dale was very brief. 
In the same year that he became governor he was succeeded 
loy Sir Thomas Gates. Dale pushed forward then his indi 
vidual enterprises one of which was the building of Hen- 
rico town. This was at a point about twelve miles below 
Richmond, commonly known as Varina, but will be more 
easily identified by the name of Aiken s Landing, which 
became historic in the civil war, having been selected as the 
place of meeting of commissioners for exchange of Federal 
and Confederate prisoners. A church was built here and 
placed under the charge of the Rev. Alexander Whittaker. 
This minister seems, like Mr. Hunt, to have been a Chris 
tian of great piety and devotion. He was truly missionary 
in his spirit, and addressed the most stirring appeals to the 
clergy of England to take part in the work of evangeliza 
tion then going on in Virginia. It was by this good man 
that Pocahontas . was baptized, and afterwards united in 
marriage to Mr. Rolfe. 

In the year 1616, there were three parishes founded and 
settled as follows : 

Henrico and Bermuda Hundred, Rev. Mr. Whittaker. 
Jamestown, Rev. Mr. Bucke. 


Dr. Hawks and Bishop Meade speak also of the Rev. Mr. 
Wickham at this time. Bishop Meade refers to him as the 
curate of Mr. Whittaker. It is probable, however, that they 
are mistaken. He is elsewhere referred to as "a pious man 
without Episcopal ordination," who conducted the services at 
Henrico after the death of Rev. Mr. Whittaker. Prior to the 
minister s decease, which occurred in the spring of 1617, he 
was quite certainly a lay assistant, and afterwards the ad 
ministrator of parish affairs in the capacity of lay reader. 

Up to 1619, the whole number of clergy who had come 
to the colony was seven, viz: Messrs. Hunt, Bucke, Glover, 
Whittaker, Keith, Mease and Bargrave. 

In 1619 Messrs. Hunt, Glover and Whittaker were dead. 
The clergy in Virginia were 

Rev. Richard Bucke, in charge of Jamestown church. 

Rev. George Keith, in charge of Elizabeth City parish. 

Rev. Thomas Bargrave, in charge of Henrico and Ber 
muda Hundred. 

Rev. William Mease, who seems to have had no ministe 
rial cure. 

These are the only ordained ministers of whom I can find 
a reliable account up to this time. Bishop Meade and Dr. 
Hawks mention the Rev. Mr. Stockham. The name, how 
ever, seems to have been confused with that of another cler 
gyman, the Rev. Jonah Stockton, who came to Virginia in 
January, 1621. 

I have endeavored to observe especial accuracy in the 
records of this year, for it is a memorable one. It witnessed 
the first meeting of the Assembly of Virginia. In obedi 
ence to a call from the Governor, Sir George Grandby, this 
body convened in the church at Jamestown. The session 
was opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Bucke, and the en 
actments of the Legislature formally established the Church 
of England in Virginia. 


Name. County. Year. 

Alexander, John 1696 

Almoner, John . Northampton 1664 

Anderson, 1661 

Anderson, Charles 1692 

Aylmer, Justinian Elizabeth City 1646 

Ball, John 1696 

Bargrave, Thomas Henrico and Bermuda Hundreds 1619 

Bennett, William Warosquoak District 1621 

Blair, James James City 1685 

Boisseau, James 1697 

Bolton, Robert Elizabeth City 1621 

Bowker, James Matthews 1677 

Bracewell, Robert Isle of Wight 1653 

Bucke, Richard James City 1610 

Butler, William Westmoreland 1680 

Carr, Robert New Kent 1684 

Clayton, John James City 1684 

Cluff, John Surry 1676 

Cole, Samuel Lancaster 1650 

Coney, Peregrine 1699 

Cotton, William Accomac 1633 

Davies, Charles Rappahannock 1680 

Davis, Superior Middlesex 1683 

Doggett, Benjamin Lancaster 1680 

Doughty, Francis Northampton ... , 1664 

D Oyley, Cope Elizabeth City 1687 

Eburne, J. Sclater James City 1689 

Falkner, Isle of Wight 1642 

Fance, Stephen 1692 

Farnefold, John Northumberland 1692 

Fenton, Buried in Elizabeth City 1624 

Foliott, Edmond York 1680 

Fordyce, Frank Elizabeth City 1696 

8 LIST OF THE CLEEGY FROM 160*7 TO 1*700. 

Name. County. Year. 

Gant, Andrew 1696 

Glover, 1611 

Goodwyn, Morgan 1665 

Gordon, John 1697 

Gough, William 1683 

Gray, Samuel Middlesex 1692 

Green, J Nansemond 1656 

Gregory, John Nansemond 1680 

Gwynn, John Gloucester 1680 

Hall, John New Kent. 1686 

Hampton, Thomas James City Parish 1644 

Harris, William Elizabeth City Parish 1675 

Harrison, Thomas Chaplain to Governor Berkely 1643 

Higby, Thomas Northampton 1651 

Holt, Joseph. Gloucester 1696 

Housden, William Isle of Wight 1680 

Hunt, Robert Jamestown church 1607 

Jacob, Henry 1624 

Jones, Roland James City 1674 

Keith, George Elizabeth City 1617 

Key, Northampton 1677 

Lawrence, John Warrick 1680 

Leake, William Died in less than six months 1622 

Ledford, Matthew Middlesex 1692 

Lonsdale, Peter ; 1660 

Loughby, Francis 1656 

Mallory, Philip Elizabeth City 1644 to 1656 

Mease, William , 1610 to 1627 

Moreau, Nicholas New Kent 1696 

Morris, Middlesex 1664 

Munroe, Andrew 1696 

Munroe, John Northampton 1692 

Nern, William... Norfolk 1680 

Page, John Elizabeth and New Kent 1677 

Palmer, Thomas Northampton 1647 

Park, Robert Isle of Wight 1680 

Parker, Henry Accomac 1680 

Paulet, Robert Martin s Hundred.... 1621 

Paxton, Anthony 1639 

Pead, Duell Middlesex 1683 

Pooley, Greville Fleur de Hundred 1622 


Name. County. Year. 

Porter, James Norfolk 1680 

Pretty, Henry l6 9 6 

Rodgers, John Northampton 1664 

Sanders, Jonathan l6 9^ 

Sandys, David James City 1620 

Sclater, James James City l6 88 

Sellick, William St. Peter s, New Kent 1682 

Sheppard, John Middlesex 1668 

Stockton, Jonas Elizabeth City 1621 

Taylor, Jeremiah Elizabeth City 1667 

Taylor, Thomas New Kent 1680 

Teackle, Thomas Northampton 1656 

Temple,- 1690 

Vicars, Thomas Gloucester 1667 

Wading, Gloucester 1676 

Wallace, James 1696 

Ward, Jacob New Kent 1690 

Waugh, John Stafford 1686 

White, Thomas 1621 

Whittaker, Alexander Henrico 1611 

Williams, Paul Surry 1680 

Williams, William New Kent 1689 

Wilson, John Norfolk 1637 

Wood, John Nansemond 1680 

Wyatt, Hawte Returned to England in 1626 1621 

Yates, Robert Middlesex 1699 

Zyperios, Michael Gloucester 1680 


Name. County. 

Agnew, John Nansemond 1774 

Agur, William 1773 

Allards, Thomas * 1701 

Andrew, J., Jr Loudoun 1750 

Andrews, Thomas King and Queen 1793 

Andrews, William Southampton 1776 

Arnold, Louisa 1747 

Avons, Archibald Loudoun 1767 

Bagge, John Essex 1709 

Baker, Thomas Mathews 1771 

Balfour, Nansemond 1744 

Ball, David Lancaster 1785 

Balmaine, Alexander Frederick 1783 

Barclay, Lunenburg 1756 

Barlow, Edward 1744 

Barlow, Henry Princess Anne 1736 

Barnett, John Orange 1771 

Barrett, Robert Hanover 1785 

Baylye, T Isle of Wight 1727 

Beattie, Brunswick 1733 

Beckett, Goochland 1728 

Berkely, John Charlotte 1755 

Bell, John Lancaster 1713 

Black, James Gloucester 1723 

Black, William Accomac 1709 

Blacknall, John Mathews 1726 

Blagrove, Benjamin Prince George 1774 

Bland, William Warwick 1784 

Blair, James James City 1710 

Boucher, John Caroline 1761 

Bowker, Ralph 1700 

Brace, John Elizabeth 1778 

Bracken, James 1705 

LIST OF THE CLERGY FROM 1700 TO 1*785. 11 

Name. County. Year. 

Brooke, King William 1727 

Bracken, John James City 1773 

Braidfoot, William Norfolk 774 

Brandon, John Bedford 1773 

Bridgers, Charles Hanover 1738 

Brockenbrough, ...York 1773 

Brodie, William New Kent 171^ 

Bromscale, Sharpe James City i7 21 

Brooke, Clement Stafford 1774 

Brooke, Zachariah Hanover 17 ll 

Brown, New Kent 1797 

Brumskill, John Lunenburg 1748 

Brumskill, John, Jr Caroline 1754 

Brumskill, Joseph Fauquier 1758 

Buchan, Robert Stafford 1785 

Buchanan, John..., Amherst 1780 

Buchanan, James Henrico 1785 

Burgess, J. H Isle of Wight 1729 

Burgess, Thomas Nansemond 1754 

Burtell, James 1705 

Butler, Edward 1705 

Cameron, John Lunenburg 1759 

Camm, John York 1758 

Camp, Ichabod Albemarle 1752 

Campbell, Archibald Westmoreland 1748 

Campbell, 1766 

Cargill, John Southampton 1727 

Carson, Jean King William 1714. 

Carter, Jesse Cumberland 1772 

Christlake, Henry . 1743. 

Clack, James 1705 

Clay, Charles Albemarle 1767 

Clay, Paul Chesterfield 1785 

Clayton, D New Kent 1703 

Clopton, Reuben King William 1790 

Cocke, John Mathews 1780- 

Cole, Roscoe Warwick -. 1754 

Collin, Peter Northampton..., 1701 

Collings, Henry New Kent 1723, 

Gouts, William... Prince George 1773 

Cox, James Charles City 1723, 

12 LIST OP THE CLERGY FROM 1*700 TO 1785. 

Name. County. Year. 

Craigh, William Charlotte I7SS 

Cray, James Lunenburg 1759 

Cruden, Alexander New Kent . 1746 

Currie, John Lancaster 1744 

Bade, Townshend Alexandria and Fairfax 1766 

Darneille, Isaac Nelson 1785 

David, M i7S 2 

Davenport, James York 1756 

Davies, Price New Kent 1771 

Davis, Peter Southampton 1758 

Davis, Thomas Norfolk 1774 

Davis, William King George 1753 

Davis, William Warwick 1758 

Dawson, Blair 1743 

Dawson, H 1745 

Dawson, Musgrave ...Caroline 1753 

Dawson, Thomas James City J 744 

Dawson, William James City 1744 

De Butts, Lawrence Spotsylvania 1720 

Dell, Thomas Princess Anne 1721 

Deter, Swift King William 1729 

Dick, Archibald Caroline 1773 

Dickson, Robert Princess Anne 1748 

Dixon, John Mathews 1750 

Douglass, William King William 1732 

Dunbar, H King and Queen 1753 

Dunlap, William Mathews 1778 

Edward, King George 1727 

Emmerson, Arthur Accomac 1755 

Evans, Archibald Mathews .. 1777 

Fairfax, Bryan Fairfax .-. 1780 

Falconer, James 1720 

Falconer, Patrick Northampton 1712 

Ferguson, Robert Dinwiddie 1741 

Field, Thomas Mathews 1770 

Fife, William .Elizabeth City 1721 

Finney, William Goochland 1719 

Finnic, Alexander Prince George 1754 

Fontaine, Frank New Kent 1721 

Fontaine, J. Maury Gloucester 1764 

Fontaine, Peter Nansemond 1719 


Name. County. Year. 

Forbes, Alexander Isle of Wight 1714 

Ford, J. Reid Gloucester 1740 

Foulis, James Halifax 1754 

Fox, John Gloucester 1742 

Fraser, John 1700 

Frazer, George Chesterfield J 754 

Garden, James Charlotte 1759 

Gammel, John Isle of Wight 1729 

Gavin, Anthony Goochland 1738 

Giberne, William Orange , 1761 

Goodwin, Benjamin New Kent I 79 

Gordon, Alexander Halifax 1763 

Gordon, John Frederick , 1754 

Graham, Richard Professor William and Mary College *754 

Gray, Daniel New Kent 1708 

Grayson, Spencer Loudoun 1773 

Green, Charles Fairfax 1754 

Griffith, David Caroline 1785 

Guilham, Lewis Pittsylvania 1774 

Gurley, George Southampton 1773 

Gwatkin, James City 1771 

Hall, Goochland 1778 

Hamilton, Anthony Gloucester 1768 

Hamilton, Arthur King and Queen 1779 

Harris, Matthew 1753 

Harrison, William Prince George 1763 

Hassel, Thomas 1706 

Hay, Alexander Charlotte 1755 

Hefferman, Middlesex 1786 

Henley, (Professor)..James City 1771 

Henderson, John Augusta 1747 

Henderson, York 1773 

Henry, Patrick Hanover 1752 

Hewett, Richard Northampton 1762 

Hindman, John Culpeper 1747 

Holbrook, John Northampton 1729 

Holt, John W Bedford 1776 

Hopkins, Goochland 1789 

Hotchkiss, 1753 

Hopkinson, Thomas Mathews 1784 

Horrochs, James James City 1762 


Name. County. Year. 

Hubard, William Warwick 1773 

Hughes, Thomas Gloucester 1716 

Hurt, John Jefferson 1775 

Innis, Robert Caroline 1754 

Iredell, Fauquier 1774 

Jarrett, Devereux Dinwiddie 1763 

Johnson, Thomas Charlotte 1773 

Jones, Edward Culpeper 1779 

Jones, Emmanuel Gloucester 1700 

Jones, Hugh Professor William and Mary 1700 

Jones, Immanuel, Jr Norfolk 1775 

Jones, John Augusta 1752 

Jones, Nicholas 1726 

Jones, Owen Caroline 1724 

Jones, Walter Westmoreland 1733 

Kay, William Lunenburg 1743 

Keith, W Fauquier 1745 

Kenner, Rodman King George 1780 

Kenner, Rodman Spotsylvania 1729 

King, John Middlesex 1767 

Kippax, Peter 1701 

Lang, John New Kent 1725 

Latan, Lewis Essex 1700 

Leek, John..., 1749 

Leigh, William Chesterfield 1773 

Leland, John Northumberland 1758 

LeNeve, William James City 1722 

Lunan, Patrick Nansemond 1760 

Lundie, William Brunswick 1770 

Lyon, John Accomac 1 774 

Mackey, William King George 1737 

Manning, William Berkely , 1772 

Marsden, Richard Princess Anne 1729 

Marshall, Mungo Orange 1753 

Martin, Thomas Orange 1768 

Marye, James King William 1731 

Massarum, King William 1729 

Massey, Lee Fairfax 1767 

Masson, David New Kent 1725 

Matthews, John Essex 1774 

Maury, Matthew Albemarle 1769 

LIST OF THE CLERGY FROM 1*700 TO 1785. 15 

Name. County. Year. 

Maury, James Louisa !754 

McClaurine, Jesse Cumberland I75 2 

McCoskry, Northampton 1775 

McCrae, Christopher Cumberland i77 2 

McCreary, Amelia 1759 

McDaniel, Culpeper 1739 

McDonald, D King George I7S4 

McKenzie, Isle of Wight 1753 

McRae, Alexander Cumberland 1773 

McRoberts, Archibald Chesterfield 1764 

Meldrum, Frederick 1765 

Menzies, Adam Culpeper 1754 

Milner, Isle of Wight 1766 

Moncure, John Stafford 1739 

Moreton, Andrew Caroline 1774 

Mortland, David Northumberland 1741 

Mucklejohn, George Mecklenburg 1776 

Muhlenburg, Peter Berkeley 1768 

Murdaugh, William Goochland 1725 

Myence, 1719 

Navison, John 1754 

Nelson, William King William 1724 

Nixon, William.... Elizabeth City . . 1783 

Ogilvie, James Berkely 1771 

Oglesby, James Cumberland 1772 

Pasteur, James Dinwiddie 1755 

Pasteur, James Norfolk 1763 

Paxton, Zachariah 1711 

Peart, Frank Northumberland 1731 

Peasley, Buckingham 1773 

Pedlar, Isle of Wight 1771 

Phillips, William Essex 1739 

Portlock, Edward 1705 

Pow, William Dinwiddie 1751 

Preston, William James City 1754 

Price, Thomas Gloucester 1773 

Proctor, William Halifax 1753 

Fruit, D. B Culpeper 1732 

Purdie, George Lunenburg 1748 

Rainsford, Culpeper 1714 

Ramsey, Albemarle 1753 

Ravenscroft, John S Mecklenburg 1784 


Name. County. Year* 

Read, Robert Mathews i?79 

Reade, John Middlesex 1737 

Reid, John Gloucester 1739 

Richards, John Gloucester 1735 

Robertson, George Prince George 1717 

Robertson, John Cumberland 1746 

Robinson, Thomas Professor William and Mary College 1754 

Robinson, William James City 1744 

Roberts, 1759 

Rose, Charles Amherst 1745 

Rose, Robert Essex , 1725 

Rowan,John 1754 

Rudd, William Isle of Wight 1701 

Saunders, Hyde James City 1773 

Saunders, John H Cumberland 1772 

Scott, Alexander Stafford 1711 

Scott, James Loudoun 1773 

Scott, James York 1746 

Scott, John Prince William 1782 

Seagood, 1719 

Sebastian, Benjamin, Jr.. ..Northumberland 1767 

Selden, Miles Henrico 1754 

Selden, William Elizabeth City 1771 

Semple, James New Kent 1765 

Sharp, Thomas New Kent 1721 

Shields, Samuel, Jr Caroline I77 6 

Shropshire, St. John , 1700 

Simpson, Joseph Princess Anne 1784 

Simpson, Westmoreland 1754 

Skaife, John King and Queen 1711 

Skyren, Henry King William 1774 

Skyren, William King William 1773 . 

Smelt, John Essex 1752 

Smith, Adam Botetourt , 1772 

Smith, Augustine Westmoreland 1780 

Smith, Charles Norfolk 1743 

Smith, Guy 1700 

Smith, Thomas Northumberland 1758 

Solomon, D 1702 

Span, John Northumberland 1712 

Squere, Richard New Kent 1703 

Staige, Theodosius Spotsylvania 1728 


Name. County. Year. 

Stephenson, James Spotsylvania 1771 

Stith, William Henrico 1738 

Stith, 1754 

Stuart, Davis King George 1722 

Sturges, Daniel Berkely 1771 

Swift, King William 1728 

Taylor, Daniel New Kent 1705 

Taylor, James ..Caroline 1785 

Tennant, James Princess Anne 1723 

Thacker, Chichely New Kent 1754 

Thompson, Andrew Elizabeth City 1712 

Thompson, James Halifax 1762 

Thompson, James Fauquier 1769 

Thompson, John Culpeper 1740 

Thornton, Thomas Stafford 1785 

Thruston, C. M... Gloucester 1766 

Tillyard, Arthur 1705 

Todd, C I77S 

Townshend, Jacob 1754 

Veasy, Frederick 1781 

Veve, William Accomac 1774 

Wagner, Peter 1705 

Warden, John Southampton , 1727 

Ware, Jacob 1700 

Warrington, Thomas Elizabeth City 1747 

Waugh, Abner Caroline 1772 

Waugh, John Culpeper 1779 

Webb, Willis Nansemond 1749 

West, William 177? 

Whately, Solomon James City 1700 

White, Alexander King William 1754 

Wilkinson, Thomas Nottoway... 1773 

Willie, William Sussex 1739 

Wingate, John, Jr 1773 

Woodmason, Charles Culpeper 1740 

Wye, William Northumberland 1727 

Yates, Bartholomew Middlesex 1705 

Yates, Robert Gloucester 1741 

Yates, William.. James City 1754 

Young, George Gloucester 1700 

Young, W. George Westmoreland 1776 


There is at this time in the Library of All Soul s College, 
Oxford, a curious document. It is the original charter drawn 
up in the reign of Charles II, for the erection of a Bishopric 
in Virginia. This interesting paper was first deposited in 
the Library of Jesus College, Oxford, and was found there 
"by the Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, present Bishop of 
Tennessee, when he was visiting England in 1867. 

The charter created the Diocese of Virginia, and erected 
Jamestown into a cathedral city. The document is too 
voluminous to be quoted in full, but its existence ought to 
be known and the essential points in it to be stated. The 
short extracts here will amply suffice for these purposes: 

\Draft for the creation of a Bishopric in Virginia, from 
the All Soul s College MS. 238, fol. 152, 153, 154.] 

Carolus 2 US Dei Gratia Angl. Sc: Fr: Hib; Rex. Fidei 
Defensor &c Omnibus ad Quos has pervenerint Literas Sa- 
lutem. Cum Deus Opt : Max : ex Divina sua Providentia ac 
Gratia Regiones quasdam Americanas & Territoria amplis- 
sima, Insulasque plurimas in Oceano Occidentali seu At- 
lantico Sitas, Imperio nostro subjicere dignatus sit; in 
quibus Colonia3, diver sis temporibus, e Regnis nostris Eu- 
ropeis transmissae, multis etiam aliarum nationum homini- 
bus tarn exteris quam indigenis in Societatem admissis ; Dei 
Benedictione in populum numerosissimum excreverunt, in- 
diesque augentur. Quid Deo, quid subditis debeamus non 
immemores, summam etiam in Ecclesiasticis potestatem 
nobis a regum rege concessam pra3 oculis habentes: Sciatis, 
nos in animum induxisse Ecclesiam Dei, non solum in dition- 


ibus nostris, in partibus illis stabilire, verum etiam Dei 
fretos auxilio, latius propagare. Cum itaque inter omnia 
nostra Territoria regis et plantatio Virginia dicta non solum 
sit omnium aliarum optimaa spei, quia super terra firma 
continenti, propter plenitudinem gentium, Indorumq, mul- 
titudinem ad ecclesiam augendam, verum etiam cum sit 
omnium prima et antiquissima, quasi Alma mater, unde 
reliquae plantationes originem duxerunt et adhuc illas et 
annuis reddittibus foveat; et Ecclesise Anglicanae semper 
Eeverentiam debitam prestiterit ; Ideo curam nostram magis 
promeretur : illamq cum omnibus aliis plantationibus nostris 
Americanis, sub prsestantissima Ecclesiae forma ac Regi- 
mine, stabilire ac Confirmare Statuimus. 

Quapropter Nos Considerantes quod Scitus nuper dictae Re- 
gionis Virg, ibidemq Civitas Jacobi sit dicta, et ecclesia 
ibidem: sit locus aptus Conveniens et necessarius pro instit- 
uendo erigendo ordinando et stabiliendo Sedem Episco- 
palem ac in Ecclesiam Cathedralem, Omnipotenti Deo in 
perpetuo Servitur; ipsum Scitum dictae nuper regionis Virg: 
ac locum Civitatis Jacobi, et Ecclesise ibidem in Sedem 
Episcopalem ac in Ecclesiam Cathedralem, Creari Erigi 
fundari & Stabiliri Decrevimus pro ut per presentes Decer- 
nimus: ac eandem Civitatem Jacobi et Ecclesiam ejusdem, 
Sedem Episcopalem et Ecclesiam Cathedralem realiter et ad 
plenum Creamus, Erigimus fundamus ordinamus facimus 
Constituimus & Stabilimus perpetuis futuris temporibus 
duriter: ac sic stabiliri ac in perpetuum inviolabiliter ob- 
servari Voluimus & Jubemus per presentes. 

This paper may be seen entire in the appendix to Bishop 
Perry s "Papers Relating to the History of the Church in 


In beginning here an account of the legislation of the 
Diocese from the date of its organization, a few prefatory 
words may not be out of place. 

Whilst we look to the published records for the purpose 
of learning what was the mind of our Fathers in the 
Church, we can all agree that the heart of those ancestors 
cannot be so easily discerned. The proceedings are in 
tended to show us what was done; what was the actual 
conclusion of each Convention or Council in what it adopted, 
or what it rejected. The debates are not reported no 
report of the religious services comes down to us certainly 
no such report as will clearly make known what was the 
measure of religious feeling that prevailed. Traditions we 
have in abundance to tell us, that like unto the assembling 
of the tribes of God s people under the old dispensation, 
were the gatherings together of Virginia families when the 
Conventions would meet in the days of Bishop Moore and 
Bishop Meade. They were glad, blessed assemblings. The 
spirit of fraternal affection was ardent, and every such 
meeting was, in the truest, sweetest sense, a family reunion. 
A result of every such Convention was the increase of the 
spirit of religion in the community where it met. 

There were reasons why such meetings would be in every 
way enjoyable in the highest degree. 

1. For a number of years before and after the Kevolution 
the Church in Virginia was in an exceedingly depressed 
condition. She had gone through and come out of the war 
suffering from all its demoralizing and depressing influ- 


ences. Poverty, dispersion and wickedness left their effects 
upon all the commonwealth, upon all the representative 
elements of the commonwealth, but upon none as much as 
upon the Episcopal Church. She suffered much in the loss 
of character upon the part of ministers and people, and 
also in the loss of the property of which she was plundered 
by iniquitous legislation, brought about by merciless perse 

The Acts of Assembly which wrested from us the glebes 
and in some parishes the church plate, and caused them to 
be sold for public purposes, need not be referred to at any 
length. They are simply mentioned in order to put upon 
record a brief statement which ought to be made at this 

If there is any Church that contributed most largely to 
the cause of independence, it was the Episcopal Church in 
colonial times. When we remember who were the orators 
that by their flaming eloquence kindled the fires of resist 
ance by their courage and endurance led the armies to 
victory, and then by their wisdom piloted the ship of state 
through even greater perils than those of war, ought we 
not to revere the Church that trained the men for such 
emergencies? Who were those Virginia leaders? How 
many of them were non-Episcopalians? Surely if her con 
tributions of mind of virtue to the cause, be considered a 
test, the Episcopal Church of the colony should stand forth 
preeminent as the champion of freedom. 

Yet orators, within the last decade, have been busy in 
representing the Episcopal Church of bygone days in Vir 
ginia as a monster of ecclesiastical tyranny; wonderful 
accounts have been narrated, telling how Episcopalians 
whipped and imprisoned men for no other crime than that 
they preached without Episcopal authority ! 

How far are such statements true ? At the time referred 


to there were perhaps, within Virginia, not a thousand mem 
bers of the Church which has signalized itself in preferring 
these charges. That their preachers suffered, is an un 
doubted fact, but by whom were they punished? By the 
Episcopal Church? No; but by the officers of the law. 
Whether these officers were Episcopalians, Presbyterians, 
Swedenborgians or atheists, makes no difference. The men 
referred to were offenders against the law, and as such were 
dealt with. Whether the laws were good or bad is not the 
question either the question is: did these speakers affirm 
correctly when they charged this persecution upon the 
Episcopal Church? As well charge persecution upon the 
Methodists if a Methodist judge in the North should have 
sentenced a man to prison for helping a fugitive slave. How 
ever bad the laws referred to, in colonial times, they were 
laws. The offenders broke them knowingly, and were 
taken in hand not by any Church, but by the magistrates. 
The occurrences were worthy of deprecation still, public 
speakers, when they engage in denunciation (from what 
ever motive), ought to adhere to the truth of history. The 
Episcopal Church had no more power then to imprison a 
man for preaching than the Baptist Church has now to 
imprison a man for sheep-stealing. Still, the Episcopal 
Church was subsequently dealt with as though she had 
proved the worst offender against her Christian brethren. 
The story of the unwearying, relentless efforts to deprive 
her of the homes of her ministers is one of the most un 
lovely pages of Church history. It would not be recited 
here in detail if space allowed. It is alluded to merely to 
protest against one of the grounds upon which it was at 
tempted to justify that persistent course of wrong. 

It was affirmed that the glebes had been purchased by 
the people at large, who were in all the denominations, and 
therefore no one denomination ought to own them. This 


statement is false in itself, but it asserts a true principle. 
The glebes were not bought with Presbyterian or Baptist 
money; they were bought with Episcopal money, and as 
such ought ever to have remained in our possession, how 
ever few in number we may have become. If non-Epis 
copalian congregations who happen to own comfortable par 
sonages should be deserted by their members they ought still 
to retain their property. If those members go off to the Epis 
copal Church they renounce all right and title to the effects 
of the Churches they have left. Even so our Church was 
largely abandoned by men who went off to other religious 
bodies. Having left us, they had no claim upon our goods. 
But, along with those whom they joined, they set up that 
claim ; they pressed it until they broke down the barriers of 
justice, and the Church was utterly despoiled of what was 
her own. Not only the lands, but church plate was taken, 
and even now there are church edifices in which our fathers 
worshipped that have been wrongfully taken from us, and 
they are kept out of our possession and held by others by 
no law except the plan of Rob Roy 

"That they may take who have the power, 
And they may keep who can." 

The Church was made poor, but it was made humble by 
this treatment. G-od makes the wrath of man to praise Him, 
and often the injustice and inhumanity of the world may 
lead us to adore the majesty and mercy of heaven. The 
career of the Church in Virginia since the days of Bishop 
Moore, can tell how, in spite of all the wrongs inflicted 
upon her, she grew in grace and strength, and abounded in 
the manifestations of Christian spirit. 

In the minutes published in the following pages there 
may be observed several things that testify to the growth 
of religious character in the Diocese. 


I. The elevation of the standard of character in the Con 
vention itself, as shown in the requirement that none but 
communicants should he delegates. 

II. The effort to raise the standard of character of com 
municants, as shown in the repeated adoption of papers 
protesting against various forms of worldliness, and finally 
in the adoption of a canon to the same effect. Let it be 
true that this canon is a dead letter, as some will say, it 
still shows what is the mind of the Church, which is here 
in this Diocese the witness and keeper of God s truth. 
The canon is not a dead letter, as many a minister and 
communicant will testify, but be it efficient or inefficient, 
the Diocese has, in the most formal manner, given its voice, 
and as a Diocese has cleared its skirts of wrong. 

III. The effort to propagate truth in the most earnest and 
vigorous manner, as seen in the establishment and mainte 
nance of a Theological Seminary, which has sent its alumni 
all over the land all over the world, and for years was 
the only Seminary represented in the missions to the hea 

IV. The effort to maintain unswerving loyalty to the 
Prayer-Book, and a true, uncompromising churchmanship, 
as seen in the repeated and forcible utterances against ritu 
alism and all the formalism and false symbolism which 
some have sought to engraft upon our worship. 

But the unwritten history of these Conventions would be 
a precious treasure to us in these days frf it could be fully 
made known. In those unpublished pages we would find 
the true reasons of the growth of the Church in Virginia 
its growth in numbers and in power. It was not in the 
debates or in the resolutions and canons, but in the frequent 
unions of the clergy and laity for prayer and religious com 
munion. Within the memory of the writer there have been 
such Conventions, meetings of the people of God, in this 


Diocese, which have made their influence felt to these times. 
In 1856 we met in Frederickshurg. The terrible scourge of 
yellow fever had carried sorrow in many parts of the State. 
The appointed preacher, Rev. William M. Jackson, was one 
of the victims. The text he had selected, " The kingdom 
of God is within you," was taken by his substitute, Rev. 
Dr. Pendleton, and in its earnest, pious utterances struck 
the key-note of a series of most deeply impressive services. 
Every day there were services in old St. George s. The 
meetings at six in the morning were so crowded that the 
then spacious lecture-room could not hold the people. One 
afternoon the delegates assembled after service in the lec 
ture-room, and after an account of religious revival at Lex 
ington, prayer was offered by the Rev. John Grammer, 
mingled with amens so fervent and numerous that it seemed 
as though the room was filled with crowded anxious-benches. 
The morning lectures at six o clock, the preaching by Doc 
tors May, Tyng (Sr.), Norwood and others, was of a char 
acter so apostolic and filled with unction, that to this day 
the impressions made have not been effaced. 

The year following, at the Convention in Petersburg, 
under the influence of sermons and addresses by the Bish 
ops, Doctors Andrews, Slaughter, Minnigerode, Cummins, 
Sprigg and others, an influence just as deep and sacred 
prevailed. A scene at one of the early morning services 
was of a character not easily describable and gave evidence 
of the Pentecostal power with which God s Word had been 

The next Convention was at Winchester. It was a mem 
orable time. It was the year of prayer meetings. In 
almost every kind of building on land, where a congrega 
tion could be gathered, and upon the decks of vessels upon 
the sea there were these religious services taking place. In 
the height of this fervor the Convention met in Winchester. 


As might be expected, the large congregations were just 
ready for holy impressions. Meetings under the auspices 
of laymen were held in some part of the city every after 
noon, and were attended by immense crowds. One of those 
meetings, in a Methodist church, addressed by Bishop 
Johns, Kev. A. B. Atkins and Mr. Holmes Conrad, was 
especially to be remembered, because of the deep solemnity 
which marked all its services. 

It was in these meetings, in the gatherings for prayer in 
private houses and hotels, that made the Virginia Conven 
tions of those days so efficient in developing the character 
and strength of the Diocese. As to the legislation, much 
was done that was important, but had the delegates en 
gaged in real work, it would not have required many hours 
to finish up all that engaged them. Oftentimes there was 
really more the semblance of deliberation than the actual 
thing. Many of the motions made were heard by only a 
few. The body of the delegates were perfectly sure that 
everything would go right when confided to the care of 
such men as John G-rammer and Philip Williams. With 
rare exceptions there was very little discussion, except out 
side. In one of the sneers at Virginia, in an unfriendly 
criticism in a Northern Church paper, upon the Convention 
of 1851, the editor indulged in such accounts of our annual 
occasion as would make up a clever burlesque of a religious 
body, and closed his article as follows : " But it is not neces 
sary to say anything more, except that whatever motion 
was made, it passed, and passed unanimously." 

The intended fling was, to a great extent, true. In those 
days we were very much indeed 

"One in Christ and one in mind." 

If any delegate was moved by his love for the Master and 
the work in Virginia to offer a resolution in good faith, it 


was not likely to be opposed. We trusted one another. 
How implicit that confidence was may be judged from the 
following, which occurred in Winchester, in 1858: 

A number of the delegates were perhaps at the time in 
the Lutheran church listening to the solemn discourse de 
livered by the Rev. David Caldwell. The others, who with 
Bishops Meade and Johns, together with the Secretary, the 
Rev. Henry S. Kepler, were making up a quorum, had got 
ten into conversation with each other upon various topics. 
There was supposed to be, of course, a motion pending. 
Bishop Meade was quietly conversing with one brother, 
Bishop Johns with another, the Secretary had gone to med 
itation, or to sleep, and in pairs and groups the others were 
talking, until some one supposed it was time to vote, and 
called for the question. Quietly getting up, Bishop Meade 
said: "Those who are in favor of this, will say aye. " 
There was a good response of the faithful, and no negatives. 
The Secretary had by this time taken in the situation, and 
in solemn tones asked, "Mr. President, will you please tell 
me what is this ?" "I don t know," said the Bishop, 
"I supposed you had the motion down." "No, sir, not a 
word." "Well," said Bishop Meade, "I expect Bishop 
Johns knows." "No, indeed," said Bishop Johns, "I have 
no idea what it is." Some one spoke up and said, "Dr. 
Andrews voted aye very loud, of course he knows." "Not 
a bit," said the Doctor, "I voted aye because I took for 
granted all was right." There the matter had to rest the 
motion was carried nem con, but to this day no one knows 
what it was. Yes, we trusted each other. 



The Convention assembled in the city of Richmond, May 
18, 1785. 

The Rev. James Madison, D. D., was President. 

The Rev. Robert Andrews, A. M., was Secretary. 

There were present 36 clergymen and 71 laymen. Nine 
parishes had each two lay delegates. The sermon was 
preached by the Rev. John Bracken, Rector of Bruton Par 
ish, James City county. 

A committee, consisting of Mr. John Page, Mr. Edmund 
Randolph, Mr. Carter Braxton, Mr. John Walker, Rev. Da 
vid Griffith, Rev. H. John Burgess, Rev. John Bracken, 
Rev. Robert Andrews, Rev. Samuel S. M Croskey and Mr. 
William Lee, were appointed a Committee to Prepare an 
Address " to the members of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Virginia, representing the condition of that 
Church, and exhorting them to unite in its support." The 
same committee was enjoined to prepare instructions for 
deputies who will be elected to represent this Church in the 
General Convention to be holden in Philadelphia on the 
Tuesday before the Feast of St. Michael next. 

A large committee of clergymen and laymen was "ap 
pointed to prepare and report fit rules for the order, gov 
ernment and discipline of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in this Commonwealth." They were also instructed to 
consider and report upon the proceedings of the General 


Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church holden at 
New York on the 6th and 7th days of October, 1784. 

Upon these proceedings the committee reported as fol 

"Resolved, That this Convention is willing to unite in a General 
Ecclesiastical Constitution with the members of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church in the other States of America. 

"Resolved, That this Convention do accede to the following recom 
mendations of the late Convention at New York, as fundamental prin 
ciples in the said Ecclesiastical Constitution. 

I. That there shall be a General Convention of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church in America. 

II. That the Episcopal Church in each State send deputies to the 
said Convention, consisting of clergy and laity. 

III. That associated congregations in two or more States may send 
deputies jointly. 

IV. (Enjoins the doctrines of the Church of England and the Lit 
urgy of the same as far as consistent with the American Revolu 
tion, &c.) 

V. Bishops, consecrated and settled, shall be members ex officio. 

VI. (Relates to voting by orders.) 

VII. (Appoints Philadelphia as the next place of meeting.) 

The Convention declined to be bound by the IVth Article 
until it should "be revised at the next General Convention 
at Philadelphia, and reported to the next Convention." 

The Convention refused to "accede to the Vlth Article 
recommended as a fundamental principle of the said eccle 
siastical Constitution." It agreed, however, to "accede to 
the mode of voting, with respect to the Convention to be 
holden at Philadelphia, reserving the right to approve or 
disapprove their proceedings." 

The instructions to the deputies to the General Conven 
tion were as follows : 

" Uniformity in doctrine and worship will unquestionably contribute 
to the prosperity of the Protestant Episcopal Church, but we earnestly 
wish that this may be pursued with liberality and moderation. The 


obstacles which stand in the way of union among Christian societies 
are too often founded on matters of mere form. They are surmount 
able, therefore, by those who, breathing the spirit of Christianity, 
earnestly labor in this pious work. 

" From the Holy Scriptures themselves, rather than from the com 
ments of men, must we learn the terms of salvation. Creeds, there 
fore, ought to be simple, and we are not anxious to retain any other 
than that which is commonly called the Apostles Creed. 

"Should a change in the Liturgy be proposed, let it be made with 
caution ; and in that case let the alterations be few, and the style of 
prayer continue, as agreeable as may be, to the essential characteristics 
of our persuasion. 

" We will not now decide what ceremonies ought to be retained, we 
wish, however, that those which exist may be estimated according to 
their utility ; and that such as may appear fit to be laid aside, may no 
longer be appendages to our Church. 

" We need only add that we shall expect a report of your proceed 
ings to be made to those whom we shall vest with authority to call a 
General Convention. 

" Done in Convention this 22d day of May, in the year of our Lord 

The Rev. David Griffith, Eev. Samuel S. M Croskey, John 
Page, Esq., and William Lee, Esq., were elected deputies. 

The following address to the members of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Virginia was reported by the com 
mittee appointed to prepare it, and was approved by the 
Convention : 

" The Address of the Convention to the Members 

"of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia : 

"For more than eight years our Church hath languished under neg 
lect. We will not, however, believe that her friends have revolted, and 
therefore trust that a knowledge of her present condition will rekindle 
their former affections. 

" Religion does not invite by inducements from eternal interest alone ; 
society feels her benignity in remedying the defects of laws. 
***** * * 

" From the earliest day, and in every clime, has the efficacy of 
religion been acknowledged. Under various forms have her benefits 
been solicited, and we have enlisted ourselves under the banners of 


the Protestant Episcopal Church. Let us not, then, desert this object 
of our choice, but conscious of her scriptural authority, devote our 
selves to her relief. 

" Of what is the Church now possessed ? Nothing but the glebes 
and your affections. Since the year 1776, she hath been even without 
regular government, and her ministers have received but little compen 
sation for their services. Their numbers are diminished by death and 
other causes, and we have as yet no resource within ourselves for a 
succession of ministers. Churches stand in need of repair, and there 
is no fund equal to the smallest want. 

" By the favour of Providence, indeed, the Protestant Episcopal 
Church is incorporated by law, and under this sanction are we now 
assembled. We have accepted the invitation of a Convention, lately 
holden at New York, to send deputies to another to be holden at Phila 
delphia in the fall. We shall not enter into a revision of doctrine and 
worship, until their return and report of the sentiments of those of 
our communion with whom they may be associated. We have, how 
ever, organized the government of the Church. 

" But whither must our labours tend without your assistance ? To 
contempt, they cannot ; for we have the consciousness of aiming at our 
common welfare alone. To almost everything under the sun belongs * 
a crisis, which, if embraced, stamps our endeavours with success if 
lost, with ruin. In this situation does our Church now stand : and why 
do you hesitate ? Are the doctrines of our Church less excellent than 
at any former period? Have you embraced the persuasion of that 
Church, to abandon it in the hour of difficulty? Common justice 
requires that those who profess themselves to be members of a society, 
should unite in cherishing it ; and let us not be the only example of a 
religious association withering from the want of support from its own 
# * * * * * * 

" We therefore entreat you in the most solemn manner, we conjure 
you by all the ties of religion, to cooperate fervently in the cause of 
our Church. Should these our earnest efforts be abortive, we shall 
always with truth call the Searcher of hearts to witness, that the down 
fall of the Protestant Episcopal Church is not to be named among our 
offences, and to this admonition shall we ever appeal." 

The following were adopted: 

" Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Convention that the Canons 
of the Church of England have no obligations on the Protestant Epis 
copal Church in this commonwealth. 


" Resolved, That until the further order of the Convention the Lit 
urgy of the Church of England be used in the several churches 
throughout this commonwealth with such alterations as the American 
Revolution has rendered necessary." 

The Committee on "Rules for the Order, Government 
and Discipline of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Vir 
ginia," made a lengthy report. It consisted of forty-three 
sections, followed by seven resolutions. It was a compre 
hensive summary, for the most part, of our present Consti 
tution, Canons, Rules of Order and Rubrics. There were a 
few points touched upon that may be worthy of special 

SEC. ii. "As we conceive the office of a bishop, according to the true 
apostolic institution, differs in nothing from that of other ministers of 
God s Word, except in the power of ordination and confirmation, and the 
rights of superintending the conduct of the clergy, and of precedency in 
ecclesiastical assemblies, that office shall accordingly be so exercised 
in this Church ; and every bishop, after his promotion to the Episcopal 
order, shall continue to hold a parish and to do the duty of a parish 
minister except when he is necessarily employed in the discharge of 
his episcopal office." 

SEC. 34. * * " The salary accruing during the suspension of a min 
ister or deacon, who is afterward found guilty, shall go to the Vestry 
for the use of the Church." 

SEC. 39. Enacts that a minister shall at no time leave his parish " for 
more than one month without the consent of the Vestry." 

SEC. 41. " Ministers and deacons shall wear a surplice during the 
time of prayer at public worship, in places where they are provided ; 
shall wear gowns when they preach, where they conveniently can ; 
and shall at all times wear apparel suited to the gravity of their pro 
fession such as may distinguish them from laymen." 

His Excellency the Governor, the members of the Coun 
cil and the judges of the Supreme Court, were invited to 
seats with the Convention. 

The Convention adjourned on Wednesday, May 25, I TSS, 
having been in session one week. 



The Convention met in the Public Buildings in Rich 
mond, Wednesday, May 24, lYSG. No quorum the first 
day. Afterwards there were sixteen clergymen and forty- 
seven laymen. 

Eev. James Madison, D. D., was President, Rev. John 
Bracken, Secretary. 

The General Constitution, recommended by the G-eneral 
Convention of the Church, was approved. 

The Governor of the State, members of the Council and 
judges of the Supreme Court were admitted to honorary 

A committee was appointed to prepare a petition, praying 
that the act incorporating the Protestant Episcopal Church 
l^e not repealed. Hon. John Blair, chairman of the com 

The State was laid off into twenty-four districts "for as 
sembling the ministers annually in Presbytery, and for 
several other purposes." 

The following was adopted : 

" Resolved, That the Book of Common Prayer, as recommended by 
the late General Convention, be approved, ratified and used, except 
the rubric, before the communion service, and such alterations of the 
Articles as are referred to the consideration of the next General Con 
vention, and that the Psalms be used as heretofore until a sufficient 
number of the new books can be procured." 

The following instructions were given to the deputies to 
the next General Convention: 

" Gentlemen, You are instructed to move for such alterations in the 
Book of Common Prayer and Articles of Religion as shall be agreed 
to by this Convention as fit to be proposed to the General Convention. 

CONVENTION OF 1*786. 35 

"We consider the Protestant Episcopal Church in America as an 
incorporate society, and therefore unity in doctrine and worship its 
characteristic : Conformably to this, you will not carp at expression, 
nor carry your objections to unessential points; guarding against 
schisms by all possible means, and giving our Church every benefit and 
strength it can acquire from union. 

" It is superfluous to observe to you, that the sooner our Church can 
have the benefit of episcopal superintendence, the nearer it will ap 
proach to perfection ; and to recommend to your attention the aid of 
this necessary character." 

The following was adopted concerning the powers to be 
given to the Standing Committee: 

" Resolved, That the Standing Committee appointed by this Conven 
tion shall have power to correspond with the Protestant archbishops 
and bishops in Europe, and with any society or societies of the Pro 
testant Episcopal Church in these United States, on any matters re 
lating to the Church ; to call a meeting of the Convention whensoever 
it shall to them seem necessary; to receive complaints against the 
clergy, and to direct Courts of Examination pursuant to the rules for 
the government of the Church ; to grant testimonials to all persons, 
candidates for parishes, and not citizens of this State, who may apply 
for the same ; to make such representations on behalf of the Church 
as may from time to time be expedient; to give advice on difficulties 
propounded to them concerning the Church during the recess of Con 
vention ; and to do all other things recommended by the Convention, 
and not by them assigned to others to execute; and to report their 
proceedings to every succeeding Convention. 

Three committees, corresponding to three districts into 
which the State was laid off, were appointed to grant testi 
monials to candidates for parishes. I. District from James 
river to the North Carolina line, extending westward to our 
limits. II. Between James river and the Rappahannock, 
extending westward to our limits and including the two 
Eastern Shore counties. III. The Northern Neck and all 
the territory not included in the other two districts. 

Plans were adopted for the support of a bishop and to 
pay the expenses of consecration. 

36 CONVENTION OF 1*7 8 7. 

The Convention, on the last day of its session, May 31st, 
proceeded to elect a bishop. Forty-nine votes were cast, of 
which the Rev. David Griffith received 32 votes; the Rev. 
John Bracken, 10 ; Rev. Samuel Shield, 7. 

The Rev. David Griffith was declared to be the choice 
of the Convention, and was therefore "recommended as a 
proper person to be consecrated bishop for this State." 

The Rev. David Griffith and Mr. Cyrus Griffin were 
elected deputies to the General Convention. 


The Convention met in the Public Buildings in Rich 
mond, on Wednesday, May 16, 178*7. 

Rev. David Griffith, President; Rev. John Bracken, Sec 

Fifteen clergy and thirty lay delegates were present. 

On motion it was 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to frame such -rules and 
regulations for the government of the Church, as the repeal of the act 
of incorporation has rendered necessary, and to revise the canons 
formerly made, and prepare such alterations in them as the present 
situation of the Church requires. 

" And a committee was appointed of the Rev. Mr. Madison, the Rev. 
Mr. Bracken, the Rev. Mr. Shield, the Rev. Mr. Taylor, the Rev. Mr. 
Cameron, the Rev. Mr. Craig, the Honourable James Wood, Mr. Under 
wood, Mr. Baker, Mr. Andrews, Mr. Pendleton and Mr. Nelson. 

" On a motion 

" Resolved, That a committee be appointed to take into considera 
tion the proceedings of the General Convention held in Philadelphia 
in June, 1786, the proceedings of another General Convention held in 


Wilmington in October, 1786, and the other papers laid before this Con 
vention by the Standing Committee, and that they report thereon. 

"And a committee was appointed of the Rev. Mr. Dick, Rev. Mr. 
Buchanan, Rev. Mr. Ryan, Rev. Mr. Fairfax, Rev. Mr. Leland, Major 
Saunders, Mr. Baylor, Mr. Shore, and Mr. T. Lewis." 
***** * * 

"The Rev. Mr. Dick, from the committee appointed to take under 
consideration the proceedings of a General Convention held in Phila 
delphia in June, 1786, the proceedings of another General Convention 
held in Wilmington in October, 1786, and the other papers laid before 
this Convention by the. Standing Committee, reported, That they had, 
according to order, gone through the business to them referred, and 
had come to several resolutions thereon, which were read, and when 
amended, agreed to, as follows: 

"/. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the recom 
mendation to the churches therein represented, not to receive to the 
pastoral charge, within their respective limits, clergymen professing 
canonical subjection to any bishop, in any State or country, other than 
those bishops who may be duly settled in the States represented in the 
said General Convention, ought to be acceeded to. 

"//. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the ist, 
2d, 3d, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, loth and nth articles of the General Constitu 
tion be acceded to, and that the 4th and gth articles be also acceded to, 
but as articles of a temporary nature, and not as forming a part of the 
General Constitution. 

"///. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the 
recommendation from the General Convention not to admit any per 
son as a minister within this Church who should receive ordination 
from any bishop residing in America, during the application pending to 
the English bishops for episcopal consecration, cannot be complied 

"IV. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the 
deputies to be appointed to attend the next General Convention, be 
instructed to move the General Convention to expunge the words, 
"He descended into hell," inserted in the Apostles Creed by the Gen 
eral Convention held at Wilmington, and also whatever relates to the 
restoration of the Nicene Creed. 

" V. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee that the alter 
ation made in the form of subscription prescribed in the loth article of 
the General Constitution, is not necessary, the object of it appearing to 
us to be provided for by what are called the 4th, gth, and loth articles 
of the General Constitution. 


" VI. Resolved, That the recommendation from the General Conven 
tion to the Convention of the several States, to authorize and empower 
their deputies to the next General Convention, after a bishop or bish 
ops shall be obtained in the Church, to confirm and ratify a General 
Constitution respecting both the doctrine and discipline of the Protest 
ant Episcopal Church of the United States of America, ought to be 
complied with." 

An ordinance was adopted concerning the election of the- 
vestries and trustees, and for other purposes. It is in part 
a brief summary of our present canon. It gave the minis 
ter "a vote equal to and not greater than a vestryman in 
all questions except for the demise of the glebe lands as 
signed for his residence or use, in which he shall have a 

It allowed each parish only one clerical and one lay dele 
gate twenty-five delegates thus appointed to constitute a 

An address was published, to the Church in the Diocese, 
in which the members were especially urged to attend to 
the duty of supporting their pastors with "a moderate but 
adequate provision." 

Mr. Andrews and Kev. David Griffith were elected depu 
ties to the General Convention. 

The Rev. Messrs. Madison, Bracken and Shield, with 
Messrs. Blair, Page of Rosewell, and Andrews, were ap 
pointed a Standing Committee to exercise the functions 
usually belonging to standing committees of a Diocese. 

This committee was instructed to apply without delay to 
Bishops White and Provost, or to either of them, to admit 
the Rev. Dr. Griffith to consecration. 

The parishes were urged to raise funds for the purpose of 
getting together such an amount as would be needed to pay 
the expenses of obtaining consecration for a bishop. 

The parishes were also exhorted to provide funds for the 
education of two youths from their early years, in such a 

CONVENTIONS OF 1*788 AND 1789. 39 

manner as to he properly qualified for discharging the im 
portant duties of the ministry in this Church; the money 
to be subject to the disposal of the Bishop and the Stand 
ing Committee, who should conjointly have the direction of 
the education of the two youths. 


No Journal was printed. 


Met in Richmond, May 6, 1789. Ten clergymen and 
twenty-three laymen present. 

Rev. John Bracken, President; Mr. Robert Andrews, 
Secretary. No quorum was present on the first day. 

Rev. David Griffith relinquished the appointment of 
bishop, to which office he was elected in May, 1787. 

An address was prepared and issued, earnestly appealing 
to the parishes to collect the money necessary to pay the 
expenses connected with the consecration of a bishop. 

It is understood that Dr. Griffith s resignation was sent 
in because the condition of the Church was such that the 
funds necessary to send him to Europe for consecration 
could not be raised. 



Met in Richmond, May 5, 1*790. Twenty-seven clergy 
men and twenty-nine laymen present. 

Rev. James Madison, D. D., President; Rev. Thomas 
Davis, Secretary. 

On Thursday, May 6th, the Convention resolved to pro 
ceed to the election of a bishop, and accordingly the next 
day, by a formal ballot, it was declared that the Rev. James 
Madison, D. D., having received a majority of the votes 
cast, was so elected. Dr. Madison received 46 votes, Dr. 
Shield, 9. 

The following action was taken by the Convention con 
cerning the Church s title to its glebes, church edifices, and 
other property : 

"Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Convention, that the Pro 
testant Episcopal Church is the exclusive owner of the glebes, churches, 
and other property held by the Church of England in Virginia, at the 
commencement of the Revolution. 

"Resolved, That the principles upon which the said property is held 
are those only by which the rights of property are regulated. 

"Resolved, That the interference of the Legislature in the sale of 
that property, or in the disposal of it to any other purpose than that 
for which it is now held, would be a violation of the Constitution. 

"Resolved, That the several documents now referred to the Conven 
tion be referred to the Standing Committee, and that they be instructed 
to adopt such measures, and to make such publications or representa 
tions, as to them shall seem advisable on the premises." 
***** * * 

" On motion of the Rev. John Bracken 

"Ordered, That the Treasurer of this Convention advance to the 
Rev. Dr. James Madison such a sum of money as may be directed by 
the Standing Committee, for the purpose of defraying his expenses in 
obtaining consecration, provided such sum does not exceed ^"200 ; and 
that it be advanced out of the money in the bishops fund." 

CONVENTION OF 1*791. 41 


The Convention met in Richmond, May. 3, 1791. Present 
twenty-nine clergymen and thirty-four laymen. 

The presiding officer was Bishop Madison, who had "been 
consecrated at Lamheth, on the 19th of September, 1*790, by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishops of London 
and Kochester. Mr. Robert Andrews was Secretary. The 
same gentleman held the office of Secretary until and in 
cluding the Convention of 1*796. 

The bishop, on taking the chair, delivered a most effect 
ive address, which is published in full in the Journal, and 
which said, amongst other things, as follows : 

"Brethren, The office to which it hath pleased the Church, by the 
permission of Providence, to call me, is attended with duties of a very 
serious and interesting nature. 

" Permit me, in entering upon my episcopacy, to request your atten 
tion to such observations as the present occasion seems to require. 

* * * And since Providence hath permitted me to be placed 
in a station so responsible to God and man, and hath associated you 
with me as fellow-laborers in my ministry, let us go to the source of 
our misfortunes, and try to discover the necessary remedies. 

"Were we then, in the first place, to investigate the causes which 
have operated in reducing our Church to its present situation, perhaps 
we should find that too many of them have originated from ourselves. 

* * * The coldness, the indifference of the laity, of which we 
so much complain, from whence hath it arisen ? Hath the sacred fire 
committed to our trust been everywhere and at all times cherished by 
us with that watchful and zealous attention which so holy a deposite 
required ? Had it been thus cherished, might not, my brethren, that 
ancient flame, which once animated and enlightened the members of 
our Church, still have diffused its warmth, and thus have banished far 
that coldness which threatens an approaching torpor fatal to religion? 
or, instead of indifference to our Church, might we not now have be 
held many of those members who have forsaken her, still ardent and 

42 CONVENTION OF 1*791. 

zealous in her support ? Tn an inquiry which so nearly concerns every 
minister of the Church, who shall not be found wanting,? 

" Every minister of the gospel will readily agree that his first duty is 
to adapt his discourses to those important purposes for which he is 
called to the ministry. As an ambassador of Christ he must continue 
the mission of his Lord. His discourses must have for their constant 
aim the salvation of souls ; he must keep alive a just sense of God, 
the beneficent Creator and preserver of the universe; he must make 
known the gospel of Christ, and the manner of our redemption ; he 
must convince men of the certainty of a future judgment ; he must 
keep their consciences awake to the dangers of sin ; he must show 
that religion is the rock upon which our happiness, both temporal and 
eternal, must be founded ; he must, in short, enforce all the truths of 
our religion, in order to persuade men to be virtuous and good. * * * 

" In whatever point of view we consider this important part of the min 
isterial functions, it must be acknowledged that every sermon should be 
a persuasive oration. Let, then, the situation of the Church, and in par 
ticular the glorious fruits which spring up at the voice of the persuasive 
preacher, excite within us an ardent desire to render our discourses 
truly persuasive. * * * It is then, my brethren, we shall in 
such a manner reason of righteousness, of temperance, and a judgment 
to come, that every sinner shall tremble, and with new-born fervor ac 
knowledge, thoii persuade st me to be a Christian. 

" What I have taken the liberty to recommend appears to be well 
worthy of the attention of every pastor ; but to the minister who has 
just entered upon the career of his labors, it is certainly of the utmost 
importance. * * * j-[ e must unite the two great character 
istics of the pulpit orator, gravity and warmth. 

" The truth is, we have lost too many members of the Church by the 
cold method of reading sermons, and not by preaching in a manner suf 
ficiently evangelical; nor shall we either recover them, or prevent a 
continued diminution of our numbers, until we accustom ourselves to 
declare with zeal, with force and with spirit, all the counsel of God. 
Let it be declared in a manner adapted to the comprehension of the 
lowest as well as of the highest. * 

" It will not be inferred, I hope, from what has been said, that I am 
an advocate for that manner which is termed theatrical ; on the con 
trary, I consider it as most improper in the Christian orator, or for 
those noisy declamations with which Christian congregations are some 
times addressed. No ; such declamations are as unworthy of compari 
son with the harmony of that eloquence which allures the soul to- 

CONVENTION OF 1*791. 43 

heaven, as the noise of cranes with the delightful symphonies of the 

" Much also of our attention should be turned to the manner in 
which the other parts of divine service ought to be performed. We 
boast, and certainly with the greatest reason, of the excellency of our Lit 
urgy. Let us then study to deliver it in a manner worthy of such a com 
position ; let us study the art of reading. Let us study to read distinctly, 
emphatically, fervently; we should no longer behold congregations 
inattentive; on the contrary, we should have the satisfaction of expe 
riencing that the service, read or delivered with devotion, with force 
and propriety, would infuse the spirit of devotion, and excite an ardent 
love for so excellent, so rational a form of public worship. 

" In the next place, let me exhort you, my brethren, earnestly to 
impress upon parents not only the duty of infant baptism, but also the 
farther duty of having them instructed, as early as possible, in the prin 
ciples of Christianity, and thus prepared for the ancient, apostolic rite 
of confirmation. I trust the ministers of each parish will consider the 
instruction of children, in the principles and duties of Christianity, as. 
an important part of their functions, and that for this purpose, they 
will, at regular stated periods, examine and instruct them in their cate 
chism, as our Church directs. 

" In the fourth place, I must observe that psalmody has been 
too much neglected in our churches. Let us be careful to revive so 
exalted a part of our public worship, and to render it not only more 
perfect, but more general. Let us endeavor to encourage those schools 
wherein that manner which is most melodious, and at the same time 
properly adapted to public worship, may be taught. All the members 
of our religious assemblies will thus be enabled and induced to join in 
those solemn acts of praise and thanksgiving ; or, in making a joyful 
noise to the God of their salvation, and in singing his praise with un 
derstanding. * * * * * 

" But among the many duties which await us as ministers of the 
gospel, there can be none more important than that of earnestly press 
ing upon the minds of our congregations the obligation and the bene 
fits of receiving, at regular stated times, the sacrament. * * * 

" Another important duty, incumbent upon the ministers of Christ,, 
claims also our attention ; which is, to exercise a godly discipline. 
Without such discipline, the Church of Christ, which should be holy 
and without blemish, cannot prosper. It is the duty of every pas 
tor of the Church to check the progress of wickedness by all means 
becoming the spirit of the gospel ; by exhortation and by reproof, both 

44 CONVENTION OP 1*791. 

private and public. If this part of the ministerial discipline be per 
formed with meekness, with prudence, and Christian charity, it would 
certainly be attended with happy effects. * 

"There still remains, my, brethren, a subject of great importance 
at all times, to the Church, but which, at present, requires a particular 
attention. A minister of Christ is to teach his flock by his good exam 
ple. He is to be the pattern of all good works. Ye are the salt of the 
earth. Ye are, by your example as well as your doctrine, to prevent 
that corruption of manners to which the nature of man continually 
tends. Example, you know, is the abridged method of persuasion. 
Men live, for the most part, by imitation. It is the source of almost all 
their vices and their virtues. What happiness for that parish or that 
congregation, when God raises up among them a minister whose ex 
ample for piety and virtue serves as a spectacle both for men and 
angels ! It is, if I may avail myself of the observations of one of the 
luminaries of the Christian Church, a continued gospel before their 
eyes. If his example should not recall men to their duties, at least it 
inspires them with respect for virtue ; it forces them to acknowledge 
that there are still just men upon earth; repairs the injury which 
unworthy ministers do, in the opinion of the public, to the sanctity of 
the ministerial character ; and corrects the censures and the derisions 
which libertines throw upon the ministry itself. Yes, my brethren, 
though a pious minister should confine all the good he can do the 
example of a regular and edifying life ; though he should only show to 
the public, in the detail of his manners, an example of piety, of pru 
dent conversation, of charity, of modesty, of innocence, and of sacer 
dotal gravity, it would be still true that he would be set for the rising 
or the salvation of many. 

" But, on the other hand, what reflections must attend that pastor 
who, through the defect of such an example, sees, that during the 
course of a long ministry, he has not withdrawn a single soul from the 
ways of destruction; that he has corrected no disorders, public or 
private, in his parish; that, instead of effecting a change for the better, 
his ministry has been attended with a rapid degeneracy of manners, and 
a contempt for religion ! What reflections must he make upon the long 
inutility of his ministerial labors ! Ought he to search for the cause in 
his own conduct, in his relaxed piety, in his want of that zeal which 
should have animated a Christian pastor, in the defect of that example 
which should have adorned his life, or in the hardness and depravity 
of his flock ? * * * Doubt it not my brethren ; if we would 
speak with dignity and success, we must stand, like the apostle, upon 
the holy eminence of a sublime virtue and an animated zeal. It is 


from that eminence that we must speak terror into the souls of the 
violators of divine law, that we must draw tears of compunction from 
the eyes of the wicked, and oblige them, by the ardor of our zeal, to 
burn or trample under foot the idols which they have hitherto wor 

" We should always bear in mind, that what may be 
slightly censured in others, is often deemed criminal to ministers of the 
gospel. Even they who solicit a clergyman to enter into all the diver 
sions of the day, and entice him to an imprudent levity, will afteward 
despise him as a minister, though they affect to esteem him as a friend. 
Let not the example or corrupted sentiments of the world, let not an 
affectation of spirit and freedom, let not any inducement, prevail upon 
us to depart, in any instance, from the character we have undertaken 
to support. Beauty of character always reposes upon consistency. 
This is particularly expected from us, and must be maintained, if we 
would acquire respect and real esteem. 

" I have considered it as my duty earnestly to recommend zeal. It 
is certainly an essential qualification of the ministerial character. But 
we should beware of intemperate zeal. This vice, as well as the slighter 
failings to which we stand exposed, may insinuate itself too easily 
unless we guard against it. Respect for Christians of every denomi 
nation, a liberal and candid interpretation of their sentiments and 
designs, is a necessary consequence of that charity, that love, which is 
so often enjoined by the inspired writers. Instead of cherishing or 
encouraging animosities, be it ours to show an example worthy of the 
Christian character. 

" To you, my respected lay brethren, I beg now to address a few 
observations. It is with the sincerest pleasure that I congratulate the 
Church on the attachment which many excellent characters among the 
laity have uniformly manifested to the communion in which they were 
nurtured. I must applaud and admire their attachment, since I behold 
in them not only zealous Christians, but the best of patriots. 

" Yes, my brethren ; to minds free from prejudice, and uncorrupted 
by the sophisms of the age, nothing appears more amiable, nothing 
more essential to the happiness of man, either in his individual or 
social capacity, than that pure and truly divine religion which our 
Saviour delivered. The voice of reason, the language of experience, 
the records of all ages, evince that the happiness of individuals and 
the prosperity of nations spring from the principle of virtue. But from 
whence can this principle gain so firm a support as from religion ; from 
just and exalted ideas of that Being who delights in virtue ? In vain 


shall the legislator enact laws upon laws ; in vain shall the moralist 
prescribe rules of duty ; in vain shall he harangue upon the beauty of 
virtue and the deformity of vice ; respect for the laws will vanish ; 
virtue will lose its elasticity ; corruption of manners, with all their con 
sequent and dreadful attendants, must ensue, unless those principles 
be fortified by religion by just ideas of our relation and dependence 
upon a God, all-wise, all-just, omnipotent and omnipresent the avenger 
of iniquity, but the remunerator of virtue. * Doubt it not, 

my brethren, every thing, as an amiable and eloquent philosopher 
observes, is replaced and firmly established by religion; it surrounds, 
I may say, the whole system of morality, resembling that universal and 
mysterious force in the physical world, which retains the planets in 
their orbits, and subjects them to a regular revolution ; and which, in 
the midst of the general order it maintains, escapes the observation of 
men, and appears to their feeble sight unconscious of its own work. 

" My brethren, our religion claims a divine descent ; it is the work of 
God ; but let it not be thought that it doth not therefore require the 
support of man. Far otherwise; it is the very reason, as well observed 
by a venerable prelate of our Church, which should urge us to exert 
the utmost care and diligence in its support. Good men will consider 
it as their indispensable duty to cooperate with the designs of Provi 
dence. It is in religion, as in the works of nature. God supplies 
abundantly the means, the rest is left to human industry. He causes 
the earth to bring forth materials for food and raiment ; but human 
industry must improve, prepare, and properly apply, both the one and 
the other. The same analogy extends itself to religion. The things 
which belong to our salvation, though originally the work of God, 
require the protection of human aid, the furtherance of all wise and 
good men. 

" Since, then, God has graciously revealed his will, and supplied the 
means of rendering it known to all ; to supply those means, and to 
make that use of them which his goodness demands, it is the duty of 
man. But how can this be effected but by a standing ministry ? by an 
order of men properly instructed and supported, whose whole business 
it shall be weekly and daily, to attend to the interests of religion, to 
preach the gospel, to make known its whole system, to convince men 
that they are accountable to God for their actions in a word, to en 
force those principles of piety and of virtue which lead both to present 
and future happiness. 

" I would present to you, in all its force, not only the duty of encour- 


aging and supporting the means which God hath appointed for the 
dissemination of Christianity, and thus of cooperating with the designs 
of Providence ; but I entreat you to call to mind the calamities, both 
individual and social, which must flow from the neglect of those means. 
For a moment let us behold the pure religion of our forefathers, to 
gether with a mode of worship which hath excited the admiration of 
men the most distinguished for piety, wisdom, and patriotism, borne 
down by a torrent of ignorance and enthusiasm : behold her expiring 
through the cold neglect of her once warm and zealous friends : be 
hold her temples tottering to ruin, her ministers slighted, her flocks 
scattered upon the hills as sheep that have not a shepherd. Should 
such a spectacle be presented to us, might we not soon expect also to 
behold virtue retiring, the bonds of society bursting asunder, corrup 
tion advancing with rapid strides, liberty and happiness preparing to 
bid us a long adieu ! May such a spectacle, my friends, never be seen 
but in imagination. 

" They who preach the gospel, St. Paul declares, should live by the 
gospel. Let me, then, earnestly recommend, in order that you, and 
your children, and your children s children, may receive all the bless 
ings of a learned, pious, zealous, standing ministry, that the worthy 
and influential members in each parish warmly interest themselves in 
the decent support of the clergy, and uniformly pursue those means 
for the attainment of so desirable an end which may be thought best. 

" But, my, brethren, vain will be our endeavors for the prosperity of 
our Zion, unless they be attended with fervent prayers, that God would 
graciously enable us to perform our duty with zeal, fidelity and success. 
Our sufficiency is of God. To that infinitely great and glorious Being, 
let us, therefore, with humility, now offer up our united supplications. 

"Almighty and everlasting God. Look down from heaven and be 
hold and visit this vine, and the vineyard which thy right hand hath 
planted ; shed the dew of thy blessing upon the labors of thy servants 
here assembled ; may thy holy Spirit animate the ministers of the 
gospel of Christ with a sincere and fervent, but catholic zeal in the 
discharge of their duties ; may it inspire them with true piety, with 
charity, with every godly and virtuous affection. Prosper, O Lord, 
our endeavors to revive among us a just sense of the inestimable ben 
efits of true religion ; dispose the hearts of the laity to receive thy 
word, and grant that the fruits of righteousness may abound more and 
more. Help us, for the glory of thy name, and mercifully grant that 


every member of thy holy Church, in his vocation and ministry, may 
truly and godly serve thee, through our Lord and Saviour, Jesus 
Christ. Amen " 

Resolutions were adopted looking : 

To the better preparation and training of candidates for 
orders by the presbyteries, requiring the presbyteries to 
take necessary steps for their preparation, with a view to 
supply the want of divinity schools ; 

To the formation of a society for the relief of distressed 
widows and orphans of clergymen ; 

To set apart New Year s day for divine worship also 

Making it the duty of every member of the Episcopal 
Church to contribute toward the decent support of their 
bishops and other pastors; and of the vestries to raise a 
permanent fund for the general purposes of the Church, 
and to perform the other duties of his office. 

Requiring the parishes to pay sixteen dollars each to 
enable the bishop to make his visitations. 


The Convention met in Richmond, May 3, 1792. Present 
twenty-three clergymen and twenty-four laymen. 

Rev. Samuel Shield presented a plan of a society for relief 
of widows and orphans of deceased clergymen. It was 

Rev. Samuel M Croskey and Robert Andrews were ap 
pointed deputies to the General Convention. 

The Bishop reported as follows : 


" Agreeably to the 35th canon, the bishop begs leave to report that 
he has visited the following parishes, viz. : York-Hampton, Elizabeth 
City, Abingdon, Ware, Christ Church (Middlesex), St. Anne, St. Paul 
(King George), Berkeley, Westover, Blisland, Bruton, James City, Hen- 
rico and Lunenburg, and is happy to assure the Convention that in 
most of the parishes, the conduct of the ministers appeared to be such 
as merited the highest commendation. The congregations where he 
attended were generally numerous, and attentive to the form of wor 
ship established by the Church; and though he had too much reason 
to lament that sufficient regard was not paid to the decent support of 
the clergy in many of the parishes, yet the diligence with which most 
of the ministers continued to discharge their sacred functions, while it 
afforded the highest proof of their zeal and piety, yielded at the same 
time a pleasing hope that the Church would gradually revive. In the 
five parishes of Abingdon, Ware, Christ Church (Middlesex), Berkeley 
(Fredericksburg), and Bruton, upwards of six hundred persons have 
been confirmed." 

The Convention adjourned after a session of two days. 


The Convention met in Richmond, May 2, 1793. Present 
eighteen clergymen and twenty-seven laymen. 

The Bishop was allowed a salary of one hundred pounds 
and his traveling expenses. 

The Convention unanimously instructed its deputies to 
the General Convention to vote against a proposition to be- 
introduced, giving the House of Bishops a full negative 
upon the proceedings of the other House. 

Rev. Samuel M Croskey and Robert Andrews were elected 

In his address the Bishop solemnly expressed himself 
upon the following subjects : 

50 CONVENTION OF 1*793. 

" I trust that the good effects of our late ministerial exertions are 
generally felt and acknowledged, and that our affairs, under the bless 
ing of Providence, begin to assume somewhat a more- pleasing aspect. 
Several valuable ministers have been sent forth, men from whose piety 
and labors we may anticipate the happiest effects ; our congregations 
seem more attentive to their religious concerns, and I ardently hope, 
are gradually advancing to a greater degree of Christian perfection. 

" Perhaps, however, the propositions which I think it my duty to lay 
before you, if they do not meet with the approbation of this assembly, 
may at least be the means of calling forth others, which may operate 
more effectually to the end we all have in view. 

" The first that I shall submit to your consideration, as of great im 
portance in my mind towards reviving a just sense of religion, and estab 
lishing a due ministerial influence among our parishioners, is that the 
different pastors should consider it as a duty to visit their parishioners at 
their private dwellings as often in the year as may be convenient ; that at 
these visits, children should be examined and instructed in their cate 
chism ; parents, when necessary, exhorted to lead Christian lives, and 
to be attentive to the religious instruction of their children. 

"That the ministers should cause to be distributed among their 
congregations such books or pamphlets as would tend to check that 
spirit of proselytism which so strongly distinguishes most sects, by 
exposing whatever may appear erroneous, in a plain and candid man 
ner, and at the same time showing the verity and constant superiority 
of the principles of our own Church. * * * * 

" A third proposition I have to make is, that we should endeavor to 
introduce family prayers among the members of our Church ; nothing, 
we are persuaded, tends more to keep up a sense of religion in the 
minds of men, than a serious and constant performance of this neces 
sary duty. * * 

"I have only one more proposition to make; which is, that we 
should all consider the interests of the Church as a common cause 
which we are bound to support by every consideration the most sacred. 
The ministers, in particular, should ever hold themselves related to 
each other by a truly fraternal connexion. A general cause unites 
them ; but this union should be cherished ; it should be a principle of 
action ; it should animate the whole body, and render the concerns of 
one the concerns of the whole. * 

" The promotion of true religion is our primary duty, but split as the 
Christian world is into parties, we have also the interests of a sect to 
promote, in order to perform that primary duty. For this purpose, we 


must have not only our external, but internal regulations; we must 
have a line of conduct delineated, which, though it will not admit of 
canonical injunction, still should be systematically pursued by every 
minister. * * 

" Like the rebuilders of Jerusalem, after the captivity, we must, in 
the language of the Prophet, every one, with one of his hands, work 
in the building; with the other, hold a weapon. With one hand we 
must build up our people in the doctrine of piety and the apostolic in 
stitutions of our Church, while with the other, .we must resist that 
spirit of proselytism which is so unworthy of the followers of Christ, 
but which will otherwise demolish as fast as we build. In short, be it 
our duty in all things to show ourselves approved unto God, as work 
men that need not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth, 
taking heed to the ministry, which we have received in the Lord, that 
we fulfil it. 

" Another proposition, which I confess I had much at heart, I should 
have laid before this Convention ; but its fate has, I fear, been already 
determined; I mean an invitation to all sincere Christians to unite with 
us in forming one church, and in abolishing those dissensions which 
-are so contrary to our profession. There is no one here present but 
must cordially wish for such a union, provided it did not require a sac 
rifice of those points which are deemed essentials by our Church ; from 
them we have not the power to retreat. But in such matters as are 
subject to human alteration, if, by a candid discussion, they could be 
found capable of being so modified as to remove the objections of any 
sect of Christians who may be actuated by the same catholic spirit, and 
thereby effect a union, in that case we should surely have reason to 
rejoice, not only in the event, but also in being the first to set an exam 
ple to Christians which it is the duty of all to follow ; and in convincing 
them that there is infinitely more religion in not contending, than in 
those things about which they contend. There appear, however, so 
many difficulties, so many obstacles to this great work, in the opinion 
of those whose judgment I much respect, that I do not mean to take 
up your time by making a direct proposition upon it. But if any of 
the members here present should be acquainted with circumstances 
-which may justify a conclusion that those apparent difficulties may be 
removed, or that the end mentioned can be effected by any means 
-which have occurred to them, consistently with the fundamental princi 
ples of our own Church, I doubt not but this Convention would gladly 
hear both the one and the other. 

" You see, respected lay brethren, with what difficulty the pastoral 
-office is surrounded. You see the weight of that burden we have to 

52 CONVENTION OF 1*794. 

support. But you see also that we are not dismayed, but anxious to 
encounter those difficulties, or support that burden, with a fortitude 
and a faithfulness proportionate to their magnitude. It must be re 
membered, however, that our success, next to the divine blessing, 
depends upon the zealous assistance which the most respectable lay 
members of the Church in each parish shall afford. 

" Let me exhort you, brethren, be emulous in setting such an exam 
ple in your respective parishes. Your pastors tremble at their insuf 
ficiency for their momentous undertaking. Be it yours to lessen the 
burden of the ministerial functions by offices of affection, of kindness 
and respect. Be it yours ever to say, If I forget thee, O Zion, let my 
right hand forget her cunning; if I do not remember thee, let my 
tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I prefer not Zion above 
my chief joy. " 


The Convention met May 6, 1*794. Present twelve cler 
gymen and eighteen laymen. 

The number in attendance was small, and the session was 
concluded on the next day, *7th, after the transaction of very 
little business. 

A letter addressed to the President, by one of the clergy, 
was laid before the Convention, which thereupon adopted 
the following : 

Resolved, That the mode of communicating, by letter, sentiments 
on subjects proper for the discussion of the Convention, is irregular in 
individual members of the Church. 

Mr. Brown, from the committee appointed to examine the 
papers relative to Mr. Benjamin Brown and Mr. Isaac Fos 
ter, reported, That the committee had, according to order, 
examined the same, and had come to a resolution thereon, 

CONVENTION OF 1*795. 53 

which was read, and agreed to by two-thirds of the Conven 
tion, as follows : 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the dis 
pensing with the knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages in the 
examination of the said Mr. Benjamin Brown and Mr. Isaac Foster for 
holy orders, may be of advantage to the Episcopal Church in this 

Kev. Samuel M Croskey and Mr. Robert Andrews were 
chosen deputies to the General Convention. 

A resolution was adopted more earnestly protesting 
against allowing the House of Bishops an absolute veto 
upon the proceedings of the other House. 

The deputies to the General Convention were instructed 

To use their endeavors to have the sixth additional canon, passed 
at the last General Convention, so amended as to vest the wardens, 
vestrymen, or trustees of any parish, with the power of granting per 
mission to any clergyman of this Church to preach or read prayers in 
the churches under their care, whenever they shall be of opinion that 
the interests of religion will be thereby promoted. 

The Standing Committee was directed to address the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the different parishes of 
this State, through their ministers, or vestries where there 
are no ministers, on the situation of the Church and the 
necessity of complying with the requisitions of the Con 


No Journal of 1795 has been found. 



The Convention met May 3, 1*T96. Present twenty-six 
clergymen and thirty-four laymen. The session continued 
two days. 

Kesolutions were passed denying the right of the General 
Assembly of the State of Virginia to interfere with the 
property of the Church, and protesting that any interference 
by the Assembly, without the consent of the Church, would 
be a violation of the rights of private property and of one 
of the fundamental principles of the present government. 

In case there should be a General Convention held before 
the next meeting of the Convention of the Diocese, the Kev. 
Samuel M Croskey and Robert Andrews, Esq., were elected 

A canon was adopted as follows : 

No clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of 
Virginia shall be permitted to hold a military commission ; nor shall a 
clergyman leaving one parish be inducted into another, unless he shall 
produce to the vestry of such parish testimonials of his good conduct 
from the vestry of the parish where he last resided. 


The Convention met December 6, 1797. Present twenty- 
one clergymen and forty laymen. 

The Convention was in session two days, and seems to 
have been especially occupied in considering the questions 


arising from the efforts made to deprive the Church of its 

The following resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That the following are the grounds of the title of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church to the glebes, churches, and other property 
in their possession. 

1. That the said glebes, churches, &c., were vested, prior to the 
Revolution, in the then existing Church by public authority or private 

2. That the Protestant Episcopal Church is the same in its rights 
of property with the Church which existed prior to the Revolution. 

3. That these rights cannot be wrested from the Protestant Epis 
copal Church upon any principal which will not impair all other rights 
of private property which was acquired before the Revolution. 

4. That if succor need be drawn to these rights, existing (as they 
do) independently of the will of the Legislature, they have been 
solemnly recognized by an act of the General Assembly made at the 
session succeeding that which framed the Bill of Rights and Constitu 
tion by the same body which composed the Convention, and became 
under the Constitution the House of Delegates, and at the instance 
of those who were opposed to the said Church. 

5. That no subsequent act of the General Assembly, relative to 
the Protestant Episcopal Church ought, or can be so interpreted as to 
confer on the General Assembly any authority to assume, confiscate, 
or appropriate, without the will of the said Church, the whole or any 
part of the property aforesaid. 

6. That the Bill of Rights and Constitution forbid the intrusion of 
the General Assembly into questions concerning the right of property; 
and, more especially, when the object of such intrusion is to apply 
that property to public uses, to which the whole Commonwealth and 
not a selected and marked portion only of its citizens ought to 

7. That a committee of five persons be appointed by ballot, whose 
duty it shall be to attend the discussion of the memorial of the Protes 
tant Episcopal Church, the consideration whereof was postponed to 
the present session of the General Assembly, and to make to the 
General Assembly such other representations, by memorial or other 
wise, in behalf of the Protestant Episcopal Church as to them shall 
seem necessary, and shall be conformable with the spirit of the fore 
going resolutions. 

8. That from the firm persuasion which this Convention entertains 

56 CONVENTION OF 1*797. 

of the validity of the rights of property, asserted in the foregoing 
resolutions, it be an instruction to the said committee to propose to 
the General Assembly that the controversy concerning them be sub 
mitted to the decision of a proper tribunal of justice. 

9. That this Convention will cause to be defrayed all reasonable 
and necessary expenses in carrying into execution the foregoing 

Messrs. Robert Andrews, Ludwell Lee, George K. Taylor, 
John Page, and James Brackenridge were elected the com 
mittee of five under resolution seven. 

The following opinion was received concerning the 
Church s title to its property : 

RICHMOND, Dec. 5, 7797. 

Sir, We have endeavored to fulfil the request of yourself and the 
Standing Committee, by the best examination in our power, of the 
tenure under which the Protestant Episcopal Church claims the glebes, 
churches, &c. Knowing that you possess every document and fact to 
which we have access, and that we may be, therefore, permitted to 
excuse ourselves, by the multiplicity of our late professional labors, 
from a detail of the reasons which govern us, we shall offer to you the 
conclusions only which we have formed. These are 

ist. That the Protestant Episcopal Church is the exclusive owner of 
those glebes, churches, &c. 

ad. That so far is the title of the Protestant Episcopal Church from 
being impaired (as has been suggested) by our bill of rights, that they 
do not clash on any sound construction ; but that title stands upon the 
same grounds with the rights of private property which have been 
recognized and secured by the principles of the Revolution and by the 

3d. And that any question concerning the right of property in those 
glebes, churches, &c., being of a judicial nature, must constitutionally 
be decided by the judiciary, and the judiciary alone. 

We have the honor, sir, to be, with great respect, 

Your most obedient servants, 


Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia. 

CONVENTIONS OF 1798 AND 1799. 57 

The thanks of the Convention were unanimously given to 
these gentlemen for their opinion. 


No Journal discovered probably none printed. 


The Convention met May 7, 1799. Present sixteen cler 
gymen and twenty-one laymen. 

With the exception of routine business, such as exam 
ining credentials, electing Standing Committee, electing 
deputies, &c., little was done except to confer with reference 
to the anticipated spoliation of the Church by the State 

A resolution was adopted appointing Bishop Madison and 
Mr. John Ambler a committee to consult gentlemen of emi 
nence in the law respecting the method of defending before 
the judiciary the right of the Church to glebes directed to 
be sold by act of Assembly. 

Bishop Madison delivered "An Address to the Members 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia," in which 
he discussed the following subjects : 

"The first subject which solicits your attention is the necessity of a 
strict observance of the canons or laws which have been enacted for 

58 CONVENTION OF 1*799. 

the government of our Church. These laws arise from two sources 
the General Convention of the United Episcopal churches in America,, 
and your State Convention both regularly constituted and authorized 
by you to enact all necessary laws for the above purpose. 

" I proceed to another subject. St. Paul, when he visited Athens, 
observed an altar dedicated to the unknown God. Suppose the holy 
apostle, descending from the mansions of eternal bliss, should visit our 
altars and our temples, to whom do you imagine he would think they 
were dedicated ? Not surely to that GOD in whom we live, move, and 
have our being, and who was made known to us by his messengers, nor 
even to the unknown God. No ; he would consider them as dedicated, 
or rather devoted, to the demon of ruin ; he would read in their de 
jected forlorn aspects the fate which threatens them, and in that fate 
the degeneracy of those who once felt a holy pride in having reared 
them for the service of the LIVING GOD. 

" Let me then, brethren, earnestly exhort you, in every parish to 
which the exhortation will apply, and particularly in those parishes 
where there may not be at present a stated minister, carefully to attend 
to this important object, and let us evince externally, as well as inter 
nally, that we have not forsaken the God who made us, nor lightly 
esteemed the rock of our salvation. 

" This subject calls me to another, very nearly connected with it I 
mean the situation of your pastors. That some stipend should be 
allowed for their support and that of their families is obvious. The 
truth is acknowledged by the facility with which a subscription is 
generally obtained ; but, unfortunately for the pastor and for religion, 
the collection too often proves another mortifying truth, which I need 
not detail. * * * I exhort you, then, adopt in your re 
spective parishes some certain mode by which your pastors may be 
assured of receiving the stipulated support which you may find your 
selves able and willing to give. Let it be moderate, but let it be 

" It is now no longer admitted to plead disaffection to the clergyman. 
He is a man of like passions with yourselves. He may prove a recre 
ant in the cause of religion and virtue. If such should be the fatal 
issue; if he should depart from the strictest adherence to those sacred 
duties which his profession enjoins; if, instead of being a light, he 
should become a blot upon our Church, the canon passed at our last 
State Convention points out to you the mode by which we may, as 
expeditiously as justice will admit, purge off the foul stain." 

The address concludes with an earnest and lengthy dis- 

CONVENTION OF 1799. 59* 

cussion of the importance of maintaining public worship in 
order to maintain religion itself, and of asserting that the 
abandonment of religion is fatal to human happiness. It 
not only presses most solemn arguments, but suggests 
modes by which the Church and religion . may be revived. 
It says : 

" Let the vestries assemble so soon as it may be convenient, and let 
it then be proposed to enter into a solemn engagement with each other, 
to use every exertion to induce a regular attendance at Church, when-, 
ever an opportunity is presented ; let them resolve to set the example ; 
lei; their attendance, with their families, be as constant and uniform as 
possible ; and let each, being provided with a prayer-book, join in the 
service, as our Church has directed. Let them also use all their in 
fluence, by reasoning, by persuasion, by such exhortations as may be 
thought most proper, to induce their neighbors to adopt and to carry 
into effect the same resolution. Let them begin, seriously and heartily, 
to attend to whatever concerns the interests of the Church, and for 
this purpose to have regular quarterly meetings. If those meetings 
could be held in Church after divine service, I believe it would often, 
be found most convenient. Let also every respectable and influential 
character, who may prefer our Church, whether he be a vestryman or 
not, resolve to give his assistance ; let all join zealously in this good* 
work, and we should soon see rational religion to revive among us. I 
do not suppose that any one, who has voluntarily undertaken the office 
of a vestryman, will object to what has been here proposed, unless he 
can suggest a better plan to effect the same purpose ; but if any one 
should, a resignation would be a benefit which he could have no reluc 
tance in conferring upon religion and the Church. 

"To you, reverend brethren, in particular, a few words only shall be 
added. This is the season for exertion. You will find, I trust, in every 
parish many good men who will gladly aid you. Consult with them ;. 
exhort and encourage each other ; unite your zeal with theirs, and let 
not the overflowings of ungodliness deter you from your duty. Extend 
your care not only to your own parish, but to any neighboring parish 
which may not have a minister. Make known to all the laws and regu 
lations which govern ug as a Christian society; excite all Jo a diligent 
observance of them, and be the first to set the example. Be zealous 
for the glory of our God ; walk in all his ordinances blameless, and in 
everything keep a conscience void of offence. Be ever impressed with 
this truth, the most important to us and to religion, that to be useful 


we must be respected, and to be respected we must be truly good. 
Prudence, mildness, benevolence, charity for all men, wisdom and 
piety, active, zealous, but liberal. Great God ! with these virtues clothe 
the ministers of thy gospel. 

" And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the work of his 
grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance 
among all them that are sanctified" 


No Journals of Conventions for these years have been 


A Convention was appointed to be held on May 4th, 1802. 
If it met no Journal was published. 


A Convention was called for the 1st Tuesday in May, 
1803. The following record, appended to the Journal of 
1805, would show that the Convention met in this year, 
although no Journal of it has been found : 

"A Canon to Amend the Canon Entitled 1 A Canon Concerning 

fPiuwed in May. 1803.] 

"Fifteen deputies qualified or appointed, agreeably to the Canon 
Concerning Conventions, shall be a Convention, anything in the said 
canon concerning Conventions notwithstanding ; and there shall be a 

CONVENTIONS OF 1804 AND 1805. 61 

Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this State on the 
fourth Tuesday of May in every year, instead of the first Tuesday of 
May, in such place as shall be agreed on by the Convention. Provided 
always, that for the altering or framing of a canon, twenty-five mem 
bers at least shall be necessary." 


No Journal of this year has been found. 


The Convention met May 7, 1805. Present sixteen cler 
gymen and twenty-three laymen. 

The Bishop delivered an address suitable to the times. 
It is not published with the Journal. 

Resolved, That the Rev. Doctor Cameron, the Rev. Doctor Bu 
chanan, the Rev. James Whitehead, the Rev. Daniel McNorton, the 
Rev. Matthew Murray, the Rev. Hugh Coran Boggs, the Rev. Abner 
Waugh, Mr. Walker, Mr. Ball, Mr. Ambler, Mr. Greenhow, Mr. Fon 
taine, Mr. Broadus, and Mr. Marshall, be appointed a committee to take 
under consideration the subjects mentioned in the President s address 
this day delivered, and also the general business to be laid before the 
Convention, and report their opinion of the measures necessary to be 
adopted, and that the President be requested to attend the said com 

A canon was adopted requiring parochial reports; re 
quiring the regular election of vestries; requiring ministers 


to attend Conventions except in case of sickness or other 
good reason, which must be satisfactory to the Convention, 
and providing for the discipline of unworthy communicants. 
The following was adopted looking to the further mainte 
nance of the Church s right to its glebes which had been 
confiscated by the Legislature of 1802 : 

The committee appointed to take into consideration the subjects 
mentioned in the President s address, and also the general business to 
be laid before the Convention, reported that they had, according to 
order, again taken those subjects into their consideration, and had 
agreed to several resolutions thereupon, which were delivered in at the 
secretary s table, which resolutions are in the words following, to wit: 

Whereas, the great question of the title to the glebe lands belonging 
to the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the estimation of this committee, 
remains yet undecided; and this committee considering the law of 
this Commonwealth, passed in the year 1802, authorizing the overseers 
of the poor to expose to sale all vacant glebes to be unconstitutional, 
as interfering with a title completely vested in the Episcopal Church 
and subversive of private right; and this committee feeling an ardent 
desire to defend the rights of the Church, they therefore recommend to 
the Convention for their adoption the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Bishop and Standing Committee be authorized 
and requested to pursue to the end the defence of the rights and 
property of the churches aforesaid. 

Resolved, That this Convention will endeavor, by contribution from 
the several parishes, or otherwise, to raise a fund for the purpose of 
defraying any and all expenses which may be incurred in the protection 
and maintenance of the rights aforesaid. 

These resolutions after being read were agreed to. 

A resolution from the same committee was delivefed in at the 
secretary s table, and after being read was agreed to in the words 
following : 

Resolved, That it shall be the duty of the visitor of each district in 
the State to report as soon as practicable to the Bishop and Standing 
Committee all the parishes within his district, with the name of each 
parish, what parishes have incumbents, who those are, what parishes 
are vacant, what glebes have been sold, and what are in a state of liti 
gation, and that it be the duty of the Bishop and Standing Committee 
to report the result to the next Convention. 


Resolved, That the committee appointed to take into consideration 
the subjects mentioned in the President s address, and also the general 
business to be laid before the Convention, be discharged from further 

Whereas, the Bishop has represented to this Convention that from 
want of bodily strength and from sundry necessary and official occu 
pations, he finds himself unable to discharge the whole of the arduous 
and important duties annexed to that office, 

Resolved, That it is expedient an assistant Bishop be appointed. 

Ordered, That the said resolution be committed to a Committee of 
the Whole on the State of the Church. 

The Convention then formed themselves into a Committee of the 
Whole on the State of the Church, Mr. D. Patteson in the chair, and 
after some time spent therein the committee rose, and the chairman 
reported that the committee had, according to order, taken the said 
resolution under consideration, and had directed him to report the 
same without amendment. 

The Convention then took the report of the Committee of the Whole 
into consideration, and agreed thereto. 

Resolved, That the nomination of an assistant Bishop be postponed 
until the next Convention. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the clergy, in their respective 
cures, to embrace every opportunity of visiting their parishioners, 
accompanying those visits with instructions suitable to their sacred 
office, insisting on the necessity of religion to the happiness of man, the 
duty incumbent on all parents to instruct their children in the principles 
of Christianity, the advantages arising from family worship, and a 
pointed attendance on the public worship of our Church. 

The committee, to whom was referred the resolution concerning 
itinerant missionaries, reported that they had according to order taken 
into consideration the subject, and had come to a resolution thereupon, 
which was delivered in at the secretary s table, and after being twice 
read was agreed to as follows : 

Whereas many parishes in this State are without pastors, so that 
the members of the Protestant Episcopal Church residing therein have 
no opportunity of hearing the doctrines of our Church explained and 
inculcated, and of having its several ordinances administered; and 
whereas it is believed that the interests of religion will be promoted by 
the mission of suitable characters, in the several districts within this 

64 CONVENTIONS OF 1806 TO 1811. 

State, for the purpose of explaining and inculcating those doctrines,, 
and of administering such ordinances : 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the Bishop and standing 
committee to select so many suitable characters as they shall deem 
necessary from time to time for the objects aforesaid ; and that, pre 
vious to such missions, due notice shall be given, by circular letters or 
otherwise, to the minister and vestry, or, where there is no vestry, to 
some respectable member or members of each parish, whose duty it 
shall be to promote a subscription for the compensation of such travel 
ing ministers, and that the several sums so raised be forwarded to the 
treasurer of the Church, subject to the management and disposal of the 
Bishop and standing committee. 

Resolved, That the Rev. Dr. Buchanan be appointed treasurer of the 
Church for the ensuing year. 


A meeting was appointed to take place the 1st Tuesday 
in May, for the election of an Assistant Bishop. If held,, 
no Journal has been found. 


A meeting was appointed to take place the 1st Tuesday 
in May, 1807, and on the 2d Tuesday in May, 1811, hut 
no Journals have been found from 1805 to 1812. 



This is the next record discovered. It is entitled, " Jour 
nal of a Special Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, held at the Capitol in the City of Richmond, May 
13, 1812. 

There were present thirteen clergymen and twelve lay 

The Diocese was without a Bishop, its revered father. 
Bishop Madison, having died the 6th day of March, 1812. 

Rev. John Bracken, D. D., of Bruton parish, was elected 
President, and Mr. George Deneale, of Alexandria, was- 
chosen Secretary. 

Reports were handed in from Bristol, Lynnhaven, Cum 
berland, Manchester, Henrico, Lyttleton, Staunton, St. 
Mark, Christ Church, Alexandria, St. George, Wicomico, 
Suifolk, Berkeley, Bruton, and Antrim parishes, according 
to canon. 

A resolution was adopted reaffirming the canon passed in 
1805, concerning the system of itinerancy for the vacant 

An amendment was adopted to a canon passed in 1803,, 
entitled "A Canon Concerning Conventions," It required a 
Convention to be held on the 4th Tuesday of May in each 
year. Fifteen deputies, canonically appointed, were neces 
sary for a quorum. Provided, that for the altering or 
framing of a canon, twenty-five members at least should be 
necessary. The numbers for a quorum, &c., agreed upon in 
1812, were nine and fifteen, in lieu of fifteen and twenty- 

On Thursday morning, May 14th, a motion was made 

That when the Convention adjourns, it adjourn to the hour of five 



this afternoon, for the purpose of taking into consideration the pro 
priety of electing a Bishop for this State ; which motion was agreed to. 

In the afternoon, according to this resolution, it was 

Resolved, That it is expedient that the Convention do now proceed 
to the choice of a Bishop. The Rev. Mr. Buchanan having nominated 
the Rev. Dr. Bracken, the members then proceeded to ballot, and the 
ballots being received, the Rev. Mr. Buchanan and Mr. McRae were 
appointed a committee to count the same. The said committee hav 
ing performed that duty, reported that they found the ballots to be for 
the Rev. Dr. Bracken 22, and for the Rev. Mr. Boggs 3 ; and, thereupon, 
the Rev. John Bracken, D. D., was declared to be duly elected Bishop 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this State. 

Rev. Messrs. Boggs and Wilmer, clergymen, and Messrs. 
M Rae and M Guire were chosen deputies to the General 


The Convention met Tuesday, May 25, 1813. No quo- 
Tum was present, until a late hour, on the first day, so that 
-an adjournment until the next day was moved and carried. 

On the next morning there were reported present eight 
clergymen and nine laymen. Another clergyman appeared 

Rev. John Bracken, D. D., was chosen President, and 
Anthony Crease, Secretary. 

Rev. Dr. Bracken resigned the bishopric of the Diocese 
to which he had been elected at the Convention of the pre 
vious year. The resignation was accepted. 

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, from the destitute state of the churches in this State many 
piously disposed persons, who are attached to the doctrine, worship 
and discipline of the Protestant Episcopal Church, are deprived of the 


means of worshipping God according to her venerable forms, to the 
general unhappiness of themselves as well as to the great detriment 
of the Church at large, 

Resolved, therefore, That it is expedient to raise a fund for the pur 
pose of aiding in the support of such clergymen of piety and talents as 
may be obtained to perform divine service in such districts in the State 
as may be assigned them by the Convention. 

Resolved, That the clergy and vestry, or any influential members of 
the Church, in the several parishes in this State be, and are hereby, re 
quested to use their best endeavors, either by subscriptions . or other 
wise, to promote this object, and to forward the amount of the sums 
thus raised to the treasurer at or before the meeting of the next 

Resolved, That the members of this Church generally are hereby 
most earnestly entreated to consider the necessity of adopting zealous 
measures for the restoration of religion among us that they endeavor 
to manifest their gratitude to Almighty God, and their sense of the 
awful importance of his blessed revelation that they consider the 
unspeakable rewards they will receive from that gracious Master, to 
whom they belong, whose goodness demands the warmest returns of 
love, duty, and obedience and that they will contribute to the utmost 
in their power to render this most acceptable service to his cause. 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee do frame an address on the 
State of the Church, and that they cause to be printed thereof two hun 
dred copies, and to address them in the form of a circular letter, and 
accompanied by the journal to the minister and vestry of each parish, 
and to such other persons as may be likely in their judgment to pro 
mote the interest of the Church. 

These resolutions were adopted again almost verbatim in 
the Convention of 1814. 


The Convention met Wednesday, May 4, 1814. Present 
seven clergymen and seventeen laymen. 

Rev. William H. Wilmer, President; Samuel Grreenhow, 


The Monumental church, Richmond, was admitted into 
union with the Convention. 
On Tursday it was 

Resolved, That the appointment of a Bishop for this Diocese is 
highly expedient and necessary for the maintenance and support of 
the Church. 

On motion made and seconded, 

Resolved, That the Convention proceed immediately to the election 
of a person to fill the Episcopate in this State. 

Dr. James McClurg then presented a certified extract 
from the vestry-book of the Monumental Church in Rich 
mond, showing the appointment of the Rev. Richard 
Channing Moore, D. D., of the city of New York, to the 
rectorship of that Church. 

On motion, 

Ordered, That the secretary read sundry letters exhibited by mem 
bers of the Standing Committee from Dr. Moore and the Right Rev. 
Bishop Hobart, which was accordingly done. 

Dr. Moore was nominated to fill the office of Bishop in 
this State. 

No other person being in nomination, the Convention pro 
ceeded to ballot for a Bishop. 

The Hon. John Marshall and Mr. Edmund J. Lee were 
appointed to count the ballots, who reported that there were 
twenty-three votes for the Rev. Richard Channing Moore, 
and one vote for Dr. John Buchanan. 

Whereupon, the Reverend Richard Channing Moore was 
declared to be duly elected to the Episcopate in the Diocese 
of Virginia, and the members of the Convention proceeded 
to subscribe the testimonial required by the Constitution of 
the General Church of the United States. 

The resolutions passed at the last Convention touching 


the need of efforts to revive the Church in Virginia were 
again adopted, except that referring to an address hy the 
Standing Committee. 

The deputies to the General Convention were instructed 
to invite the next General Convention to meet in the city 
of Richmond, or at some place convenient to themselves 
and as near the city of Richmond as that convenience will 
admit of. 

Rev. William Meade was requested to deliver a sermon 
"the next Sahbath day," at the Monumental church, appro 
priate to the admission of that church into the general 
Church of the Diocese. 


Convention met Tuesday, May 23, 1815. Bishop Moore, 
presiding. William Munford, Secretary. Present fourteen 
clergymen and twenty-eight laymen. 

On Friday, the third day of the Convention, Bishop 
Moore delivered an address, for which the Convention re 
turned thanks and ordered that it be printed in the Jour 

In the address the Bishop gives the account of his work 
since his entrance upon his episcopal duties. The state 
ments as to number confirmed are not very accurate. From 
his account and from that by the Committee on the State of 
the Church, there seem to have been reported about 600 
communicants, 200 confirmations and 200 baptisms. 

The Bishop reported as admitted to candidateship for the 
ministry, Messrs. George H. Norton, Benjamin Allen, Jr., 
Thomas G. Allen and Samuel Low. 


Mr. Meade, from the Committee on the State of the Church,, 
presented a report, which was read as follows : 

The committee, to whom was referred the State of the Church, 
report that Evan Ragland, deceased, late of the county of Halifax, in 
this State, did by his last will and testament, dated the 4th of June, 
1814, devise to the President and Professors, or Masters of William and 
Mary College, and to their successors, a tract of land lying in the said 
county, together with five negroes in trust, for the maintenance of a 
minister, or ministers of the Protestant Episcopal Church, within the 
parish of Antrim, in the said county ; and also in trust, to raise there 
out the sum of eighty dollars per annum during the term of fifteen 
years, and annually thereafter the sum of one hundred dollars forever, 
to be appropriated under the direction of the President and Professors, 
or Masters of William and Mary College, as a fund to be applied to 
wards defraying the general expenses of the Church in this State, at 
the discretion of the Bishop and Standing Committee thereof, or of the 
Convention of this State, in case there should be no Bishop or Standing 

Your committee further report, that the title to the land so devised 
is disputed by the heirs of the said Evan Ragland, the testator ; in con 
sequence of which, the Rev. Alexander Hay, the present incumbent of 
the Church in the parish of Antrim, has been compelled to institute a 
suit in the Court of Chancery against the heirs of the said testator and 
the trustees named in the said will, for the purpose of obtaining the 
benefit of the same, so far as he is interested ; to which suit the Right 
Rev. Bishop of this Diocese is made a party defendant. 

Your committee, after such inquiries as it has been in their power 
to make in relation to the value of the property charged as aforesaid, 
with the bequest made in favor of the Protestant Episcopal Church of 
this State as aforesaid, and also to the title to the land so devised, are 
clearly of opinion that all proper means should be immediately pur 
sued for securing to the Church the benefit of the aforesaid bequest, 
and that the expenses which may be necessarily incurred in asserting 
the right of the Church, ought to be defrayed out of the funds belong 
ing to the said Church, at the disposal of the Convention of this State. 

Resolved, therefore, That it be the duty of the Standing Committee, 
under the direction of the Bishop, to pursue all proper means for 
securing to the Church the full benefit of the aforesaid bequest, made 
in her favor by the will of the said Evan Ragland, and to draw upon 
the treasurer of the said Church from time to time for such sums as 
may be necessary for defraying the expenses which may be incurred in 
the discharge of this duty. 


The committee to whom was referred the proposition from the 
President of William and Mary College, on the expediency of providing 
a sum for the support of the theological chair in that institution, have 
taken the subject into consideration, and recommend to the Conven 
tion the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Bishop and Standing Committee be requested 
to ascertain what practicable mode can be devised to that effect, and 
that they be authorized to adopt measures for the promotion of an 
object of so great magnitude, and which may under the blessing of 
God be productive of the most beneficial consequences. 

The resolutions of the said committee, on the subject of 
the devise from Evan Ragland, deceased, and in relation 
to the proposed establishment of a theological professorship 
in the College of William and Mary, were, on questions 
severally put thereupon, agreed to by the Convention. . 

The Right Rev. Bishop Moore delivered to the Convention 
an Address on the State of the Church, which being heard, 

Resolved, unanimously, That the thanks of the Convention be pre 
sented to the Right Rev. Richard Channing Moore, D. D., for his excel 
lent address this day delivered, and that the same be inserted in the 
journal, which address is in the following words : 

"Brethren, It becomes my duty, by virtue of the canon of the 
General Convention, to lay before you a view of the State of the 
Church in this Diocese. As my residence in Virginia has been of short 
duration, it cannot be supposed that I could have possessed myself of 
information very general in its nature. The visitations, however, which 
I have made, though very circumscribed, have enabled me to form 
some view of the state of our ecclesiastical concerns, and from that 
view I think myself justified in drawing the most pleasing conclusions. 

" In every parish which I have visited, I have discovered the most ani 
mated wish in the people to repair the waste places of our Zion, and 
to restore the Church of our Fathers to its primitive purity and excel 
lence. I have found their minds alive to the truths of religion, and 
have discovered an attachment to our excellent liturgy exceeding my 
utmost expectations. I have witnessed a sensibility to Divine things 
bordering on the spirit of gospel times. I have seen congregations,, 
upon the mention of that glory which once irradiated with its beams 
the Church of Virginia, burst into tears, and by their holy emotions 
perfectly electrify my mind. 


"The apostolic rite of confirmation, which I have administered in 
several parishes, was received by people of all ages with the greatest 
joy, and a general principle of union and exertion was, upon those oc 
casions, universally expressed. Parishes which have been destitute of 
ministerial aid for many years, which had slumbered until the warmest 
friends of the Church conceived it to have been the sleep of death, 
have, in two instances, been awakened from that state of torpor in 
which they were involved, and have arisen in all the vigor of perfect 
health. The younger clergy of this Diocese, who, from their youth and 
spiritual attainments, are well qualified for the glorious work-, have 
exerted themselves in a manner deserving the most honorable men 
tion. They have carried the standard of the Lord Jesus Christ through 
a considerable portion of this Church ; they have gone out into the 
highways and hedges, preaching the truths of their Divine Master ; 
and by their holy conversation with the people, have adorned the gos 
pel of Christ. A number of their elder brethren, though prevented by 
age from using the same exertion, have labored with fidelity, and 
contributed their best efforts to promote that work which has been 
committed to their hands. The laity have been equally assiduous in 
the discharge of that duty peculiar to their station the duty of pro 
viding for the ministers of religion. May heaven reward them for their 
labors of love; and may every cup of cold water which they have 
given to a disciple, in the name of a disciple, receive a disciple s reward. 

"The members of the Church in this city, brethren, deserve my sin- 
cerest thanks, for the friendship, affection and indulgence with which 
they have favored me they have shown, by their marked and con 
tinued tenderness towards me and my family, that they are alive to all 
the sensibilities which adorn our nature. I have found in them not 
only friends, but brothers and benefactors ; they have met my necessi 
ties with a solicitude beyond my expectations ; they have anticipated 
my every want ; they have discharged the duty of the most affectionate 
children towards their spiritual father. 

" I have admitted within the pas tyear, as candidates for the ministry, 
Mr. George H. Norton, Benjamin Allen, Jr., Thomas G. Allen, and Sam 
uel Low. I have licensed as lay readers, Mr. Benjamin Allen, Thomas 
Allen, William Keith and Thomas Henderson. I have admitted to 
the order of deacon, Mr. Edward C. M Guire and John P. Philips ; and 
to the order of Priesthood, the Rev. William Hawley. I have held a 
confirmation in the Church of Alexandria, at which place upwards of 
fifty persons received that holy rite. I have held a confirmation in 
Culpeper, when upwards of sixty, and in Fauquier, when upwards of 
fifty received that rite. I have visited and consecrated the Church at 


Petersburg, under the direction of the Rev. Mr. Syme ; at which time 
upwards of twenty were confirmed. I have preached in Manchester 
twice, and in Hanover in three different places. 

" Should my health be continued, brethren, it is my intention to visit as 
many parishes this summer and autumn as my parochial engagements 
will admit of, and shall thank the Convention or the Standing Commit 
tee to direct me to those parts of the Diocese where my labors may be 
thought to promise the most benefit to the Church. My Brethren of 
the Clergy, The welfare and advancement of our Zion depend upon 
our joint and vigorous exertions. Great is the duty imposed upon us, 
and great is the responsibility of that character which we fill, as minis 
ters of the gospel of peace. If there ever was a period in which exer 
tion was necessary, and if there ever was a period which bids fair to 
crown that exertion with success, this is the time. Though few in 
number, yet depending for support upon the promises of God, we may 
look for an abundant blessing upon our labors. Jehovah has promised 
to be with his Church to the end of the world, and he will fulfill his 
declaration. The parishes are invoking our aid. Oh ! listen, I beseech 
you, to their numerous entreaties. Be steadfast then, be unmovable, 
always abounding in the work of the Lord, and your labor will not be 
in vain in the Lord." 

Revs. William H. Wilmer, William Meade and William 
Hawley. And Messrs. Charles F. Mercer, Hugh Nelson and 
Dr. John Adams were elected deputies to the General Con 


The Convention met on Tuesday, May 21, 1816. Present 
sixteen clergymen and twenty-seven laymen. 

In view of canons adopted in 1815, concerning discipline, 
the following was unanimously agreed to : 

Be it ordained, That any lay member of the Church, being a com 
municant thereof, conducting himself unworthy of a Christian, may and 
ought to be admonished by the minister and vestry of the parish or 


congregation ; and if such member persevere in such conduct he shall 
be suspended or expelled by the minister and vestry, in which case he 
may appeal to the ordinary, who shall have power to confirm or reject 
the sentence. 

It was 

Resolved, That " A Common Prayer Book and Tract Society, for the 
Diocese of Virginia," be formed under the patronage of the Conven 
tion, according to the following plan : 

Constitution of the Common Prayer Book and Tract Society of the 
Diocese of Virginia. 

1. Every person who pays not less than three dollars at the time of 
subscribing, and not less than two dollars annually, shall be a member 
of this society. 

2. The business of the society shall be conducted by a Board of 
Managers, consisting of the Bishop and Standing Committee of the 
Diocese for the time being. A majority of the managers shall consti 
tute a quorum to do business. The Board of Managers shall make all 
laws necessary for the government of the society, and shall cause a 
statement of the receipts and expenditures of money, with other such 
matters as they may deem proper, to be laid before the Convention of 
this Diocese at its annual meeting. 

3. At some time during the session of each Annual Convention a 
suitable sermon shall be preached by some person whom the Bishop 
shall appoint, after which a collection shall be made, to be appropriated 
to the funds of the society. 

4. The Constitution of the society shall be unalterable, except by a 
vote of the Convention. 

The following preamble and resolution were agreed to: 

Whereas, the extent of this Diocese will not enable our venerable 
Bishop to visit as frequently the several parishes as might be desired, 
and preparations might be made to receive him ; and as it is truly de 
sirable, in the present state of the Church, that there should be a regular 
organ of communication between the several parishes of the State and 
their Diocesan, therefore, 

Resolved, That the Convention recommend to the members in the 
several parishes throughout the State, when there is no rector or ves 
try, to elect a vestry of at least eight of the most pious members of the 

CONVENTION OF 181 7. 75 

Church, whose duty it shall be to communicate with the Bishop from 
time to time upon the prospects in their several parishes, and to en 
deavor, by every possible means, to obtain visits from the ministers of 
the adjoining parishes as often as the nature of their charges and other 
circumstances may admit. 

The said preamble and resolution being twice read, were, 
on the question being put thereupon, agreed to by the Con 

A letter was read from the Standing Committee recom 
mending that there be constituted "a fund for the support 
of the episcopate," and asking the Convention to consider 
the establishment of a Theological Professorship in Wil 
liam and Mary College. The letter was referred back to 
the Standing Committee, with the request to mature some 
plan for their object, and to transmit the same to the differ 
ent ministers and vestries in the Diocese. 

The Bishop s address was not exact as to its figures. It 
reported about 730 confirmations. 

Candidates admitted Mr. John L. Bryan and Mr. John 

Deacons ordained Mr. Clark Brown, Mr. Low, Mr. Steel. 

Priests Rev. John Philips and Rev. William Hart. 


Up to the year 1814 the Conventions met in the Capitol 
in Richmond. 

In 1815 and 1816 the meetings were held in the Monu 
mental church, Richmond. 

In 1817 the Convention met in the church in Fredericks- 
burg, Tuesday, May 6. Present sixteen clergymen and 
twenty-four laymen. 


The Committee on the Accounts of the Prayer Book and 
Tract Society reported as follows : 

The committee, to whom were referred the accounts of the Common 
Prayer Book and Tract Society, report that they have duly examined 
the same, and find them correct, a balance being due the treasurer of 

A motion was made by the Rev. Benjamin Allen that the 
Convention agree to the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the existing Common Prayer Book and Tract Society 
be extended to the promotion of Christian knowledge in general, the 
funds to be apportioned among the respective means made use of as 
the managers may determine. 

Resolved, That it be recommended that an auxiliary society be 
established in each parish, one-half of whose funds shall be thrown 
into the treasury of the Diocesan Society, the remainder to be applied 
as its managers may determine. 

On motion, 
Ordered, That the said resolution be laid upon the table. 

The following preamble and resolution were unanimously 
agreed to : 

Whereas an erroneous impression prevails among the members of 
the Protestant Church of this Diocese that the Convention at its last 
session in May, 1816, by repealing the sixth canon, then in force, in 
tended thereby to withdraw from the ministers of the Church the 
power which the Rubric gave them of reproving, censuring, or repel 
ling from the communion any member who may be guilty of the of 
fences in the said sixth canon described : 

This Convention, for the purpose of removing such impression, feel 
themselves bound to declare, as they do now unanimously declare, that 
such cannot be fairly considered as the effect of the repeal of the sixth 
canon ; and, further, that the Convention expects each minister will 
conscientiously execute the duty imposed on him by the Rubric of the 
Church as it relates to communicants. 

Resolved, unanimously, That the Convention do seriously, and in the 
most affectionate manner, call on the members of this Church, and par 
ticularly heads of families, to comply with the requisitions of the third* 
and fifth canons of the Church of this Diocese. 

* Of family worship. 


Kev. Messrs. William H. Wilmer, Oliver Norris and John 
Dunn, and Messrs. Charles F. Mercer, Hugh Nelson and 
Hugh Mercer were elected deputies to the General Con 

In his address the Bishop speaks encouragingly of the 
interest wherever he preached, hut gives no figures at all as 
to his confirmations. 

He solutions were offered with a view to the revival of 
the Church in the Diocese, and were referred to a commit 
tee, who reported as follows . 

The committee to whom were referred sundry resolutions on the 
subject of dividing the Diocese into convocational districts have, ac 
cording to order, had the same under consideration, and have agreed 
to the following resolutions, which they beg leave to submit. 

Resolved, That for the purpose of raising a fund for the support of 
ministers who may be appointed, according to the rules and canons of 
the Church, to preach in those sections of the Diocese which are now 
or may hereafter be without a minister, and also to raise money for the 
support of the Bishop, without being attached to any particular parish,, 
the ministers of this Church do, in their respective parishes, at such 
time as they shall deem most fit, endeavor to collect, by a collection in 
their churches, or by subscriptions, such sums of money as the friends 
of religion shall be disposed to contribute towards the objects of this 

Resolved, That all money which may be collected as aforesaid, in 
tended by the contributor to be applied to the support of the Bishop, 
shall be transmitted to the treasurer of this Church, to be applied in 
such way as the Standing Committee shall direct. And so much of the 
money as shall be raised for the support of the ministers shall be placed 
in the hands of the vestry of the respective parishes in which it may be 

Resolved, That four hundred copies of the following address and of 
these resolutions be printed, and eight copies thereof be transmitted as 
soon as practicable by the secretary to the clerical and lay delegates 
attending the present Convention, and to such of the ministers of this 
Church who are not attending the Convention, all of whom are earn 
estly solicited to use their best exertions to effect as speedily as they 
can the object of the first and second resolutions. 


Resolved, That the said address be printed in such a form as to admit 
subscribers names to the same. 

Resolved, That as soon as the delegates of any one or more adjoin 
ing parishes have funds, separately or unitedly, sufficient to maintain 
for one year, at a reasonable allowance, a minister or ministers in the 
same, that the vestry, if any there be, or, if there be none, then the 
delegates from the said parish or parishes do give information of the 
same to the Bishop. 

To Christians of the Protestant Episcopalian Denomination in the 
Diocese of Virginia. 

The visitations with which it has pleased heaven, for a period (not a 
very short one) to afflict our country, are sufficient to manifest the 
powers of its wrath, and are well calculated to excite supplication to its 
mercy. War has afflicted us with much of its desolation ; sickness has 
raged with little less than pestilence, and want approaches (at least to 
many) with almost the aspect of famine. Human affliction is always 
Divine correction ; the pious man bows to its weight with submission ; 
he mitigates its severity by supplication ; and thus, at least, prepares the 
sublimest consolation for ills which come not from mortal hands. What 
have we done in the eyes of heaven to merit its bounties or to avert its 
chastisement ; or, rather, what have we not done, in the total neglect of 
God, the abandonment of his worship, the ruin and destruction of his 
temples, the profanation of his word, the contempt of his revelation, 
the pursuit of all follies, the practice of all impieties ? What have we 
not done to kindle the hottest wrath of heaven upon our heads, and to 
exasperate the relenting mercies of God into the just severity of eternal 
death. * * * * * * * 

These considerations are awfully affecting to us all, but touch parents 
and the heads of families with a vital keenness. The patrimony of 
guilt and irreligion upon which we are rearing, and which we are pre 
paring to bequeath to our children, will accumulate in rankness in the 
inheritance. If the father does not live to curse himself as the pro 
genitor of his family s shame, his children will live long enough to riot 
in the unbridled corruption of their hearts, which no check but heaven 
can reclaim, and to despise, if not to curse, the author of their exist 
ence, who neglected to impose religious restraints on appetities which 
no earthly influence can subdue. If our own hearts have been rendered 
so callous by our neglect of public worship, that we are ourselves wil 
ling to forego its enjoyments and its blessings, let us not, however, fling 
them away from our children. 

You are Christians. The divine intercessor for man has said, " When 

CONVENTION OF 181*7. 79 

two or three meet together in my name, there am I in the midst of 
them;" will you renounce the promised intercourse with God? Are 
you parents ? Intercept not from your children the light which heaven 
would shed to illumine their path through life to eternity. As citizens, 
you love your neighbors and your countrymen. Will you withhold 
from them the moral and religious instruction of the liturgy and the 
pulpit, inspiring "on earth peace, good will towards man;" uniting 
them in bonds wrought by Almighty hands; and subliming their affec 
tions from the low and grovelling objects of sensual appetite into 
social benevolence and Christian charity ? 

The Committee on the State of the Church presented a 
report, which was read, and being on motion amended, 
approved by the Convention ; and the amendment thereby 
proposed to the sixth canon was agreed to as follows : 

The committee appointed to take into consideration the State of the 
Church, and report thereon, having taken the same into consideration, 
and examined the canon of the Church, report that the uniting of the 
vestry with the minister in the admonition and the suspension of a lay- 
member, being a communicant, as in the sixth canon, is inconsistent 
with the Rubric. The committee, therefore, recommend that the said 
canon be so altered as to give to the minister alone the power of ad 
monishing and suspending; then the canon will read thus: " Be it or 
dained, That any member of the Church being a communicant thereof, 
conducting himself in a manner unworthy of a Christian may, and ought 
to be, admonished or suspended by the minister of the parish or con 
gregation, according to the Rubric." 

The resolutions offered by Kev. Benjamin Allen, concern 
ing the Prayer Book Society, were amended as follows and 
adopted : 

Resolved, That it be recommended that an Auxiliary Common Prayer 
Book and Tract Society be established in each parish, one-half of whose 
funds shall be thrown into the treasury of the Diocesan Society, the re 
mainder to be applied as its managers may determine. 

Resolved, That in those parishes where there are a minister and ves 
try, the minister and church-wardens be the managers of the auxiliary 
society ; in those parishes where there is no minister or vestry, the sub 
scribers shall elect their own managers, not exceeding three in number. 


The Bishop reported the following ordinations to the 
diaconate: Kev. Mr. Low, Mr. Steel, Mr. Allen, Mr. Ravens- 
croft, Mr. Bryan. 

To the priesthood Kev. Samuel Low, John S. Ravens- 

The canons on lay discipline as amended are as follows: 


The members of this Church shall attend the public worship of 
God as regularly and as constantly as, from their age, infirmities and 
circumstances in life may be reasonably expected; and shall neglect 
the performance of this important duty for no cause whatever, but such 
as they might plead at the bar of God in the day of judgment. 


Be it ordained, That any member of the Church, being a communi 
cant thereof, conducting himself in a manner unworthy of a Christian, 
may and ought to be admonished or suspended by the minister of the 
parish or congregation, according to the rubric. 

Adjourned to meet in Winchester the third Tuesday in 
May, 1818. 


Tuesday, May 19, 1818. The Convention met. The 
Bishop and many of the clergy not having arrived, it ad 
journed over until Wednesday, the 20th. 

Wednesday, 20th. Convention met. Rev. William H. 
Wilmer called to the chair. 

The Bishop arrived and took the chair after recess for 
divine service. 

Present during the session seventeen clergy and twenty- 
six laity. 


Twenty-eight clergy reported in the Diocese, including 
the Bishop. 

In order to insure episcopal visitations throughout the 
Diocese, it was 

Resolved, That whenever it shall be necessary for the Bishop to 
visit any part of this Diocese, he shall be authorized to call a clergy 
man from any part of the Diocese to supply his place in the duties of 
his parochial charge for not more than two Sundays. 

Resolved, That for the payment of [the travelling expenses of such 
clergyman the sum of five dollars shall be required from each parish. 

In order to obtain the assistance of missionaries to visit 
destitute parishes 

" It is recommended and enjoined upon such of the clergy as are 
settled, to receive young men into their families for the purpose of 
assisting them in their studies; which young persons, when properly 
qualified, may be licensed by the Bishop as lay readers, by which 
means the clergy would be occasionally enabled to make excursions 
into distant and vacant parishes without leaving their own charge en 
tirely unprovided for, and would have this further advantage, that these 
students would join practice with theory." 

Steps were taken to establish a permanent Episcopal 
Fund. Contributions to the same were ordered by the Con 
vention to be invested, under the direction of the Standing 
Committee, in the names of George Deneale and John 
Muncaster, wardens of Christ Church, Alexandria. 

The following was offered by Mr. Edmund J. Lee : 

Whereas differences of opinion prevail as to certain fashionable 
amusements, and it appears desirable to many that the sense of the 
Convention should be expressed concerning them, the Convention 
does hereby declare its opinion that gaming, attending on theatres, 
public balls and horse-racing, should be relinquished by all communi 
cants of this Church, as having the bad effects of staining the purity of 
Christian character; of giving offence to their pious brethren, and of 
endangering their own salvation by their rushing voluntarily into those 
temptations against which they implore the protection of their Heav 
enly Father ; and this Convention cherishes the hope that this expres- 


sion of its opinion will be sufficient to produce conformity of conduct 
and uniformity of opinion among all members of our communion. 

A motion by Mr. Powell to postpone this to next session, 
was lost ayes, 12; noes, 28. 

A motion by Mr. Powell to adopt as a substitute a decla 
ration, very similar in terms, made by the House of Bishops, 
was lost. 

The following substitute was then offered by Mr. Charles 
F. Mercer: 

Whereas differences of opinion have at all times existed in Christian 
communities as to the criminal tendency of certain customs or amuse 
ments, springing from affections of the heart, which, innocent in them 
selves, lose that character through excessive indulgence ; and legisla 
tures, civil as well as ecclesiastical, have, by abstaining from the enac 
tion of positive laws to regulate or punish them, admitted the difficulty 
of distinguishing between their use and abuse, except where the conse 
quences of such abuse left no doubt of their guilt or impropriety : 

To prescribe, by practicable legal rules, the proper boundary of ex 
pense in dress, furniture, or equipage, or of any other indulgence of 
taste ; to mark the exact limit beyond which the desire of wealth be 
comes avarice or extortion, would be as difficult as to regulate and 
enforce the rights and obligations of hospitality or friendship. It is for 
God to judge the heart of man. 

It is the province of this Convention to legislate for the government 
of the Church of this Diocese subject to the ordinances or canons of 
the American Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Its legislation is not by recommendations, but laws. It is the province 
and duty of the clergy not only to enforce the sanction of those laws, 
but to add to recommendations, persuasions and entreaties to dis 
countenance vice and irreligion by the denunciations and threats to 
encourage virtue and piety by the invitations, the hopes and the re 
wards of that gospel which they are commissioned to preach. 

The great rule of moral action is prescribed to both clergy and laity 
by the unchangeable word of God. 

But although this Convention deems any expression of its mere opin 
ion upon any subject as a departure from its peculiar and appropriate 
duties, a necessity is at present urged upon it, by a regard to its own 
character, to counteract the tendency of misrepresentation to pervert 
its real motives in relation to certain decisions of its late sessions on a 
subject which has interested the Church of this Diocese. 


It has been again called upon, by some of its members, to discoun 
tenance certain fashionable amusements ; and it has been said that its 
reluctance, on a former occasion, to depart from its proper province 
amounted to a tacit recognition of their innocence. 

With respect to gaming, by which it is understood play for money or 
other valuable thing, whatever form it may assume, it is undoubtedly a 
practice repugnant alike to Divine and to human law. 

No canon of this Church ought to be regarded as necessary, nor any 
expression required of the opinion of this Convention, to discounte 
nance a practice so iniquitous, both in its immediate effects and its 
remote consequences, if, indeed, it exists among the members of this 

That the theatre has, in every country in which it has existed, led to 
the corruption of morals, might be inferred from the general character 
of the dramas which it exhibits, if the dangerous circumstances attend 
ing the exhibition itself, the numerous temptations to extravagance and 
vice to which it exposes its actors and its audience, left any room to 
doubt its pernicious tendency. 

It will be the proper time to distinguish between the use and the 
abuse of this fascinating amusement, when the stage shall have been so 
regulated as to realize the hopes of those who would regard it as a 
school of Christian morality. 

That dancing, a natural exercise among all nations, civilized or 
savage, blended sometimes (as its sister art, music, has often been) in 
their religious ceremonies, has been, frequently is, and always may, be 
innocently and usefully conducted, those only will question whose 
entire inexperience of the world has left them in ignorance of its 
effects on the heart and manners. 

That crowded and promiscuous public assemblies, where no security 
exists for the moral character of those who compose them, except what 
arises from the possession of the means of purchasing admission ; where 
both gaming and drunkenness are either licensed or tolerated ; where 
amusement reels into debauchery, and time and fortune and health pay 
the price of a fleeting and feverish gratification of the love of pleasure 
that all such assemblies are hostile to the spirit of Christianity, those 
who have most frequently witnessed their contagious influence must be 
ever ready to acknowledge. 

Yet this Convention will not undertake to say that individuals have 
not entered innocently these dangerous scenes of pleasure, or passed 
through them unhurt. 

Still less is it about to denounce and repel by its canons, from the 
bosom of the Church, those who, to its regret, may sometimes appear 
to countenance them. 


The Church warns its members of impending danger, but, in cases 
of doubt, leaves their innocence or guilt to the judgment of an all-see 
ing God, to the conscience of man, his vicegerent on earth. 

Having said so much to the laity, this Convention would conclude 
the expression, which it has reluctantly made of these opinions, with 
affectionately urging upon the ministers of religion, while they enforce 
the necessary discipline of their respective churches in conformity with 
the Rubric and canons, to unite tenderness with authority. 

In the pastoral language of an earlier age of the Church, " it is not 
enough that ye are the fathers, be ye also the mothers of your flock." 

The substitute was lost. 

Upon Mr. Lee s motion the clergy voted unanimously 
in the affirmative. Seventeen of the lay delegates voted 
aye, nine voted no. So the resolution was agreed to. 

The Bishop reported Mr. John Bryan and Mr. Keith 
ordained deacons ; Mr. William Steel ordained priest. 

The following delegates were elected to the General Con 
vention : Revs. W. H. Wilmer, John S. Ravenscroft, Wil 
liam Meads, George Lemon ; Messrs. Hugh Nelson, Edmund 
J. Lee, Philip Nelson, Charles F. Mercer. 

For a portion of the session on Saturday the chair was 
occupied by Mr. Charles F. Mercer. 

The Convention adjourned to meet next year in Char- 


The Convention met in Petersburg, May 13, 1819. Pres 
ent, the Bishop, thirteen clerical and nineteen lay delegates. 

The Episcopal fund reported $408 invested, and $551.85 
cash in hand. 

A donation of $100 to the same fund, by the widow of the 
late Devereux Jarratt, was acknowledged. 


Revs. John S. Ravenscroft, William H. Wilmer, William 
Meade and George Lemon, and Messrs. Bushrod Washing 
ton, Edmund J. Lee, Charles F. Mercer and Philip Nelson 
were elected to the General Convention. 

The Bishop reported the Rev. Mr. Shaw admitted to the 
order of deacons. 

It was 


Resolved, That it be recommended to the friends of the Church 

immediately to organize themselves into a missionary society for the 
benefit of vacant parishes, of which the Bishop of the Diocese shall be 
ex qfficio President. 

The Convention considered an amendment to the Consti 
tution of the Diocese proposing to change the time of meet 
ing from May to June. It was not approved. 

An amendment to the Constitution by the General Con 
vention, giving to the Dioceses a representation based upon 
the number of ministers and congregations in each, was 
not approved. 

An amendment to the same Constitution, changing the 
time of meeting from May to October, was approved. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Moore delivered to the Convention 
his address, from which the following is quoted: 

"Brethren, To effect great and important objects, great and con 
tinued exertion is required. Difficulties must not be permitted to 
paralyze our efforts, nor to unnerve our arm. The mind, fixed upon a 
legitimate point, must put forth all its energies in the attainment of the 
contemplated design. To press forward towards the mark, and to per 
severe with firmness, can alone secure to us success, and effect the 
completion of that hallowed object in which we have engaged the 
resuscitation of the Church of our Fathers. * * * 

" When the ruins of our desolated temples meet my eye, and the re 
ligious privations of the people are presented to my view, my soul is 
overwhelmed with those reflections peculiar to the case. Considering 
the enemy of mankind as the origin of the desolation and distress 
which I behold, a new impetus is communicated to my mind ! The 
cross of the Lord Jesus Christ is presented to my view, and lo! I am 


with you always, revives my heart, and impels me to renewed exer 
tion. To labor in the vineyard of the crucified Saviour, has formed my 
chief delight for the last thirty-two years of my life ; and though the 
power of doing good is, in a degree, abridged by an increase of years, 
still my inclination is as great as it has ever been ; and if I can add one 
stone to the sacred edifice, and see the Church of my Fathers placed 
upon that height to which the apostolic purity of her doctrines entitles 
her, I shall commit my head to the pillow of death with satisfaction, 
and leave my blessings to those who shall survive me. 

"Were I to say, brethren, that I entertain the least doubt of our ulti 
mate success, I should speak a language foreign to my heart. We are 
not, it is to be remembered, entering within the enclosures of other 
denominations and interfering with them. We are absolutely seeking 
the lost sheep of our own fold. We are in pursuit of those who have 
been baptized at the altars we are appointed to guard, and who are 
destitute of spiritual food. * 

" Brethren, animated with the disposition of doing good, let us 
renew this day to God and his Church our vows of fidelity. We 
have pledged ourselves to exert every nerve in the prosecution of 
the cause in which we have embarked, and let us redeem that pledge 
by an indefatigable attention to our duty. Let us continne to love 
one another. Let us pray for our mutual success. Let us speak 
the same things, and proclaim the same truths. Peace will then 
be within our walls, and the blessing of the Almighty will rest upon our 
labors. Going forth in the strength of the Lord God, and making men 
tion of his righteousness, and his only, the powers of darkness must 
yield to the force of Divine truth. The gospel will triumph over all its- 
enemies. The kingdom of the Messiah must and will prevail, until the 
earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover 
the sea. To assist in the accomplishment of the Divine promises, we 
have been called to labor. Attired in the armor of the gospel, God 
will be on our side, and will render our efforts successful. The mem 
bers of our churches will hold up our hands, and pray for the advance 
ment of the hallowed cause. Who is he that will harm you, if ye be 
followers of that which is good ? Brethren of the clergy and laity, you 
carry with you my warmest prayers and benediction. May Jehovah be 
your portion, and underneath you may he place the everlasting arms 
of his love." 

An address to the Hon. Bushrod Washington, President 
of the American Colonization Society, expressing approval 
and sympathy, was read and approved. 


Adjourned to meet in Alexandria the Thursday preced 
ing the third Tuesday in May next. 


Convention met Thursday, May 11, 1820, in Alexandria. 
Present, the Bishop, nineteen clerical and twenty-six lay 

No resolutions of importance were adopted until Satur 
day, when the following, proposed by the Committee on the 
State of the Church, were agreed to: 

Whereas nothing is more important, under the blessing of God, than 
a pious and well educated ministry, it is 

Resolved, That the Convention will ardently cherish and endeavor to 
promote this object. 

Resolved, That as the College of William and Mary will probably 
soon employ a clerical professor in that Institution, who will take 
charge of such theological students as may be committed to his care; 
as the professors of the College have also made liberal offers of assist 
ance to such students of all denominations ; and as an excellent theo 
logical library belongs to the College, it is 

Resolved, That the favor and benefit of these circumstances are 
duly appreciated, and are worthy the attention of the members of the 

The Right Rev. Bishop Moore delivered his pastoral ad 
dress on The State of the Church, from which the following 
is quoted : 

"Brethren, Every Convention, as it presents itself to view, affords us 
the greatest encouragement. The information we receive from the dif 
ferent sections of the Diocese is calculated to inspire our minds with 
hope, and to stimulate us to renewed and increased exertion. The 
parishes which have been filled continue to prosper, and many parts of 


our Zion, which, for years, have been buried in ruin, are calling for help 
and entreating our assistance. 

" The success which has attended the labors of the clergy, and the 
warm and animated interest which the laity have taken in the restora 
tion of the Church, prove to a demonstration that the work is God s, 
and that the set time for the Lord to have mercy upon Zion has come. 
Yes, brethren, the machine has been set in motion by an Omnipotent 
arm ; it is Divine grace, which, in the first instance, directed our atten 
tion to the hallowed object, and it is Divine grace which hath in 
fluenced us to persevere in the important work. Had we not been 
actuated by principles such as heaven could indulgently approve, and 
had we not been sustained by his grace, we must have fainted by the 
way. It is to Jehovah that we are indebted for the success with which 
we have been favored. Not unto us, O ! Lord, not unto us, but unto 
thy name, be the praise, for thy honor and for thy truth s sake. 

" The same means which have been so signally blessed will, if per 
severed in, produce still greater effects. While the ministers of the 
altar continue to preach the gospel, and to live agreeably to its pre 
cepts, they may rest satisfied that the Almighty will own their labors. 
*Lo, I am with you always, is the Redeemer s promise to the faithful 
heralds of the Cross. Let us, my Reverend Brethren, be determined to 
* take heed to ourselves and to our doctrine ; to make full proof of 
our ministry ; to proclaim the Lord Jesus as the way and the truth 
and the life ; to adorn the gospel of God, our Saviour, in all things ; to 
follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall 
see the Lord. " 

The Bishop reported Kev. Mr. Aisquith, Rev. Mr. Rey 
nolds and Rev. Norman Nash admitted to the order of 
deacons, and Rev. Samuel Wydown admitted to the priest 

Revs. William H. Wilmer, John S. Ravenscroft, William 
Meade and George Lemon ; and Messrs. William Mayo, 
Philip Nelson, Charles F. Mercer and John Nelson, Jr., 
were elected to the General Convention. 

Rev. Messrs. Ravenscroft and Wilmer were appointed to 
inquire into the state of the "Widows Fund." (See Jour 
nal 1792.) 

Adjourned to meet in Norfolk in May next. 



Convention met in Norfolk, May 17, 1821. Present, the 
Bishop, seventeen clergy and twenty-four laymen. 

The Presbyterian and Baptist congregations offered the 
use of their churches for divine services. Thanks were 
unanimously returned to those " Christian brethren for the 
kindness thus manifested," and the offer was "gratefully 

A committee on the "Widows Fund" reported through 
the Kev. J. S. Ravenscroft, recommending the acceptance 
of the resignation of Dr. Buchanan, who wished to retire 
because of age and infirmity; also that John Hooff, of 
Alexandria, be appointed treasurer ; also that measures be 
taken to increase the fund, and that at each Convention 
a sermon be preached and a collection made in its behalf. 
Agreed to. 

The following resolutions as amended were approved: 

The committee to whom were referred the resolutions upon the sub 
ject of the permanent fund for the support of the episcopate have, ac 
cording to order, had the same under consideration, and have agreed 
upon the following resolutions, which they beg leave to report : 

1. Resolved, That the vestries or trustees of each congregation, in the 
respective parishes of this Diocese, do cause each adult person, profes 
sing themselves to belong to or to be friendly to the Church, to be called 
on, and requested each to pay the sum of not less than one dollar, to be 
applied to the said fund. 

2. Resolved, That the money which shall be received by the vestries 
or trustees, in pursuance of the preceding resolutions, be forthwith re 
mitted to the President of the Standing Committee of the Church, for 
that committee to invest it as heretofore directed. 

3. Resolved, That on or before the first day of January next, and from 
time to time thereafter, reports be made to the Standing Committee of 
the proceedings under these resolutions. 



4. Resolved, That an appropriate address from the Convention on 
this subject be adopted and circulated with the preceding resolutions 
among the members of the Church. 

On motion of Mr. Ravenscroft, the following additional 
resolution being twice read was, on the question put there 
upon, agreed to by the Convention, viz : 

5. Resolved, That in those parts of the Diocese where there are no 
vestries or trustees the friends of the Church be requested to give their 
aid in effecting the object of these resolutions. 

The Committee on the State of the Church recommended 
the establishment of a theological school at Williamsburg \ 
also that Bishop Moore, Rev. Messrs. Ravenscroft, W. H. 
Wilmer, William Meade, Reuel Keith and Dr. Augustine 
Smith, Hon. Burwell Bassett, Hon. Bushrod Washington, 
Colonel Hugh Mercer and William Mayo, Esq., be appointed 
a Board of Trustees, to adopt the most efficient means for 
establishing the same by raising funds and selecting one or 
more professors; three to constitute a quorum, and their 
proceedings to be subject to the decision of the next Con 

They also recommended a correspondence with the Stand 
ing Committees of Maryland and North Carolina, to ascer 
tain whether cooperation could be secured between the 
three Dioceses in this important measure. 

They also recommended that Mr. John Nelson, Jr., be 
appointed to solicit subscriptions throughout the Diocese 
for the above purpose. All of which was agreed to. 

The Bishop reported the Rev. Mr. Marshall admitted to 
the holy order of priesthood. 

Revs. William H. Wilmer, John S. Ravenscroft, William 
Meade and Simon Wilmer, and Messrs. Philip Nelson, 
William Mayo, Hugh Mercer and Edmund J. Lee were 
elected to the General Convention. 

Adjourned to meet in Charlotte sville in May next. 



Convention met in Charlotte sville, May 16th. Present, 
the Bishop, twenty-one clergy and twenty-two laity. 

Mr. Edward Colston, Secretary pro tern. 

Episcopal Fund reported to be $2,850 invested; $5.1& 
cash on hand. 

Mr. John Nelson, Jr., reported subscriptions to the Theo 
logical School amounting to $10,268.23. 

The Board of Trustees reported the following " Constitu 
tion of the Theological School of the Diocese of Virginia " : 

1. The Board of Trustees of the Theological School of the Diocese 
of Virginia shall consist of the Bishop of the Diocese and thirteen 
members to be chosen by the Convention of the Church, who shall 
continue in office during good behavior. 

2. The Bishop of the Diocese shall be, ex officio, President of the 

3. The Board shall appoint its own Vice-President, Treasurer and 

4. It shall be the duty of the Board to take proper steps to collect 
the money already subscribed, and to obtain additional funds in aid of 
the Institution. 

5. There shall be an annual meeting of the Board of Trustees on 
the day previous to the meeting of the Convention, and at the place 
appointed for the same. 

6. Special meetings of the Board shall be called by the Bishop, on 
the application of any three trustees, at such places as the Bishop shall 
appoint, due notice of which shall be given. 

7. At all meetings of the Board, whether general or special, eight 
members shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. 

8. A majority of the trustees present shall be necessary to determine 
any measure, question or business before them. 

9. Vacancies occurring in the Board shall be supplied by the vote of 
the Convention at their annual meetings. 

10. The funds of the Theological School shall be under the manage- 

*92 CONVENTION OF 1822. 

ment of the trustees (who shall report annually to the Convention a full 
state of the same), and be subject, in the disposition of the same, to the 
control and direction of that body. 

11. The management of the Institution shall be vested in the Board 
of Trustees, who shall have power to choose a professor or professors, 
and to prescribe a course of study agreeably to the canons of the 
Church, and, in general, to make rules and regulations for the govern 
ment and good management of the institution. 

12. The Board of Trustees shall keep a regular record of their pro 
ceedings, and report the same regularly to the annual meetings of the 

13. This Constitution, or any article thereof, shall not be altered or 
amended, unless by a vote of two-thirds of the Convention. 

On motion of Mr. Hugh Nelson, the words, "who shall 
continue in office during good behaviour, " in the first arti 
cle, were struck out, and the other articles, having been 
severally considered by the Convention, were adopted ; where 

Ordered, That the said Constitution as amended, be adopted as the 
Constitution of the Theological School of the Diocese of Virginia. 

Revs. W. H. Wilmer, Ravenscroft, Meade and E. C. 
M Gruire, and Messrs Hugh Mercer, Edmund J. Lee, Wil 
liam Mayo and Philip Nelson were elected to the General 

The Widows Fund was reported to be in all $4,783.67. 

Revs. Wilmer, Ravenscroft and Meade, and Messrs. Hugh 
Mercer and Edmund J. Lee were chosen members of the 
Board of Trustees to the Theological Seminary. 

Adjourned to meet in Leesburg, May, 1823. 

. 823. 93 


Convention met in Leesburg May 13th. The Bishop was- 
absent because of sickness in his family. The Rev. William 
H. Wilmer was elected President pro tempore. 

Present eighteen clergy and twenty-three laymen. 

The Widows and Orphans Fund reported in all $5,193.72. 

Eevs. W. H. Wilmer, William Meade, E. C. M Guire and 
Oliver Norris, and Messrs. William Mayo, Hugh Mercer, 
John Nelson, Jr., and Robert Lewis were elected to the 
General Convention. 

The Committee on the State of the Church proposed the 
following : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee be and they are hereby 
authorized to select some competent person to call on the different 
members of this Church to contribute to raising the fund for the sup 
port of the Bishop, payable in one, two, three and four years. It was 
lost on a call of ayes and noes ayes, 19 ; noes, 22. 

The trustees of the Theological Seminary, in their report 

The Board would especially acknowledge the zeal and success of Mr. 
Robert P. Waring, the agent for Essex county, who has procured sub 
scriptions exceeding |i,ooo, $600 of which he has generously given 
himself, with the expectation of securing yet additional contributions. 
In addition to the appointment of agents, in various counties, the Board 
at a recent meeting have appointed other special agents, who have 
engaged to make speedy and persevering efforts to accomplish the 
collection of the contemplated fund. 

The Board also selected and appointed a Professor of Divinity, the 
Rev. Mr. Keith, who has been rendering partial services in the institu 
tion during the past year. 

The whole amount of funds now claimed by the society, including 
what is subscribed and paid in, is somewhere about $14,000, together 


with a valuable donation of theological books, made by a gentleman of 
the Northern Neck of Virginia, in addition to those given the institution 
by the late Rev. Mr. Andrus. 

The Eevs. John H. Wingfield and John Dunn were 
elected trustees of the Theological Seminary, in place of 
Kev. J. S. Ravenscroft, resigned, and Kev. E. M. Lowe, 

Adjourned to meet in Staunton, May 1824. 


The Convention met in Staunton, Thursday, May 20. 
Present twelve clergy, sixteen laity. 

Mr. John G. Williams was elected Secretary. 

The Journal records the enactment of a canon on the 
trial of a clergyman. Its peculiarities were a court of 
three Presbyters, two-thirds necessary to conviction. Sen 
tence to be pronounced by the Standing Committee, in case 
there should be no Bishop, and the Standing Committee to 
have power to pronounce no sentence beyond suspension. 

The following preamble and resolutions were offered by 
the Rev. William H. Wilmer : 

Whereas, there are throughout the State, in the possession of families 
and individuals, many valuable books, the remnant of ancient libraries, 
that are of but little use to their owners, but which would be of great 
value to the Theological School of this Diocese, it is hereby 

Resolved, That the friends of the Church, who are in possession of 
such books as they can conveniently spare, be, and they are hereby 
respectfully requested, to send them for the use of the school to the 
minister of the parish, or of the adjoining parish, or to Professor Keith, 
of Alexandria. 


Resolved, also, That the clergy and laity of this Diocese, who have 
in their possession journals of the Convention of this State, holden 
anterior to. the year 1812, be requested to forward them to the Rev. 
William H. Wilmer, of Alexandria, for the purpose of enabling him to 
publish the whole of them in regular series, and in a compact form. 

A report was presented from the Trustees of the Theo 
logical Seminary. It announced that the Rev. Reuel Keith 
was elected Professor, with the request to hold himself in 
readiness to take charge of it whenever it should go into 
operation. It urged the payment of subscriptions, and the 
liberal cooperation of the friends of the Church. It said : 

The trustees of the Theological School of Virginia now present, 
though not in a sufficient number to form a quorum, feel it their duty to 
submit to the Convention the following report: 

The trustees take great pleasure in contemplating the present state 
and encouraging prospects of the school, and in bearing testimony, as 
far as they know and believe, to the zeal, fidelity and ability with which 
the professors have discharged the duties of their professorship. They 
feel it incumbent on them also to state, from satisfactory information, 
that the whole course of studies has been entirely conformed to the 
canons of the Church. * * 

Under the present circumstances of the school, the trustees are of 
opinion that Alexandria is the best place for the present location, and 
they beg leave to recommend to the Convention the adoption of a reso 
lution to that effect. 

Williamsburg is too remote and inaccessible to justify the hope that 
students can be obtained for a Theological Institution at that place. 
The experiment was tried there for one year without success, and no 
hope of success seemed to present itself in the time to come. No 
sooner was the trial made in Alexandria, than the number of students, 
arid the means of supporting the indigent among them, increased be 
yond our most sanguine expectations. All that is now wanting to com 
plete success, under the blessing of God, is the liberal cooperation of 
the friends of the Church. 

We cannot hope for a full and permanent supply of pious and well- 
educated ministers from any other source than the institution we com 
mend to the liberal patronage of our members. 


In accordance with the request made in the report, it was 
resolved to locate the Seminary, for the present, in the town 
of Alexandria. 

The following preamble and resolution were offered by the 
Kev. William Meade, and adopted: 

Whereas, the Bishop has signified to the Convention his desire and 
intention of employing an assistant, which is now rendered absolutely 
necessary to the discharge of his Episcopal duties in the Diocese, and 
that he is willing to pay one-half of the assistant s salary out of his 
own purse ; therefore, 

Resolved, That as soon as the Bishop shall have obtained an assis 
tant, he communicate the same to the ministers and vestries, stating 
what would be needful on their part to the support of said assistant, 
and making such a representation of all the circumstances of the case 
as he may deem most effectual. 

There is no address of the Bishop published with the 
proceedings. It would seem that one was made from the 
fact that the resolutions here offered with reference to a 
statement made by him as to the necessity of employing a 
parochial assistant, and that the Bishop had signified a 
readiness to pay half the salary out of his own purse. The 
resolution asked him, as soon as an assistant was obtained, 
to communicate fully with all the vestries of the Diocese 
upon the subject. 

Mr. Nicholas H. Cobbs was invited to a seat in the Con 


Convention met in Kichmond, May 19, 1825. 
The Bishop, in his address, said : 

"To remedy some of the difficulties, brethren, which have presented 
themselves to view, I conceive it a duty incumbent on me at this time 


to offer a few observations on the subject of an obedience to the ru 
brics of the Church, and as the clergy cannot charge me with unkind- 
ness in my intercourse with them, I trust my remarks will be received 
with the same spirit of conciliation with which they will be offered, and 
not charged to a spirit of improper domination. 

" The Church of which we are members has always felicitated her 
self upon the possession of a liturgy combining with the soundest 
sense the purest and most sublimated devotion ; a liturgy which has 
commanded the respect and admiration of some of the greatest and 
most enlightened men who have lived since the Reformation. To en 
able the clergy to conduct the devotions of the people in perfect uni 
formity, rubrics have been attached to all the offices of religion ; a 
compliance with which is required of every minister prior to his ordi 

" Although the services of the Church have been thus guarded, still it 
has sometimes happened that a departure from the liturgy has taken 
place, and the beauty of our incomparable form of worship been in 
some measure destroyed. 

" When an individual, instructed in the peculiarities of our services, 
is engaged in the duties of the sanctuary, he can follow with inde 
scribable pleasure the officiating clergyman, in the regular exercise of 
his office ; he is always prepared to unite in the prayers and to worship 
the Lord in the beauty of holiness without the least distraction of 
mind. But when it so happens that the clergyman is inattentive to the 
rubrics, the devotional exercises of the worshipper are obstructed ; his 
mind, instead of being preserved calm and serene, becomes perplexed, 
and his religious feelings changed into those of disappointment, if not 
displeasure. I indulge the hope, brethren, that in those instances in 
which the aberrations alluded to have been practiced, they have arisen 
more from inconsideration than design, and that it is only necessary to 
mention the evil to have it remedied. 

"Another subject to which I must call your attention is the fund for 
the support of the Episcopate in the Diocese of Virginia. I do this 
with less reluctance than I otherwise should in consequence of my age 
and the impossibility of reaping from it any personal advantages what 

" The Bishop of the Diocese has duties to perform which render it 
improper that he should be confined to the superintendence of a par 
ticular parish. All the congregations in the State form the objects of 
his pastoral charge, and are equally entitled to his superintending care. 
Were the Bishop at perfect liberty he could visit at pleasure the desti 
tute parts of his Diocese convince the people of the interest he takes 



in their concerns keep alive their attachment to the Church, and pre 
vent them from a departure from the fold. When confined to the 
charge of a single congregation, the entreaties of those who are desti 
tute of ministerial aid cannot be complied with. His children ask for 
the Bread of Life at his hands, and he is obliged to withhold the aid for 
which they implore they plead their relation to him as to their Spirit 
ual Father, and they plead in vain they demand his fostering care in 
accents which touch his heart, but their demands, however reasonable 
and just, it is beyond his power to satisfy. 

"Such, brethren, has been my situation since my residence in Vir 
ginia, and such must be the situation of my successor, unless some pro 
vision should be made to meet the evil. A clergyman of suitable 
talents, who would travel through the Diocese, and who might be em 
ployed as a missionary at the same time, could, I am well convinced, 
in the space of two years, complete the plan you have already com 
menced, and enable your Diocesan to perform the duties belonging to 
his office. What person, who considers himself a member of the 
Church, would refuse a few dollars for the completion of such an object? 
What Virginian, who recollects the attachment of his departed parents 
to the Church, and who remembers the period when he was led by 
them to worship in our courts, would shut his ears to our petitions, or 
send us empty away from his doors ? My brethren, I have traveled too 
much through this Diocese to consider such an event possible. I know 
the Virginia character too well to believe that the old Church, dilapi 
dated as she is in many places, would ask for bread and receive a stone. 
No, my brethren, it is impossible. The remains of their parents lie in 
terred in many instances within the walls or around the walls of our 
ruined temples ; and those revered relics would make such an appeal 
to their hearts as they would not be willing to resist. Make then, I 
beseech you, one vigorous and united effort in the case submitted to 
you enter upon the concern with one heart and one mind, and the 
Lord will in mercy bless your efforts. 

The Committee on the State of the Church reported the 
three following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Convention heartily concurs with the Bishop in re 
commending to the ministers a punctual observance of the rubrics of the 
Church, warning them of the danger of yielding to prejudices supposed 
to exist against the liturgy, either in the breasts of the irreligious, or of 
those who may be present at our churches, who are accustomed to other 
services ; and particularly would they urge it upon the ministers and 


parents to train up the younger members in the Church in the use of 
the Prayer Book, as the best means of ensuring a regular and edifying 
use of the liturgy, and would also recommend it to the ministers occa 
sionally to expatiate on the excellences and advantages of our incom 
parable service. At the same time the Convention feels bound in duty 
to the Church of Virginia to state that but few instances of departure 
have occurred, and also that there is a growing attachment to the ser 
vices of the Church throughout the Diocese. 

Resolved, That the Bishop and Standing Committee be, and they are 
hereby authorized, to appoint some competent person or persons to 
call on the members of the Episcopal Church in this Diocese, in such 
places as may be thought expedient, to solicit contributions for the 
permanent fund for the support of the Bishop ; and out of the contribu 
tions it is recommended that as much be annually appropriated to 
wards the payment of the assistant of the Bishop as may be necessary 
to supply any deficiency in that portion of his support which the dif 
ferent vestries in the Diocese are required to provide. 

Resolved, That the Bishop do address a circular letter to the mem 
bers and vestries of the different parishes of the Diocese upon the sub 
ject of raising a salary for the support of the assistant to the Bishop. 
The ministers are hereby required to lay the same before their respec 
tive vestries, and to read the same from the pulpit to their respective 

The Colonization Society, through its agent, Ker. K. E. 
Gurley, of Washington, D. C., addressed a letter to this Con 
vention, asking the sanction of the Convention to their 
plans and proceedings. Hearty resolutions were adopted 
recommending the Society and its ohject ; also recommend 
ing, in accordance with their request, that "the different 
clergymen and vestries of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
within this Diocese have collections to he made in behalf of 
the Colonization Society on the 4th of July, or on the Sab- 
hath immediately preceding or succeeding that day." 

The Trustees of the Theological Seminary report, "with 
the liveliest emotions of gratitude that * * * 

twenty-one young men have been pursuing their studies 
under the two professors appointed to this very important 

100 CONVENTION OF 1825. 

They report the appointment of "Rev. Mr. Norris profes 
sor of Pastoral Theology." 

They appeal for further pecuniary aid and commend the 
object of auxiliary education societies. They urge Chris 
tian friends, and ministers especially, to pray God to put it 
into the hearts of pious youths of the Church to devote 
themselves to the ministry. 

The report said also 

From the present prospect of the school, the Board entertain the 
hope that it will be prepared to take a respectable rank among the 
similar institutions established by the Church. The General Seminary 
in New York has been for some time in successful progress. A Dioce 
san school in Ohio is about to commence its operations also with 
encouraging prospects. Experience has proved that there is ample 
room and demand for the Theological School of Virginia. By its local 
convenience, and by its accommodation to the habits and manners of 
our Southern country, it attracts, without conflicting with the interests 
of the General Seminary, a patronage and support which otherwise 
would be lost to the cause of the Church. Many of the students now 
attached to it would have attended no seminary, and probably would 
have been alienated from the Church. 

With the Bible chart before us, as delineated by our venerable 
Church, we hope that the course pursued by the seminary will be 
honorable and prosperous to itself and the Church, and that the 
students who may come forth from the institution will be sound 
ministers of the Church, combining the love of order and unity with 
that experimental acquaintance with the religion of the heart, and 
that zealous and faithful discharge of the ministerial functions, which, 
alone, can render them respectable and useful in the Lord s vineyard. 

It published the rules and regulations concerning the 
Faculty, the students and the course of study. 

The closing address of Bishop Moore, on Sunday evening, 
was peculiarly solemn. 

CONVENTIONS OP 1826 AND 182*7. 101 


Convention met in Lynchburg, Thursday, May 18th, at 
which time "the church in this place was consecrated by 
the Right Rev. Bishop Moore, D. D." 

There was reported $3,900 invested toward a permanent 
Episcopal Fund. 

The Contingent Fund amounted to $493.25. $145 was 
collected toward the payment of an assistant to the Bishop 
in his parochial work. 

The Seminary trustees reported the loss of Rev. Mr. Nor- 
ris by death, and the appointment of Rev. Mr. Lippit as his 

They report the funded capital of the Seminary as less 
than $10,000. 

The Treasurer was directed to pay to each delegate to the 
General Convention the sum of $50 to pay his expenses in 
attending the same. 

Rev. William H. Wilmer, D. D., Rev. William Meade, 
Rev. Edward C. M Guire, Dr. Carter Berkeley and Mr. Philip 
Nelson were nominated to the General Convention as trus 
tees of the General Theological Seminary. 


Convention met in St. George s church, Fredericksburg, 
on Thursday, May IT. 

A communication from the General Convention was re 
ceived, containing the following resolutions : 

102 CONVENTION OF 1827. 

1. Resolved, That in "The order how the Psalter is appointed to be 
read," the following be added to the fourth paragraph " or any other 
Psalm or Psalms, except on those days on which proper Psalms are 
appointed" so that the whole paragraph will read as follows : " The 
minister instead of reading from the Psalter, as divided for daily morn 
ing and evening prayer, may read one of the selections set out by this 
Church, or any other Psalm or Psalms, except on those days on which 
"proper Psalms" are appointed. 

2. Resolved, That in " The order how the rest of the Holy Scripture 
is appointed to be read," the following be inserted after the fifth para 
graph: "The minister may, at his discretion, instead of the entire 
lesson, read suitable portions thereof, not less than fifteen verses. And 
on other days than Sundays and holydays, in those places where morn 
ing and evening prayer is not daily used, he may read other portions of 
the Old and New Testament instead of the prescribed lessons, it being 
recommended that unless circumstances render it inexpedient, on the 
stated prayer days of Wednesdays and Fridays, the lessons for those 
days, or for one of the intervening days, be read." 

The Bishops, in the use of the office of confirmation, finding that the 
preface is frequently not well suited to the age and character of those 
who are presented for this holy ordinance, unanimously propose the 
following resolution : 

3. Resolved, That after the present preface in the office of confirma 
tion, the following be inserted, to be used instead of the former, at the 
discretion of the Bishop : " It appears from Holy Scripture, that the 
apostles laid their hands on those who were baptized ; and this ordi 
nance, styled by the Apostle Paul the laying on of hands/ and ranked 
by him among the principles of the doctrine of Christ, has been re 
tained in the Church under the name of confirmation; and is very 
convenient and proper to be observed, to the end that persons being 
sufficiently instructed in what they promised, or what was promised for 
them in their baptism, and being in other respects duly qualified, may 
themselves, with their own mouth and consent, openly, before the 
Church, ratify and confirm the same; and also promise that, by the 
grace of God, they will evermore endeavor themselves faithfully to 
observe such things as they by their own confession have assented unto." 

And to correct the injurious misapprehension as to the meaning of 
certain terms in . the first collect in the office of confirmation, the 
Bishops unanimously propose the following resolution : 

4. Resolved, That after the first collect in the office of confirmation, 
the following be inserted, to be used at the discretion of the Bishop, 
instead of the first collect: "Almighty and everliving God, who hast 

CONVENTION OF 1827. 103 

vouchsafed in baptism to regenerate these thy servants by water and 
the Holy Ghost, thus giving them a title to all the blessings of thy 
covenant of grace and mercy in thy Son Jesus Christ, and now does 
graciously confirm unto them, ratifying the promises then made, all 
their holy privileges; grant unto them, we beseech thee, O Lord, the 
renewing of the Holy Ghost ; strengthen them with the power of this 
Divine Comforter; and daily increase in them thy manifold gifts of 
grace, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel 
and ghostly strength, the spirit of knowledge and true godliness ; and 
fill them, O Lord, with the spirit of thy holy fear, now and forever. 

And whereas, in the opinion of the Bishops, there is no doubt as to 
the obligation of ministers to say, on all Sundays and other holydays, 
that part of the communion office which is commonly called the ante- 
communion, yet as the practice of some of the clergy is not conform 
able to this construction of the Rubric on this point, the House of 
Bishops propose the following resolution: 

5.- Resolved, That the following be adopted as a substitute for the 
first sentence in the Rubric, immediately after the communion office : 

" On all Sundays and all other holydays shall be said all that is 
appointed at the communion unto the end of the gospel, concluding 
Divine service, in all cases when there is a sermon or communion, 
and when there is not, with the blessing." 

Resolved, That it be made known to the several State Conven 
tions of this Church that it is proposed to consider of, and determine 
on, at the next General Convention the propriety of altering the 
second clause of the eighth article of the Constitution of the Church, 
by adding the words, "or the articles of religion," after the words, 
"other offices of the Church." 

The communication was referred to a Special Committee, 
whose report was acted upon in the Convention of 1829. 

The Contingent Fund reported $601.58. 

For the Bishop s assistant, $130 for the year ending May, 
1826, and $236 for the year ending May, 1827. 

The Committee on Parochial Reports remonstrate against 
the length and irrelevancy of some of the parochial reports, 
and regret that they should have to strike out portions as 
not tending " to throw light on the state of the parishes." 

104 CONVENTION OF 1827. 

The reports, as condensed by the committee, were ordered 
to be printed in the Journal. 

The fund for the relief of the widows and orphans of 
deceased clergymen, report assets to the amount of $6,022.51. 

Kev. Dr. Wilmer, Rev. Mr. Hart and Rev. Mr. Grammer 
were "appointed a committee to arrange and publish, in the 
form of a tract, such an edition of the Constitution and 
canons of the Church in this Diocese, with such remarks 
explanatory of the form of government and polity of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church as they may deem necessary, 
and distribute the same, when published, among the differ 
ent parishes in this Diocese." 

Sixty-four dollars were appropriated to the Bishop s assist 
ant to fulfill a pledge of $300. 

The Committee on the State of the Church, in view of 
"the very destitute state of many of our parishes," recom 
mended the adoption of the following : 

Resolved, That the Bishop be respectfully requested to lay off the 
Diocese in districts and to assign to each district two or more minis 
ters whose duty it shall be to meet in association at the places 
assigned them, twice in the year, for the purpose of preaching and 
administering the ordinances of the Church to the people. 

The recommendation was approved. 

The Trustees of the Seminary reported that, having ascer 
tained the inconvenience of a town as the location of the 
Institution, they had determined to erect or purchase, in 
some healthy situation near Alexandria, but within the State 
of Virginia, a house, or houses, sufficient for two professors 
and twenty students; that a committee had been appointed 
to execute this important duty, and that they would proceed 
to Alexandria for the purpose in the course of the following 

CONVENTION OF 1828. 105 


Convention met in Petersburg, Thursday, May 15th. 

In his pastoral address the Bishop alluded particularly 
to the reasons that led to the establishment of the Theologi 
cal Seminary. He said : 

"When the attempt was first made in this Diocese, my mind was im 
pressed with considerable doubt as to the utility of the measure, from 
an apprehension that it might interfere with the General Seminary at 
the North ; but after the most serious reflection the doubts I enter 
tained have been removed, and my mind is now satisfied with a full 
conviction of the necessity of the undertaking. The Church in Vir 
ginia is now favored with the labors of several of her native sons, who 
have been educated in her own school, who, it is probable, would not 
have gone to a distant seminary for theological instruction ; and others 
are presenting themselves under similar circumstances, who, I trust, 
will prove equally useful. 

"Strangers who come from distant parts of the United States, while 
devoting themselves to the pursuits of theology, will acquire a knowl 
edge of the members of our community ; and from an intimacy formed, 
during their studies with the people at large, will be more generally 
useful and acceptable than they otherwise would be. Five or six indi 
viduals of this description will be admitted to holy orders on Sunday 
next, all of whom are disposed to labor in this part of the vineyard, 
whose assistance, in all probability, would not have been secured to us 
had they been educated elsewhere." 

He spoke of the Virginia Bible Society, and strongly 
endorsed its work. 

He called attention to his increasing age and infirmities, 
and recommended to the Convention so to alter its Constitu 
tion that it could elect a suiFragan, or assistant. He said : 

" It is my desire that a Bishop should be appointed during my life ; 
and as such an appointment can now be made with perfect unanimity, 
it is expedient that it should be done. It will give me pleasure to unite 

106 CONVENTION OF 1829. 

in labor with the man of your choice. It will render me happy in the 
hour of my departure to know the individual to whom I am to resign 
the arduous duties of the episcopate, to whose care this peaceful, quiet 
Diocese shall be committed." 

The Committee on the State of the Church, Rev. Henry 
W. Ducachet chairman, presented a report expressing cor 
dial sympathy with the Bishop in his views concerning an 
assistant Bishop, and recommending an alteration of the 
Constitution hy which the measure proposed could be le 
gally done which was approved by the Convention. 

The Convention resolved that the members would wear 
crape on the left arm during the session and for thirty days 
thereafter, in token of their high respect for the late Dr. 
Wilmer, and the Secretary was directed to cause to be pro 
cured out of the Contingent Fund as much crape as would 
be necessary for the use of the clergy. 

It was 

Resolved, That the next Convention be held in the town of Char- 
lottesville, on the Wednesday before the third Thursday of May, 1829. 

The Trustees of the Seminary reported the purchase of suit 
able property near Alexandria for $5,000. They reported 
concerning the religious efforts of the students in the vicin 
ity, and state that they have ascertained "that the sum of 
$75 is amply sufficient for the board of each student during 
the period of the nine months which constitutes the Semi 
nary term." 


Convention met in Charlotte sville on Wednesday, May 



Rev. William Meade, D. D., was elected President, pro 
tern., in the absence of the Bishop. 

The following report of the committee, to whom was re 
ferred the communication from the secretaries of the House 
of Bishops and of the House of Clerical and Lay Delegates, 
upon the proposed alterations of the liturgy, made to the 
Convention held in Fredericksburg in the year 1827, was 
called up, read, and, on motion, referred to the Committee 
of the Whole. 

The committee to whom was referred a communication from the 
secretaries of the House of Bishops and of the House of Clerical and 
Lay Deputies, under date of 20th December, 1826, report that they 
have attentively considered the subjects referred to them, and that they 
have unanimously agreed to recommend to the Convention the adop 
tion of the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That any alterations in " The order how the Psalter is 
appointed to be read," or in "The order how the rest of the Holy 
Scripture is appointed to be read," are, in the opinion of this Conven 
tion, uncalled for by the State of the Church, and entirely inexpedient. 

2. Resolved, That the present preface to the confirmation office hav 
ing been so long in use without being the subject of frequent or great 
complaint, the proposed substitute for it is uncalled for and inexpedient. 

3. Resolved, That as the proposed collect in the confirmation office 
seems to take for granted the truth of a doctrine about which some 
differences of opinion prevail in the Church, and seems to have a 
tendency to produce dissatisfaction in the minds of some, and perhaps 
to lead to still further controversy, it is uncalled for and inexpedient. 

4. Resolved, That whereas the Rubric immediately after the commu 
nion service appears as it now stands to be sufficiently explicit, and 
the proposed alteration in it seems to be intimately connected with the 
foregoing proposed changes, it is equally uncalled for and inexpedient. 

5. Resolved, That as this Convention disapproves of the proposed 
alterations, the delegation from this Diocese to the General Convention 
be instructed to use their exertions to prevent their adoption. 

6. Resolved, That whereas the proposed addition to the eighth article 
of the Constitution of this Church, by which the words, " or the articles 
of religion," are to be inserted after the words, " or other offices of 
the Church," seems to be a reasonable and salutary provision, this 

108 CONVENTION OF 1829. 

Convention do entirely approve the same, and accordingly recommend 
it to the support of their representatives. 

After deliberation the following was agreed to: 

The Convention of this Diocese having had under long and serious 
consideration the proposed alterations in the Rubric relative to the 
order of our service, and also to the proposed additions to the confir 
mation service, is constrained to express Us dissent from the proposed 
changes, believing that they are not likely to effect that most desirable 
end contemplated by the advocates of the same ; therefore, 

Resolved, That zealously attached to the Book of Common Prayer, 
and other offices of our Church, this Convention is desirous that no 
alteration should take place in the same at this time. 

The rest of the Committee s report was adopted. 

A Constitution was adopted for a Diocesan Missionary 
Society. It was called " The Protestant Episcopal Mission 
ary Society of the Diocese of Virginia." 

The Convention recommended the formation of auxiliary 
societies, also that a collection he made in each parish on 
the first Sunday in November for the Society, and that at 
each Convention a sermon be preached and a collection 
made in its behalf. 

It was i 

Resolved, That this Convention deem it expedient, considering the 
age and bodily infirmity of our most venerated Bishop, to proceed to 
the election of an assistant Bishop, who is not to be considered as enti 
tled to the succession, but that it shall be the right and duty of the 
Convention of the Diocese of Virginia, on the demise of our ven crated 
Bishop, to proceed to the election of a principal Bishop, as a successor 
to the said deceased Bishop. 

The Convention then, agreeably to the resolution last 
adopted and the fifth article of the Constitution, went into 
the election of an assistant Bishop after secret prayer to 

The clergy proceeded to nominate and appoint by bal- 

CONVENTION OF 1829. 109 

lot some fit and qualified clergyman for that office; and 
on counting the ballots there were found twenty-five votes 
in favor of the Rev. William Meade, D. D., and two blank 
ballots, so that the Rev. William Meade, D. D., was de 
clared to be duly nominated and appointed by the clergy ; 
and then the said appointment was presented to the order 
of the lay delegates, and upon a ballot being taken among 
them, there were found in favor of the Rev. William Meade, 
D. D., thirty-six votes, being the whole number of votes 
given in; and, thereupon, the Rev. William Meade, D. D., 
was declared to be duly elected. 
On motion, 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to announce to the Rev. 
Dr. Meade his election to the office of assistant Bishop of this Diocese ; 
and, thereupon, the Rev. Henry W. Ducachet and Mr. Hugh Nelson 
were appointed. 

The committee then retired, and after some time returned 
and reported that the Rev. Dr. Meade had consented to 
accept the office. 

Mr. Edmund I. Lee offered the following, which were 
adopted : 

Whereas, there exists a diversity of opinion as to the practice of hav 
ing more than one acting Bishop in a Diocese, it seems to this Conven 
tion to be a subject of that general character and importance as to 
render it proper for the General Convention to act upon it in such a 
way as will prevent those evils which may result from this practice. It 
is, therefore, 

Resolved, That the delegates from this Diocese to the next General 
Convention do bring the subject before that body, and use their efforts 
to obtain the adoption of such a general rule on this subject as shall 
have the effect of regulating the number of Bishops each Diocese may 
elect, and of prescribing the circumstances under which a suffragan or 
assistant or coadjutor may be chosen ; and also the duties 6f such 

Mr. Edmund I. Lee offered a lengthy paper concerning 

110 CONVENTION OF 1829. 

the Episcopal Fund. It recommended voluntary contribu 
tions once a year in each parish, after a sermon by the 
minister. It proposed to place the fund as it accumulated 
in the hands of three trustees, to be invested by them in 
United States stock, or otherwise at their discretion, until 
enough should be invested to yield a support for the Bishop, 
so that, without having to rely upon a parochial salary to 
aid him, he could give all his time to the Diocese. If the 
Bishop should omit to perform his duty without giving a 
reason which the Convention should deem sufficient, it 
would be in the power of the Convention to withdraw the 
whole or part of the said annual income from his use. 

The resolutions were indefinitely postponed. 

The Seminary Trustees reported the addition of $19,000 
to their former subscriptions. They say : 

From this Institution we have already received a number of useful 
laborers in the ministry of our Church, and to it we must look for those 
faithful laborers yet needed to build up the many waste places of our 

On motion of Rev. E. C. M Guire, it was 

Resolved, That this Convention, regarding the intemperate use of 
ardent spirits as one of the most desolating and alarming vices of our 
country, as presenting one of the most formidable of all barriers to the 
spread of the gospel of our Lord and Saviour, feels itself called upon 
to express its decided approbation of the efforts that are making in 
many sections of our land to arrest the progress of this acknowledged 
evil, and to pray that abundant success may crown the labors of the 
Christian, the papist and the philanthropist in their laudable associa 
tions for this important purpose. 

Four clergymen and two laymen were nominated to the 
General Convention as trustees of the General Theological 



Convention met in Winchester Thursday, May 20th. 

Bishop Meade presided, Bishop Moore being absent. 

The seat of the lay delegate of Christ church, Richmond, 
was contested by the wardens and vestry of Henrico parish 
church. The delegate was admitted by a vote of 56 to 2. 

In* Bishop Moore s address, which was read for him, he 
mentioned the institution of Rev. J. H. Wingfield as rector 
of Trinity church, Portsmouth. 

Amount of the Episcopal Fund, $5,239.32. 

The Committee on the State of the Church brought for 
ward three subjects as worthy of special attention : 

1. The restriction accompanying the election of the as 
sistant Bishop, which denied him the right to the succes 

2. The duty of providing for travelling and other ex 
penses of the assistant Bishop. 

3. The duty of rendering to the Diocesan a suitable 
remuneration for his services. 

The Committee recommended the removal of the restric 
tion annexed to the election of the assistant Bishop. 

The Rev. Mr. Grammer offered as a substitute to their 
recommendation the following: 

Whereas, the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States have, by the fifth canon of 1829, provided that 
every assistant Bishop, who may hereafter be elected in the said 
Church, shall be, in all cases, entitled to succeed the Bishop of the 
Diocese in which he may be elected ; and, whereas, the Convention is 
desirous of preserving as far as possible the harmony and uniformity of 
the Church, and of testifying its confidence in the assistant Bishop of 
this Diocese; therefore, 

112 CONVENTION OF 1831. 

Resolved, That the restriction annexed to the election of the assistant 
Bishop of Virginia be hereby removed." 

This was adopted by a vote of 49 to 7. 

The subjects of the second and third recommendations 
were referred to a Special Committee of Three, who recom 
mended that Mr. John G. Williams, Rev. Mr. Lee and Rev. 
Mr. Peet be a committee, to meet in the city of Richmond, 
and to make such an assessment among the parishes as will 
pay to Bishop Moore $300, and to Bishop Meade $150, in 
addition to his incidental expenses ; all which was approved. 

The Missionary Society of the Diocese reported the re 
ceipt of $324.72, none of which was expended, owing to the 
difficulty of procuring a missionary. 

In order to promote the efficiency of the Executive Com 
mittee, the Constitution was amended, so as to have an 
Executive Committee of Eighteen. The Bishop, President 
exofficio; assistant Bishop, Vice-President ex officio. Three 
members to constitute a quorum. The Convention elected, 
as the other members, John G. Williams, Secretary, Thomas 
Nelson, Treasurer, and Revs. E. C. M Guire, H. W. Duca- 
chet, N. H. Cobbs, William Jackson, George A. Smith, Wil 
liam F. Lee, E. W. Peet, and Messrs. John Nelson, Dr. Car 
ter Berkeley, Messrs. Edmund I. Lee, John Gray, George 
M. Carrington, and Samuel C. Nichols, were elected the other 
members of the committee. 


Convention met in the borough of Norfolk, May 19th. 

In his pastoral address Bishop Moore mentioned, the 
second time, the fact that he had instituted the Rev. J. H. 
Wingfield as "pastor" of Trinity church, Portsmouth. 



It was recommended to amend the Constitution so as to 
hold the Convention annually on the third Wednesday of 
May in every year, but the Convention which meets in the 
year previous to the meeting of the General Convention, 
may have power to appoint the time and place of meeting 
for the next annual session. 

The Executive Committee of the Missionary Society re 
ported the employment of the Rev. Mark L. Chevers "to 
officiate part of his time in the counties of York, Warwick 
and Elizabeth City." 

They reported "the number of organized Episcopal 
churches" to be "about one hundred." The clergy less 
than half that number. 

The Committee on the State of the Church rejoiced over 
the growth of the Church, both in numerical and spiritual 
strength, but prayed that the leaven of vanity and spiritual 
pride should not mingle itself with the hallowed feelings of 
joy at the spread of the Redeemer s kingdom. They cor 
dially concurred with the Bishop in commending clerical 


Convention met in Alexandria, May 16th. 

A committee was appointed to examine the condition of 
the Seminary s funds and to report the best practicable 
means of enlarging the same. 

St. Paul s church, Norfolk, presented a petition to be 
recognized by the Convention as a congregation, which was 
granted, and their lay delegate, Mr. R. B. Maury, was ad 
mitted to a seat. 

114 CONVENTION OF 1832. 

The Seminary Trustees reported the insufficiency of ac 
commodations for young men proposing to study for the 
ministry. One young man had to leave the Seminary be 
cause there was no room for him. They felt constrained, 
though without funds in hand for the purpose, to order the 
erection of a new building of the same dimensions with the 
one at present occupied. 

A committee on the subject of the Theological Seminary 
made a report containing several resolutions. 

The Rev. Mr. Gramme r presented a substitute, which was 

The Rev. Mr. Grrammer s substitute requested the trus 
tees of the seminary to make arrangements for a public 
meeting in St. Paul s Church, at 4:30 P. M. Friday, the 18th, 
when the wants of the Seminary should be made known to 
its friends, appeals to be made for pecuniary aid, and con 
tributions and subscriptions to be received. 

The Constitution was amended according to the approval 
of the last Convention, fixing the third Wednesday in May 
for the day of the annual meeting. This was the year in 
which the country was visited with that awful scourge the 

The Convention, by unanimous vote, requested the Bishop 
" to recommend some early day as a day of humiliation, fast 
ing and prayer, for the purpose of making a public confes 
sion of our sins, and of seeking to turn away from us the 
just judgments of the Almighty." 

Also the following : 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the clergy and laity of this 
Diocese to make the week, previous to the annual meeting of this Con 
vention, a special season of thanksgiving and praise to God for his 
mercies in times past on such occasions, and of prayer and supplication 
for the continuance, increase, and efficacious outpouring of his Holy 
Spirit to the conversion of sinners, edification of Christians, and build 
ing up of his Holy Church. 

CONVENTION OF 1832. 115 

The following extracts are made from tlie report of the 
committee on the State of the Church : 

The committee beg leave respectfully to remind the clergy of the im 
portance of a full and frequent exposition of the distinctive features of 
the General Convention, according to the twenty-second canon of our 
Church, that our members may be able to say why she is worthy of the 
reverence and love of mankind, and repel the objections so often made 
-against our ecclesiastical polity and mode of worship. In too many in 
stances (there is reason to fear) the feeling that retains our members in 
the bosom of the Church is nothing more than a personal attachment 
to some one of her ministers, who, as the instrument of their conver 
sion, or for some other cause, is regarded with peculiar love and affec 
tion. This ought not so to be. Our members should be bound to the 
Church, not by mere personal regards, but by a deep conviction of her 
high scriptural character, and the happy adaptation of her ordinances 
and services to produce and promote a sound, intelligent, and fervent 
spirit of piety, a conviction which can spring only from a thorough 
knowledge of the grounds on which our polity rests its claims to prefer 
ence, and the reasons which determine us to adopt a liturgical rather 
than an extemporaneous mode of worship. 

They recommend also the adoption by Episcopalians gen 
erally, of the following pledge issued by "The Virginia 
Society for Promoting the Observance of the Christian 
Sabbath " : 

Believing that all worldly business and travelling on the Christian 
Sabbath, except for purposes of piety, necessity and mercy, and all 
worldly visiting and amusements on that day are contrary to the Divine 
will, and injurious to the social, civil and religious interests of men ; we 
agree that we will abstain from all such violations of the Sabbath, and 
that we will use our influence to persuade our families and others to 
do the same. 

They called attention to the resolution of the General 
Convention which deplored the 

Alarming deficiency in the number of our ministers, and recom 
mend to the clergy to present to the consideration of their respective 
congregations the important duty of exercising a prayerful diligence in 
endeavoring to increase the number of our ministers by forming and 

116 CONVENTION OF 1833. 

fostering Education Societies for the due instruction of pious youth,, 
and by seeking out and encouraging young men of suitable spiritual 
and mental qualifications to engage in the .blessed service of preaching 
the gospel of Christ to a perishing world. 


Convention met in Richmond, May 15th. 

The Committee on the State of the Church asked 

That it be recommended to the clergy and vestries and the congre 
gations in the Diocese to discountenance, to discourage and to use all 
their influence to put a stop to the practice of using houses of worship 
belonging to the Protestant Episcopal Church, for military processions, 
political meetings, political orations and such like things. 

They recommended a form of parochial report, to be 
printed as an appendix to the Journal. 

They recommended to ministers, vestries and congrega 
tions to use their best efforts to procure parochial libraries. 

Full and cordial resolutions of endorsement of the Vir 
ginia Bible Society were adopted. 

A committee was appointed to inquire in what respects 
the present Constitution and canons need revision. 

The Seminary Trustees presented an encouraging report. 

Subscriptions of $3,500 had been received, besides $7,000 
and more subscribed at the public meeting at the last Con 
vention. They urged the erection of a third building and 
the endowment of another professorship. 

The Missionary Society report having funds in hand 
amounting to $933.22; also a horse costing $100, which 
was bought for a clergyman who had been engaged to do 



missionary duty in Louisa county, but who subsequently 
declined the service. 

The Committee on Kevision of Constitution and Canons, 
was instructed "to take into special consideration whether 
it comports with the interests of the Church that any one 
should be elected as a delegate who is not a regular commu 
nicant of the Church." 

The clergy were requested to take up a collection for the 
Colonization Society on the Sunday preceding July 4th, 
&nd to call attention in short addresses at the same time to 
the important subject. 


Convention met in Staunton, May 21st. 

Mr. Hilary Baker was elected Secretary in place of Mr. 
John G. Williams, deceased. 

Wickliife parish was admitted into union with the Con 

In his address to the Convention, Bishop Moore stated 
that in the early part of April, 1834, he instituted the Rev. 
Mr. Boy den, rector of St. Paul s church, Norfolk. The Rev. 
J. H. Wingfield and Rev. E. Boyden are the only instances 
in the Diocese of Virginia of rectors who have been insti 

A letter was addressed to the Convention by one of the 
professors of the University of Virginia, asking that a min 
ister of the Episcopal Church be sent there for the benefit 
of the professors and students. 

Resolutions in sympathy and approval were adopted. 

Episcopal Fund, $6,312. 

118 CONVENTION OF 1834. 

The Seminary Trustees reported increasing encourage 
ments and increasing needs. There were accommodations for 
only forty students, and a halt must be called, unless means 
come in. They expressed the belief that this "work of 
God" will go on. They pray that God will put it into the 
hearts of those who are able to give the contributions to 
furnish accommodations to all who may seek admission; 
that He will raise many pious, intelligent youths to seek its 
advantages, to provide them with a sufficient number of 
professors, with an ample library, with every opportunity 
and every means of becoming burning and shining lights. 
in the Church. 

The Committee on the State of the Church note "the 
steady progress of religion throughout the Diocese, and the 
decided improvement that seems to have taken place in 
attachment to the distinctive principles of our Church." 

They say also : " The only infallible security against the 
fanatical inventions of men in the worship of God/ and 
against the deplorable and soul-wasting disorders and here 
sies, which follow in their train, has ever been, and ever 
will be, found to be a strict and conscientious adherence to 
the rubrics and canons, to the ordinances and institutions of 
the Church. God himself has joined the leading truths 
and duties, the rich promises and blessings with the ordi 
nary institutions and ordinances of religion ; and what God 
has joined together, let not man put asunder." 

They also "most earnestly urge upon the clergy the reli 
gious instruction of young and old among that portion of 
the degraded race of man with which an inscrutable Provi 
dence has been pleased to afflict our country. For their 
moral and spiritual wants we are as imperatively bound ta 
provide as for their temporal; and if the myriads under 
bondage which have perished for lack of knowledge shall 
one day be required at our hands, it may well curdle the 


warm blood at the fountain to look forward to the tremen 
dous account that must hereafter be rendered in by minis 
ters and by masters." 

After other unimportant and routine business the Conven 
tion adjourned. 


Convention met in Lynchburg, May 20th. 

In the absence of Bishop Moore, Bishop Meade presided. 

The President read the annual address of Bishop Moore r 
in which he recounted his official acts and prefaced the 
same with an earnest statement of the duty of congre 
gations respecting the support of the clergy. He spoke 
plainly of the fact and of the effect of the meagre support 
that some -were receiving. He laid down as the rule for 
them all to observe, the precept of the apostle, " Upon the 
first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in 
store as Glod hath prospered him." 

He took occasion to recommend the Southern Churchman, 
edited by Rev. William F. Lee. 

The Seminary Trustees reported the centre building com 
pleted, also the financial condition of the Institution as 
considerably increased. The building was ample to accom 
modate two professors and sixty students and a library. 
There were invested funds amounting to more than $20,000, 
and of uncollected subscriptions from twelve to fourteen 
thousand dollars, "all which we desire to record to the 
glory of God." 

The amendment to the Constitution requiring lay dele 
gates to be communicants in the Church, was adopted, after 

120 CONVENTION OF 1835. 

a motion to strike it out had been lost, by the following 
recorded vote: 

Clergy, ayes n Clergy, noes, 25 

Laity, ayes, 7 Laity, noes 21 

So that a large majority of each order refused to favor 
striking out. The amendment then passed. 
It was 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee of this Diocese be requested 
to inquire into the expediency of obtaining an act of incorporation 
from the Legislature of Virginia, and in the event of failing in that 
object, of connecting the Society of this Diocese for the relief of 
widows and orphans of deceased clergymen of the Protestant Episco 
pal Church, with the Society incorporated for the same purpose in the 
Diocese of Maryland. And if the terms offered by that Society be 
such as said committee approve, that they be authorized to transfer 
the funds of this Society to the Treasurer of that Institution, to be held 
in trust for the purposes set forth in the Constitution of the Society 
of this Diocese for the relief of widows and orphans of deceased 
clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

The assets of the Society were reported to be $8,104.96. 

The Committee on the State of the Church called atten 
tion to the appearances of energy among her members, all 
indicating a healthy action throughout the whole system. 
Also to the attention given to the religious tuition of youth 
by Sunday Schools and Bible classes, and to the increased 
regard recently extended by the Church to the spiritual 
necessities of our colored population. They followed up 
the Bishop s words about weekly offerings, called attention 
to the fact that the Virginia Prayer Book and Tract Society 
were offering Prayer Books at half price. 

A list of places for the meetings of the Convention was 

CONVENTION OF 1836. 121 


Convention met in Fredericksburg, May 18th. 

Falls church, Fairfax county, West Russel parish, Bed 
ford county, and St. Peter s church, Caroline county, were 
admitted into union with the Convention. 

The Convention approved the action of the General Con 
vention in 1835 in declaring the Protestant Episcopal Church 
a Missionary Church, and every baptized member of the 
Church a member of the Missionary Society. 

The Rev. Dr. Milner, Secretary and General Agent of the 
Foreign Committee of the Board of Missions, was invited 
to present the subject committed to his care to the friends 
and members of the Church there assembled. 

The Southern Churchman was urgently commended to 
the patronage of the Diocese by the Bishops and by the 
report of a Special Committee. 

The Revised Constitution was adopted, " but not to take 
effect until after the adjournment of this Convention." 

In their report, the Committee on the State of the Church 

Testimony from all parts of the Diocese goes to show that, with a few 
insulated exceptions, comparatively much less religious sensibility is 
manifested than formerly that a spirit of slumber seems creeping over 
the churches, and that even much spiritual apathy is beginning generally 
to prevail. Indeed, for the space of two or three years past, It is to be 
feared that the interests of vital godliness have not been promoted in 
an equal degree with its outward forms, but that the cause of inward 
piety has at least been stationary, if not in a state of declension. 

Various causes probably have contributed their quota to this result. 
The painful political excitements that have of late years pervaded the 
State the all-absorbing spirit of speculation that has spread its infec 
tion over all classes of society, and the reaction consequent upon that 

122 CONVENTION OF 1836. 

over- excitement which, through a misguided zeal, some religionists of 
the age have labored to promote in many of the churches around us, 
from which it has, in many instances, exerted an unfavorable influence 
even upon our own congregations in fine, the religious languor which 
we experience proves, and according to the laws of our Constitution- 
most generally succeeds even a state of moderate religious excite 
ment these have all had a tendency to induce a state of spiritual re- 
missness to bring religion into disrepute, and substitute the form for 
the power of godliness, and to withdraw both the attention and affec 
tions of Christians from the work of grace and the influence of Divine 
truth upon the hearts and characters of men. 

Standing upon the watch-towers of Zion, your committee cannot but 
notice these evils now in their incipient stages, in order that the ser 
vants of God may at once gird up their loins and brace themselves tc* 
the task of counteracting and removing them. 

These things cannot but address a powerful and stirring appeal to 
the hearts and consciences of the clergy, and of all others who love the 
Church and the religion of the Saviour. And while they unfold the evil 
they suggest the remedy. Let the ministers of our Church faithfully do 
their duty let the friends of Zion at once put themselves on the defen 
sive , and in a state of holy vigilance, and let every effort be made to 
redeem what we have lost, to excite our too languid zeal, and to resist 
the further encroachments of the above-mentioned evils. 

As to the recommendation from the General Convention in reference 
to the manner in which the general confession should be repeated a 
subject which our Diocesan submitted to the Convention, and the Con 
vention to your committee we have to observe that, though a minority 
of us believe our former practice to be in conformity with the original 
intention of the Rubric, and, therefore, that it is not competent to the 
House of Bishops or even the General Convention to alter its obliga 
tion by a mere resolution or recommendation, yet the majority of your 
committee concur in believing that the proposed alteration is not incon 
sistent with the Rubric, that it is expedient, and that for the sake of 
promoting uniformity the observance of it ought to be recommended 
to all the churches of the Diocese. 

At the same time they desire distinctly to state, and to put it on 
record and they are pleased to know that in this particular the Con 
vention of South Carolina have set them the example they desire 
unequivocally to state that they think it inexpedient for the House of 
Clerical and Lay Deputies to solicit the separate action of the House of 
Bishops in any case whatever. 

CONVENTION OF 1836. 123: 

The plan of obtaining an act of incorporation from the- 
Legislature for the Trustees of the Widows and Orphans 
Fund was abandoned, and a committee was appointed to* 
report to the Standing Committee of this Diocese whether 
it was expedient to transfer the funds of the Society to the 
Treasurer of a similar Society in Maryland. The Standing 
Committee would have power to order the Treasurer of the 
Society in this Diocese to make the transfer, the funds ta 
be held by the Treasurer of the Society in Maryland, sub 
ject to the control of the Convention of this Diocese. 

It was 

Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to ascertain how many 
trustees of the General Theological Seminary this Diocese is entitled 
to, and select the proper number from the delegates to the General 
Convention, and certify their appointment to the Board of Trustees of 
the General Theological Seminary. 

The following are the trustees of the General Theological 
Seminary appointed on the part of the Diocese of Virginia: 
Kev. Nicholas H. Cobbs, Kev. Thomas Jackson, Kev. William 
F. Lee, Kev. Edward C. M Guire, and John Nelson, Esq. 

The Missionary Society reported having made appropria 
tions to five missionaries. 

The Seminary Treasurer reported a vested fund of 

The assessment for the salary of the Bishop was ascer 
tained to be fourteen cents for each communicant. 

Resolutions adopted by the Convention at the periods stated below, and 

renewed in May, 1836. 

1. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Convention be requested to* 
transmit, annually, the proceedings of the Conventions of the Diocese, 
to the Secretaries of the Conventions of the several States, and to re 
quest of them to send in return, annually, the journals of their several 
Conventions. (Adopted May 26, 1815.) 

2. Whereas, an erroneous impression prevails among the members of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church of this Diocese, that the Convention,. 

124 CONVENTION OF 1836. 

Jit its last session, in May, 1816, by repealing the sixth canon, then in 
force, intended thereby to withdraw from ministers of the Church the 
power of reproving, censuring, or repelling from the communion, any 
member who may be guilty of the offences in the said sixth canon de- 
.scribed. This Convention, for the purpose of removing such impression, 
feel themselves bound to declare, as they do now unanimously declare, 
that such cannot be fairly considered as the effect of the repeal of the 
sixth canon; and further, that the Convention expects each minister 
will conscientiously execute the duty imposed on him by the Rubric of 
the Church, as it relates to communicants. 

3. Resolved, unanimously, That the Convention do seriously, and in 
the most affectionate manner, call on the members of this Church, and 
particularly heads of families, to comply with the requisitions of the third 
and fifth canons of the Church in this Diocese. (Passed May, 1817.) 

4. Resolved, That it shall be the duty of the Standing Committee, at 
every meeting of the Convention, to submit, in addition to the report of 
their proceedings, the documents also, which have been laid before 
them during the year. (Passed May, 1817.) 

5. Whereas, differences of opinion prevail as to certain fashionable 
-amusements, and it appears desirable to many that the sense of the 
Cqnvention should be expressed concerning them, the Convention does 
hereby declare its opinion, that gaming, attending on theatres, public 
balls, and horse-racing, should be relinquished by all communicants of 
the Church, as having the bad effects of staining the purity of the Chris 
tian character ; of giving offence to their pious brethren, and of en 
dangering their own salvation, by their rushing voluntarily into those 
temptations, against which they implore the protection of their Heavenly 
Father, and this Convention cherishes the hope that this expression of 
its opinion will be sufficient to produce conformity of conduct and una 
nimity of opinion among all the members of our communion. (Passed 
May, 1818.) 

6. Resolved, That the annual contributions from Christ Church, in 
Alexandria, of f 100, for raising a fund for the support of the Bishop, 
Avhich have now been paid, or which may hereafter be received, together 
with all other sums which may be any where subscribed and collected 
for the same object, be vested in bank stock, under the direction of the 
Standing Committee of this Diocese, in the names of the Church Ward 
ens of Christ Church, Fairfax Parish, Alexandria, and their successors, 
for the purpose aforesaid. 

7. Resolved, That, in aid of the Episcopal Fund, the several ministers 
of the Church, in their respective congregations, at some fit season in 



each year, deliver an appropriate discourse, recommending the pious 
object of the fund, and thereafter make a collection, the amount of which 
they shall specially mention in their parochial reports. 

8. Resolved, That no part of the Episcopal Fund shall be withdrawn 
for any purpose until its annual interest shall suffice for the attainment 
of its object ; and that in the interim, it shall be the duty of the Standing 
Committee to see that its enlargement is hastened by the prompt con 
version of its revenue into principal. (Adopted May 21, 1818.) 

9. Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to the different 
clergymen and vestries of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this Dio 
cese, to have collections made in their respective churches in the Sabbath 
preceding or succeeding the 4th of July, in aid of the funds of the Virginia 
Colonization Society. (Adopted May 20, 1825.) 

10. Resolved, That this Convention do most fully approve of the holy 
enterprise of the Virginia Bible Society, and earnestly recommend it to 
the patronage of the various parishes and churches in this Diocese^ 
(Adopted May 16, 1828.) 

11. Resolved, That the General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School 
Union be recommended to the patronage and support of the members 
of our Church in this Diocese. (Adopted May 19, 1827.) 

12. Resolved, That this Convention, regarding the intemperate use of 
ardent spirits as one of the most deploring and alarming vices of our 
country, as presenting one of the most formidable of all barriers to the 
spread of the gospel of our Lord and Saviour, feels itself called upon to 
express its decided approbation of the efforts that are making in many 
sections of our land to arrest the progress of this acknowledged evil, 
and to pray that abundant success may crown the labors of the Chris 
tian, the patriot, and the philanthropist, in their laudable associations 
for this important purpose. (Adopted May 22, 1829.) 

13. Resolved, That the restriction annexed to the election of the As 
sistant Bishop of Virginia, be hereby removed, and that the Rt. Rev. 
William Meade is hereby declared successor to our present venerable 
Diocesan, in case he should survive him. (Adopted May 22, 1830.) 

14. Resolved, That it be recommended to the clergy and laity of this 
Diocese, to make the week previous to the annual meeting of this Con 
vention a special season of thanksgiving and praise to God, for his 
mercies in times past on such occasions, and of prayer and supplication 
for the continuance, increase and efficacious outpouring of His Holy 
Spirit, to the conversion of sinners, edification of Christians, and build 
ing up of His holy Church. (Adopted May 19, 1832.) 

126 CONVENTION OP 1837. 

15. Resolved, That the Treasurer be directed to pay, annually, to the 
Assistant Bishop, out of the contingent fund, the sum of three hundred 
dollars, besides paying the necessary expenses incurred in the discharge 
of his Episcopal duties. (Adopted May 23, 1834.) 

16. Resolved, That the funds collected by the weekly contribution, on 
the plan suggested by Bishop Moore in his address in 1835, be paid into 
the hands of the Treasurer of the Missionary Society of this Diocese, to 
be appropriated by the Society as they shall deem expedient. (Adopted 
May 23, 1835.) 


Convention met in Petersburg, May 

Boyden parish, Augusta county, was admitted into union 
with the Convention. 

The plan of transferring the funds of the Society for the 
Belief of the Widows and Orphans of Deceased Clergymen 
to the Treasurer of a similar Society in Maryland, which 
had been incorporated, was adjudged to be impracticable 
because of the terms of the charter granted to the Mary 
land Society. 

The Missionary Society reported having aided six mis 

The Right Reverend Bishop Meade presented the follow 
ing report and resolutions, which were read and adopted : 

The committee, to whom the preamble and resolutions concerning 
the fund for Widows and Orphans of deceased clergymen were re 
ferred, report the following as a substitute for the same : 

Whereas, a certain fund, called the fund of the Widows and Orphans 
of deceased clergymen in Virginia, has providentially come into the 
possession of the Convention of Virginia ; therefore, 

i. Resolved, That in order to effect the pious object of the donors 
and subscribers to this fund, the Convention recommends to the clergy 



of this Diocese that they form themselves into a society for the benefit 
of Widows and Orphans of deceased clergymen, after the example of 
other Dioceses, and, in order to encourage them so to do, this Conven 
tion resolves to pay to such society the annual interest of the above- 
mentioned fund : provided, that the regulations and future conduct of 
the society shall be such as to meet the approbation of the Convention. 

2. Resolved, That this fund be continued in the hands of the Stand 
ing Committee of the Diocese subject to the directions and order of the 
Convention at all times. 

3. Resolved, That the clergymen who heretofore subscribed to this 
fund shall be allowed to withdraw the amount paid by them with in 
terest, or if preferring to unite themselves to the society, if hereafter 
formed, be credited with the same by such society. 

4. Resolved, That Mr. John Hooff, of Alexandria, be continued as 
treasurer of the said fund. 

5. Resolved, That it shall be the duty of the treasurer to present 
annually to the Standing Committee a statement of the condition of 
the funds, which statement shall form a part of the annual report of the 
proceedings of that committee. 

6. Resolved, That nothing in the above shall interfere with the claims 
of any who are entitled to annuities out of the same fund. 

The following report was received and accepted : 

The Trustees of the Theological Seminary beg leave to submit to the 
Convention the following report : 

The general condition of this institution is prosperous. The means 
and the facilities which it now offers for a sound and thorough theolo 
gical education are such as to call upon the Church for grateful ac 
knowledgments to God. 

During the past year the number of students has been about thirty 
being nearly a third greater than that of the preceding year. 

Since the last Convention, the new professor of Biblical literature, the 
Rev. Mr. Packard, has entered upon the discharge of his duties. As 
a scholar and a Christian, he has the entire confidence of all who know 
him, and as an instructor is highly acceptable to the students. 

In conclusion, the trustees would express their sincere gratitude for 
the good which the institution confided to their care has already been 
the means of accomplishing, and their ardent hope that it will long 
continue a sacred fountain of learning and piety, from which shall 
annually issue streams that shall make glad the Church and city of our 

128 CONVENTION OF 1837. 

The Committee on the State of the Church presented the 
following report: 

In contemplating the present condition of the Church in this Diocese, 
your committee see but little that conies within their province to spread 
before you. The aspect of our affairs differs but a few shades from that 
presented to you at your last annual meeting. In its external condition 
our Zion continues prosperous. The misconceptions and ignorance 
and prejudice which long presented so extensive a barrier to the ad 
vancement of our Church are still yielding to more correct views and 
more favorable feelings. The increasing calls for more laborers, the 
organization of new parishes, and the multiplication of churches, afford 
pleasing evidence of the enlargement of our borders. While an in 
creasing attachment to our ecclesiastical system and our liturgical ser 
vices encourages the hope that both our own members and many others 
are becoming more sensible of the excellency of our polity, our doc 
trines and mode of worship, and of their tendency to promote good 
order in congregations, good morals in society, and a high tone of 
piety, charity and harmony among our members. But while the exter 
nal condition of the Church is thus encouraging, but little improvement 
can be perceived in its internal and spiritual state. There is still 
ground for the complaint heretofore expressed of a comparative cold 
ness in religious feeling, and insensibility to the sanctifying influences of 
the means of grace. The reports from the several parishes, with very 
few exceptions, furnish but little evidence of the existence of that life 
and earnestness as to eternal things, which is all important. Although 
they exhibit no positive symptoms of a relaxation in effort on the part 
of the clergy, and no deficiency either of faithfulness or orthodoxy in 
preaching the Word of Truth, yet they do indicate most plainly that 
our ministrations have wanted that Divine unction which is essential to 
their wholesome influence upon the conscience. Accordingly the in 
crease in the number of our communicants has not been proportioned 
to the external advancement of our Church, and it is much to be feared 
that the zeal and spiritual sensibilities of our ministers and members 
have been much weakened by the unholy influences of that wild spirit 
of speculation and covetousness which has prevailed so generally 
through our country. 

From this view of the condition of our Church, it will be seen that 
while there is cause for much gratitude to God for his fostering care, 
there is at the same time need for much humiliation and contrition, for 
more watchfulness and prayer, that the gracious influences of the Holy 
Spirit may be poured out more abundantly upon us. 


The present is a season of trial and of danger. A reaction is taking 
place in society from a state of unexampled commercial excitement 
and temporal prosperity to one of greatly apprehended depression and 
distress. And that a mighty moral influence will be exerted either for 
good or for evil may reasonably be expected. 

Your committee would therefore suggest to the Convention the pro 
priety of setting apart some early day for the public acknowledgment 
of our sins before God, and the supplication of pardon for the past, and 
the blessings of his grace to quicken and revive his work among us. 
# * * * * * "* * * 

In conclusion, the committee perceive with regret that some dissat 
isfaction still exists in a few of their parishes with that portion of the 
second article of the Revised Constitution which requires that the lay 
delegates from the parishes shall be communicants in the Church. 
Deeply deploring such an effect of that measure, and that anything 
should disturb the hitherto unbroken harmony of our venerable and 
beloved Church, we ardently hope that this effect will give way to the 
healing operation of time and of religious influence ; and would recom 
mend to this Convention to cherish a fraternal spirit towards those who 
differ with us in opinion. 

The following paper was adopted: 

Whereas there is at present no institution of learning under the care 
of the Episcopal Church in this Diocese ; and whereas the sons of our 
Episcopal families are too often entrusted to local and irresponsible 
schools, which are either sectarian in their character or totally unor 
ganized and desultory in their operations ; therefore, 

Resolved, That it is highly essential to the interests of this Diocese 
that one or more Institutions be established within its precincts of an 
Episcopal character. 

Resolved, That a committee of five individuals friendly to this object* 
be appointed by this Convention, whose duty it shall be to devise and 
mature the best means for carrying the object of this resolution into 
effect, the result of their proceedings to be reported to the ensuing 
Convention of this Diocese. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That in place of the present appropriation to the Bishop of 
the Diocese, the interest of the Episcopal Fund be hereafter annually 
paid to him, and if at any time the annual interest of that fund shall fall 



short of 1300, that the deficiency shall be made up to the said Bishop 
out of the contingent funds of the Church ; and 

Resolved, That in addition to the present appropriation to the assist 
ant Bishop of this Diocese of the sum of $300 per annum, the present 
amount of the late assessment on the parishes shall be paid to the said 
assistant Bishop, securing to him the sum of $600 annually, to be com 
puted from the first day of November last ; and 

Resolved, That inasmuch as the Bishop of the Diocese deems the 
interest of the Episcopal Fund at this time sufficient to satisfy the pur 
pose of its creation, that, therefore, the resolution passed in Conven 
tion in May, 1818, in reference to this fund be, and the same is, hereby 

Mr. Robert Greenhow, the Treasurer of the Diocese, 
resigned, because of age and infirmity. The resignation 
was accepted, and Mr. William H. Hubbard elected in his 

The following were offered, and because of the lateness 
of the hour, on the last day of the Convention, were, upon 
the motion of the author (Rev. C. W. Andrews), laid upon 
the table: 

1. Resolved, That the desecration of the Sabbath has become a sin of 
such magnitude, and is so rapidly increasing, as to create just alarm and 
call for new and vigorous efforts to arrest it. 

2. Resolved, That as the Christian Church must be the leading instru 
ment in reformation, she is called upon at this time solemnly to remon 
strate against the profanation of the Sabbath by her members. 

3. Resolved, That in the judgment of this Convention to journey, 
visit the post-office, transact any secular business, or make or receive 
social visits on the Sabbath, is a violation of that day which we are com 
manded to keep holy. 

4. Resolved, That it is the duty of all the members of our commu 
nion to exert their influence against the most extensive, systematic, 
legalized and alarming profanation of the Sabbath, of comparatively 
recent origin, by steamboats, railroads and canals. 

A long debate ensued upon the proposed amendments 
to Canon VII (Trial of a clergyman). 1. To allow no 



counsel except a clergyman. 2. To require the Council (or 
court) to indicate to the Bishop the sentence to be pro 
nounced. Both amendments were lost. 


Convention met in Winchester, May 16th. 

St. Thomas church, Frederick parish, was admitted into 
union with the Convention. 

Resolutions were offered as follows and referred to com 
mittees : 

Whereas, by the second article of the Constitution of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States the number of delegates to be 
sent to the General Convention is left to the discretion of each Diocese 
subject to the limitation of four clerical and four lay delegates ; and, 
whereas, in the opinion of this Convention the maximum number 
authorized by the Constitution is not necessary, and subjects the Dio 
cese to an expense which may be more beneficially appropriated; 

Resolved, That this Convention will send only two clerical and two 
lay delegates to the next General Convention. 

Mr. Edmund Fontaine, offered the following resolution, 
which was referred to the Committee on the State of the 
Church : / 

Resolved, That the first article of the Constitution of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Virginia be so amended as to re 
quire only biennial instead of annual Conventions, and that the Diocese, 
be laid off into convenient districts, and that the clergy, resident therein, 
be required to hold periodical associations. 

By recommendation of the committee this resolution was 



The Kev. William M. Jackson offered the following, which 
was referred to a Select Committee, consisting of Kev. Wil 
liam M. Jackson, Rev. William Norwood, and the Rev. 
Charles B. Dana : 

Whereas, by a reorganization of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary 
Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church, effected by the General 
Convention of 1835, all the baptized members of the Church are re 
garded as members of the Missionary Society ; and the Convention of 
this Diocese, by a resolution passed in 1836, has approved of the same, 
thus regarding itself, and the Diocese which it represents, as an integral 
part thereof, and thus also recognizing the obligations devolving upon 
it to further the objects which the General Convention designs to ac 
complish ; and, whereas, it is expedient that the connection now sub 
sisting between this Convention and the Diocesan Missionary Society 
be dissolved ; therefore, 

1. Resolved, That this Convention do regard itself as the proper 
channel through which the Missionary contributions of the Diocese 
ought to be conveyed to the treasurers of the Board of Missions, and 
that the clergy be recommended to transmit the offerings of their re 
spective parishes to the treasurer of the Convention for that purpose on 
or before the first day of each annual session. 

2. Resolved, That a portion of time be designated in the week, in 
which the Convention is assembled, for the purpose of holding a Mis 
sionary meeting, the object of which shall be to excite a renewed 
interest in the cause, and "to pray to Almighty God for his blessing" 
upon it. 

3. Resolved, That a committee be nominated by the Chair at each 
Convention, to be called the COMMITTEE ON MISSIONS, whose duty shall 
be to examine the treasurer s accounts and report upon the same, and 
also to make the necessary arrangements for the Missionary meeting to 
be held during the sitting of the succeeding Convention. 

4. Resolved, That the Convention do hereby dissolve its connection 
with the Diocesan Missionary Society, and recommend that as such the 
operations of said society be henceforth discontinued, and that any 
funds which may now be in its possession be transmitted to the Treas 
urer of the Committee for Domestic Missions, to be applied to the 
cause of missions in Virginia. 

The second resolution was adopted. The others were 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 133 

From Bishop Meade s address, which gave an account of 
very many of the old church edifices in the Diocese the 
following is extracted : 

" On Saturday I preached at an old Church in Powhatan, which is oc 
casionally visited by the Rev. Mr. Cook, of Hanover, and on Sunday to 
an overflowing congregation in a half-finished building at Manakin 
town, near James river, where formerly was the old Huguenot settle 
ment. ******* 

" On Wednesday I was much gratified by entering the old and vene 
rable Fork Church, in Hanover county, and finding that at considerable 
expense it had been repaired and greatly improved in comfort and 
goodliness of appearance, so as to be now one of our most desirable 
houses of public worship. 

" On our way to Port Royal, and only a few miles above it, we passed 
by a large brick building, once a temple of the living God, where our fore 
fathers used to worship, now, by an act of the Legislature, converted 
into a seminary of learning. This house, like most of those built in 
ancient times, seems destined to survive generations of those more 
modern ones, which, hastily and slightly constructed, soon sink upon 
their own knees and fall into ruins. It stands on an elevated and 
beautiful hill, overlooking the river and country around, and is ren 
dered very interesting by a number of large and venerable trees not 
far distant. It was deserted as a place of public worship some time 
before its conversion into a seminary. The melodious organ which 
once filled that house with enrapturing notes (said to have been the 
finest ever imported into Virginia, and of great price,) has long since 
been sold, and is now in a Roman Catholic chapel in the District of 
Columbia. During the interval of its use as a Church, and its appli 
cation to other purposes, if common fame is to be credited (and we fear 
it deserves it but too well), this sacred house was desecrated to most 
unhallowed purposes. The drunken feast has been spread where the 
Holy Supper of our Lord was wont to be received ; and the footsteps of 
the dance have sported over that floor where the knees of humble 
worshippers once bent before the Lord. 

" The association at Port Royal being over, my next appointment was 
at Vauter s Church, in Essex county, where the Rev. Mr. John P. Mc- 
Guire officiates. This Church lies immediately on the main river road 
leading from Port Royal to Tappahannock. It is an old, well-built, and 
venerable brick building, in the form of a cross, and promises for a long 
time to answer the pious object of its erection. It was repaired some 
years since at considerable expense, when the whole interior was fitted 

134 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

up in a most commodious and handsome style, so as to render it one 
of the most convenient and agreeable churches in our State, retaining 
all the air of temple grandeur which its original structure gave to it, 
with such improvements as modern architecture has supplied. * * 

" My next appointment was in King William county, at the Cat-tail 
Church, a place nevr before visited by myself, or, as I believe, by 
Bishop Moore. Services were performed here during two days by my 
self and Mr. McGuire in the presence of very respectable congregations. 
It was gratifying to perceive here and there in the assembly a few per 
sons with Prayer Books, who united in the services, and to learn that 
there were a few families and individuals who still retained their attach 
ment to the Church of their Fathers. It is hoped that the time is not 
very distant when this attachment will be strengthened by the oc 
casional services of some Episcopal minister. Cat-tail Church, which 
takes its name, as do all the other churches in this county, from the 
creek nearest to it, is a large oblong brick building, in tolerable repair- 
Its walls are strong, and promise long to remain so. It has been pos 
sessed for a great while by the Baptists, who are divided into two par 
ties, and make it the theatre of angry strifes. The old pulpit still 
remains, but another of very rude structure has been planted where the 
communion table once stood, the altar around which has been taken 
away, so that the Episcopal minister, who might wish to administer the 
memorials of a Saviour s dying love to humble worshippers, would 
look in vain for the place where our forefathers were wont to kneel. 
The old pews also have been taken away and benches put in their room. 

" As it may be gratifying to the Convention to know something more 
of the old churches in this region, I would mention that in this narrow 
county, bounded by the rivers Pamunky and Matapony, which are only 
a few miles distant from each other, there were built at proper intervals- 
four large brick churches, which still survive, and are in frequent use. 
Their names are as follows : Mangohick, Cat-tail, Aquinton, and West 
Point churches. All of them are built in different forms, being either 
in the figure of the cross of the letter T, or oblong, and so well built as 
still to answer for purposes of public worship. They are used by the 
two divisions of the Baptist Church, either in common by both, or by 
one or the other as either prevails. 

" It may also be gratifying to the members of the Convention to know 
something of the ancient churches in the neighboring county of King 
and Queen through which I had to pass. I cannot ascertain whether 
there were ever more than two Episcopal churches in this small county. 
These were, and still are, called the old, or lower Church, and the brick 
Church, in the upper part of the county. The old, or lower Church,. 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 135 

after having been the subject of contest between three sects, has re 
cently been set up for sale to the highest bidder, and being bought in 
by one of the contending parties is now held by the same ; but on what 
ground of right it is difficult to understand. The upper, or brick Church 
is used by the Campbellites, and is a large and venerable building, in 
the form of a cross. The passing traveler may now see the remains of 
walls and tombs which formerly surrounded and covered the ground 
which enclosed the remains of those who once worshipped at its altar 
according to the forms of our beloved Church. The situation of this 
building, and the large forest trees around, render it still an object 
deeply interesting, and truly venerable. 

" As an instance, however, of the total insensibility of some persons 
to anything sacred in regard to the temples of religion, it was men 
tioned to me that, not long since, one of these venerable oaks, almost 
touching the hallowed structure, was cut down for the sake of a little 
wild honey, supposed to be in a hollow part of it, and which, when 
obtained, was only sufficient to gratify for the moment the appetites of 

those who felled it to the earth, as it was all consumed on the spot. 

"On Monday I went in company with Mr. Nelson to Yeocomico 
Church, in Westmoreland, where I preached, and administered the rite 
of confirmation to three persons. 

"Yeocomico Church, so called after the river of that name, is one of 
the old churches, being built in the year 1706. The architecture is 
rough, but very strong, and the materials must have been of the best 
kind. Its figure is that of a cross, and situated as it is in a little recess 
from the main road, in the midst of some aged trees, and surrounded 
by an old brick wall, which is fast mouldering away, cannot fail to be an 
object of interest to one whose soul has any sympathy for such scenes. 
It has undergone but little repair since its first erection, and indeed has 
needed little. It is not known, or believed, that a new shingle has ever 
been put on the roof, and the pews and whole interior are the same. 
During th e late war it was shamefully abused by the soldiers who were 
quartered in it while watching the movements of the British in the 
Potomac. The communion table was removed into the yard, where it 
served as a butcher s block, and was entirely defaced. Being of sub 
stantial materials however, it admitted of a new face and polish, and is 
now restored to its former place, where it will answer, we trust, for a 
long time to come, the holy purposes for which it was originally de 
signed. Nor was the baptismal font exempt from profanation. It was 
taken some miles from the Church and used as a vessel in which to pre 
pare the excitements to ungodly mirth. This, however, was not long 

136 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

permitted, for in the absence of every member of our own communion, 
none being left to do it, a venerable old man, of the Presbyterian con 
nexion,* mortified at the dishonor done to religion, took pains to regain 
it, and restore it to its former place. It is a large and beautiful marble 
font, and by its side I took my station while I heard the renewal of bap 
tismal vows from the lips of those who were confirmed. The canvass 
on which the Ten Commandments, the Lord s Prayer and the Creed 
were impressed, were so torn by the soldiers, that they could no longer 
be permitted to retain their place, and are now lying in fragments in 
one of the distant and unoccupied pews. It deserves to be mentioned, 
that whatever repairs have been put upon this house, were at the ex 
pense of the good old man mentioned above, and a worthy gentleman 
of New York, a member of our communion, and whose matrimonial 
connexion in the family often brought him to that part of Virginia. A 
large and excellent stove, which completely warms the whole Church, 
was a present from the latter, and in the desk and pulpit the Bible and 
Prayer Book bear the name of J. Rogers, of New York. 

" My appointment next in order was at Farnham Church, which had 
recently been so much refitted, that on this account, because it is be 
lieved that none of the old churches were ever consecrated, it was on 
Tuesday, the 2oth of June, set apart to the worship of God, according 
to the prescribed form. A considerable congregation assembled on 
the occasion when I preached, the service having been read by the 
Rev. Francis McGuire, and the deed of consecration by Mr. Nelson, the 
pastor of the congregation. This Church was first built more than an 
hundred years ago, after the form of the cross, and in the best style of 
ancient architecture. Its situation is pleasant and interesting, being im 
mediately on the main county road leading from Richmond Court 
house to Lancaster Courthouse. What causes led to its early desertion, 
premature spoliation and shameless profanation, I am unable to state, 
but it is said by the neighbors not to have been used for the last thirty 
or forty years. Thus deserted as an house of God, it became a prey 
to any and every spoiler. An extensive brick wall which surrounded 
the Church and guarded the graves of the dead was torn down and 
used for hearths, chimneys, and other purposes, all the county around. 
The interior of the house soon sunk into decay, and was carried piece 
meal away. For many years it was the common receptacle of every 
beast of the field and fowl of the air. It was used as a granary, stable, 
a resort for hogs, and everything that chose to shelter there. Would 
that I could stop here, but I am too credibly informed that for years it 

*Tho name of this worthy old man is Murphy. He has now gone to his rest. 

CONVENTION OP 1838. 137 

was also used as a distillery of poisonous liquors, and that on the very 
spot where now the sacred pulpit stands that vessel was placed, in 
which the precious fruits of heaven were concocted and evaporated into 
a fell poison, equally fatal to the souls and bodies of men, while the 
marble font was circulated from house to house on every occasion of 
mirth and folly, being used to prepare materials for feasting and 
drunkenness, until at length it was found bruised, battered, and deeply 
sunk in the cellar of some deserted tavern. But even that sacred ves 
sel has been redeemed, and having been carefully repaired, has re 
sumed its place within the sacred enclosure. Although the very doors 
of the house had been enlarged by tearing away the bricks to make a 
passage for the wagons that conveyed the fruits which were to be dis 
tilled into the means of disease and death although the windows were 
gone, and the roof sunk into decay, the walls only remaining, yet were 
they so faithfully executed by the workmen of other days, as to bid de 
fiance to storms and tempests, and to stand not merely as monuments 
of the fidelity of ancient architecture, but as signals from Providence, 
held out to the pious and liberal, to come forward and repair the deso 
lation. Nor have these signals been held out in vain to some fast 
friends ?f the Church of their Fathers in the parish of North Farnham. 
At an expense of fourteen hundred dollars they have made old Farn 
ham one of the most agreeable, convenient and beautiful churches in 
Virginia. It should also be mentioned that the handsome desk, pulpit, 
and sounding board now to be seen in Farnham Church were once in 
Christ Church, Baltimore, when the Rev. Mr. Johns officiated in the 
same. They were a present from the minister and vestry of that 
Church, and few events could give more pleasure to the congregation 
at Farnham than to see them again occupied by the former tenant, and 
to hear from his lips, if only one or two of those impressive appeals 
which have so often been heard from the same. 

"On Thursday, the 22d, I visited Northumberland Courthouse in 
company with Mr. Nelson, and preached to a respectable congregation 
in the Reformed Methodist Church. But few Episcopal families are 
now to be found in this county. There were formerly three large brick 
churches on it, two of which are entirely gone, and the third will soon 
follow their fate, unless speedy means of prevention be adopted. The 
one yet remaining, called Wicomico Church, was built in the year 1771, 
not long before the Revolution, and the walls are still firm. The other 
part of the workmanship was so inferior to that of former times that 
the vestry refused to receive it at the hands of the contractor. The 
roof is now falling in, and the ceiling has given way some years since. 

138 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

Each of the Bishops of Virginia have preached in this decaying house, 
though not without some apprehension. Its present condition is truly 
distressing. The doors and windows are gone. The fine bricks which 
case the doors are gradually disappearing. Along the deserted aisles, 
and in the pews of this large Church, measuring seventy-five feet in 
every direction, may now be seen the carriage, the wagon, the plough, 
the fishing seine, barrels of tar and lime, lumber, and various imple 
ments of husbandry. The cattle have free admission to it, and the 
pavement of the aisles, and even the marble slab which covers the re 
mains of one of the latest of its ministers, is covered with dirt and 
rubbish. The old bell which once summoned the neighbors to the 
house of God is lying in one of the pews near the falling pulpit. In the 
deserted chancel you look in vain for the communion table and the bap 
tismal font, and there is too much reason to fear that these also are now 
used for purposes far other than those to which they were originally 
consecrated and long applied. Some steps have recently been taken 
towards the repair of this large and venerable building, but whether 
they will be continued and the work consummated is still doubtful. 

"My next appointment was at Christ Church, Lancaster county, on 
the 23d of June. This was the day appointed by the Convention to be 
observed as a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, on account of the 
languor of the Church and the sins and troubles of the nation. No- 
temple of religion and no spot in the Diocese could have been selected 
more in accordance with the solemn duty of that day than the old and 
venerable Church in which three of God s ministers were assembled- 
I preached a sermon adapted to the occasion, and then proposed that 
those who were minded to spend the day, as the Church recommended, 
should remain for some hours at that place in suitable religious exer 
cises. A goodly number complied with the invitation, and after the 
interval of perhaps an hour, which was spent in surveying the building 
and the tombs around this ancient house of God another service was 
performed, and a second appropriate discourse was preached by the 
Rev. Mr. Nelson, the service having been performed by Mr. Francis Mc- 
Guire, the present minister of the parish. The past history and present 
condition of this hallowed spot and temple deserves a more particular 
notice. The notice is derived from the memorials furnished by the 
house itself, the tombstones around and within, and the Vestry Book of 
the parish., kept from the year 1665 to 1770, to which I had access. 

"The present Church was built on the site of an older one, which was 
completed in the year 1670 under the direction of Mr. John Carter, the 
first of that name, and the great ancestor of many bearing that name in 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 139 1 

Virginia. By the side of the chancel is a large marble slab, on which 
are the names of John Carter and his three wives and several children, 
who all died before him, and were buried in that spot. 

" This Church being too small for the increasing population, a larger 
one was meditated, and some change in its location talked of, when Mr. 
Robin Carter (since known by the name of King Carter) offered to 
build one at his own expense, saying that in consequence of his large 
possessions, increasing family, and number of tenants, he had intended 
for some time to build a larger one for the parish. The offer was cheer 
fully accepted, and the present house was completed about the time of 
Mr. Carter s death that is, about the year 1731, and exhibits to this day 
one of the most striking monuments of the fidelity of ancient architec 
ture to be seen in our land. Very few if any repairs have ever been put 
upon it, the original roof and shingles now cover the house, and have 
preserved in a state of perfection the beautiful arched ceilings, except 
in two places, which have within a few years been a little discolored 
by the rain which found its way through the gutters where the shingles 
have decayed. "The walls of the house are three feet thick, and perfect 
and sound. The windows are large and strong, having probably two- 
thirds of the original glass in them. The pews are of the old fashion, 
high-backed, and very firm. A very large one near the altar, and op 
posite the pulpit, together with the whole north cross of the building, 
was especially reserved by Mr. Carter for the use of his family and 
dependents in all time to come. 

"It deserves to be mentioned, that in addition to the high backs 
which always concealed the family, and prevented any of them from 
gazing around when sitting or kneeling, a railing of brass rods with 
damask curtains was put around the top of the pew, except the part 
opposite the pulpit, in order, it is supposed, to prevent the indulgence 
of curiosity when standing. These remained until a few years since, 
and parts of them may probably yet be found in the possession of 
neighbors or relatives. 

" In further evidence of the fidelity with which this house was built, I 
would mention that the pavement of its aisles, which is of large free 
stone, is yet solid and smooth, as though it were the work of yesterday.. 
The old walnut communion table also still stands firm and unimpaired, 
and not a round from the railing of the chancel is gone, or even loose.. 

" The old marble font, the largest and most beautiful I ever saw, is 
still there; and, what will scarce be credited, the old cedar dial-post,, 
with the name of Robin Carter, 1702, and which was only removed a 
few years since from its station without the door, where it was planted 
in the ground, is still to be seen in its place of security under the pulpit.. 

140 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

In such a house, surrounded by such memorials, it was delightful to 
read the Word of God and the prayers of the Church from the old 
desk, to pronounce the commandments from the altar near which the 
two tables of the law, the Creed and Lord s Prayer, are still to be 
seen in large and legible characters, and there to preach the words of 
eternal life from the high and lofty pulpit which seemed, as it were, to 
be hung in the air. Peculiarly delightful it was to raise the voice in 
such utterances, in a house whose sacred form and beautiful arches 
seemed to give force and music to the feeblest tongue, beyond any 
other building in which I ever performed or heard the hallowed ser 
vices of the sanctuary. The situation of this Church, though low, and 
surrounded on two of its sides by wood land, with thick undergrowth, 
is not without its peculiar interest. A few acres of open land, with 
some very large trees, chiefly spreading walnuts, furnish ample room 
for the horses and vehicles of those who attend it. An old decayed 
brick wall, with a number of graves and tombstones around the house, 
add no little solemnity to the scene. 

" Among the latter, at the east end of the house, within a neat en 
closure recently put up, are to be seen the tombs of Robin Carter, the 
builder of the house, and of his two wives. These are probably the 
largest, richest, and heaviest tombstones in our land. A long Latin in 
scription is to be seen on that of Mr. Carter. While the tomb of the 
husband is entire, those of the wives appear to have been riven with 
lightning, and are separating and falling to pieces. Such is the belief 
and testimony of the neighbors. It is pleasing to know that a con 
siderable sum of money has been subscribed for repairing the roof, 
which requires a new covering, and for improving the interior of this 
remarkable building, and that a generous portion of it is contributed by 
some of the descendants of the original builder, or those connected 
with them, who, though residing at a distance from the spot, possess the 
land around it, and have given the best assurance to the few remaining 
families of the Church that it shall ever be continued for its original 
and sacred purposes. 

" The services of the fast day being over, and leave taken of this old 
and venerable Church, my next appointment was at Lancaster Court 
house, where I preached to a crowded house on Saturday, 24th. On 
Sunday morning I preached at White Chapel to a full and attentive 
audience, when four persons were confirmed, and the communion ad 
ministered. White Chapel may be called a part of one of the old sub 
stantial churches, and was originally in the form of a cross. Some 
years since it was repaired, when the two arms of the cross were cut 
off, and it is now an oblong building. It is regretted by many that this 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 141 

change was made, as the present house is sometimes too small for the 
congregation which assembles. The old font and tables of the law re 
tain their station, and the ancient drapery of the pulpit, though faded 
and rusty by age, is still entire and good. 

" There are a number of large tombstones around this house, and on 
them, the name most frequently to be seen, is that of Ball, in which the 
reader will recognize that of the ancestor of Mrs. Washington, the 
mother of General Washington. 

" My next appointment was at Westmoreland Courthouse, where I 
preached to a small congregation on Tuesday, the 2jth, and on the even 
ing of that day proceeded to the neighborhood of Oak Grove. * * 
In passing on to this appointment, the road lies immediately by the 
ruins of one of the old churches, called Pope s Creek Church, a very 
large square building. 

" It was very near this Church that General Washington was born ^ 
it was in this that he was baptized, and here it was he received those 
early impressions of religion, which, instead of being effaced by age, 
seemed to grow with his growth and strengthen with his strength. * * 

" In passing from Westmoreland to King George county, where the 
next appointment was made, the traveler may see immediately on the 
road-side the last vestiges of another old Church, called Round Hill 
Church. A few broken bricks and a little elevation made by the 
mouldered ruins are all now left to say here once stood a Church of 
the living God. On Thursday and Friday services were performed in 
St. Paul s Church, King George county. I preached in the morning of 
each day, and Mr. Nelson and Mr. Friend in the afternoon. Here I bap 
tized three children, and confirmed two persons, administering the com 
munion also. About twenty-six years ago, when Mr. Norris and my 
self visited this region together, St. Paul s church was in ruins. The 
roof was ready to fall, and not a window, door, pew or timber re 
mained below. Nevertheless, notice was given that we would preach 
there. A rude temporary pulpit or stand was raised at one corner of 
the cross, from which we might speak. 
******* * 

"On the following day, being the Sabbath, we were at Lamb s Creek, 
church, in the upper end of King George. I preached in the morning 
and baptized two children, and the Rev. Mr. Friend preached in the 
afternoon. This is one of the old, well built brick churches, which 
within a few years, has been well repaired. A disposition was recently 
manifested to claim it as private property, and an effort made to dis 
pose of it as such, but the good sense and correct feeling of the com 
munity, and prudent conduct of our friends, prevailed against it. 
******* * 

"On Friday the service was at old Aquia church, in Stafford county, 

142 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

where I preached to a very respectable congregation, Mr. Francis 
M Guire performing the service. There I baptized five children. 

" The church at Aquia is a large and noble building, after the form of 
the cross, situated on a high and commanding eminence, a few hun 
dred yards from the main road. It was built in the year 1761. The 
date of its erection and the names of the minister and vestry are yet 
to be seen in large letters on a pannel in the gallery. In the same gal 
lery may be seen a large flight of stairs leading up to the top of the 
house, from which is a most extensive and beautiful view of the Poto 
mac river and the country around. * 

" Not many miles from this may be seen the noble walls and decaying 
roof of old Potomac church, one of the largest in Virginia. It is not 
known at what time the ministrations of religion ceased in this house. 
It was occupied by the soldiers during the last war, and has since been 
used as the habitation of silkworms, though these are now withdrawn, 
and in all human probability it is henceforth destined to be left to itself 
and to follow the example of many others whose site can scarcely be 

" My next visit was to Pohick church, in the vicinity of Mount Vernon, 
the seat of General Washington. I designed to perform service there 
on Saturday as well as Sunday, but through some mistake no notice 
was given for the former day. The weather, indeed, was such as to 
prevent the assembling of any but those who prize such occasions so 
much as to be deterred only by very strong considerations. It was still 
raining when I approached the house, and found no one there. The 
wide-opened doors invited me to enter, as they do invite, day and 
night, through the year, not only the passing traveler, but every beast 
of the field and fowl of the air. These latter, however, seem to have 
reverenced the house of God, since few marks of their pollution are to 
be seen throughout it. The interior of the house having been well 
built, is still good. The chancel, communion table, and tables of the 
law, etc., are still there and in good order. The roof only is decaying, 
and at the time I was there, the rain was dropping on these sacred places 
and on other parts of the house. On the doors of the pews, in gilt 
letters, are still to be seen the names of the principal families which 
once occupied them. How could I, while for at least an hour travers 
ing those long aisles, entering the sacred chancel, ascending the lofty 
pulpit, forbear to ask : And is this the house of God which was built 
by the Washingtons, the Masons, the McCarties, the Grahams, the Lew 
ises, the Fairfaxes the house in which they used to worship the God of 
our Fathers according to the venerable forms of the Episcopal Church, 
and some of whose names are yet to be seen on the doors of those now 
deserted pews ? Is this also destined to moulder piecemeal away, or, 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 143 

when some signal is given, to become the prey of spoilers, and to be 
carried hither and thither, and applied to every purpose under heaven ? 
" Surely patriotism or reverence for the greatest of patriots, if not re 
ligion, might be effectually appealed to in behalf of this one temple of 
God. The particular location of it is to be ascribed to the youthful 
Washington, who, at a very early age, being an active member of the 
vestry, when it was under consideration and in dispute where it should 
be placed, carefully surveyed the whole parish, and drawing an accu 
rate and handsome map of it with his own hand, showed clearly where 
the claims of justice and the interests of religion required its erection." 

The Episcopal Fund was reported to be $7,265. 

The Seminary Trustees reported only twenty-two stu 
dents. They suggested several reasons for the decrease of 
numbers. 1st. The multiplication of Theological Schools. 
2d. The small number of young men who devote themselves 
to the ministry. 3d. The want of a preparatory Institu 

They reported the purchase of a comfortable house and 
lot; also $3,000 paid or pledged for a library. 

They expressed themselves strongly in favor of having 
at once a High School as a preparatory Institution, and a 
nursery for the Seminary. 

The Bishops presented the following "opinion" upon the 
subject of agents as an instrumentality for collecting funds 
for religious Institutions 

Bishop Meade read the following opinion: 

"" To the Clerical and Lay Deputies of the Convention about to be held 
in the town of Winchester, May 16, 1838 : 

" DEAR BRETHREN AND FRIENDS, By a resolution of the last Con 
vention the Bishops of the Church in Virginia were requested to ex 
press their sentiments on the subject of agencies for promoting the dif 
ferent religious and benevolent institutions in our country. Although 
this mode of sustaining such institutions has been but little used in the 
Episcopal Church, especially in a Diocese like our own, consisting 
chiefly of congregations scattered at long intervals over a large sur 
face of country, and therefore cannot be justly subject to much com- 

144 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

plaint, yet in compliance with your wishes we will offer the result of 
our reflections on a subject which is certainly liable to abuse, in the 
hope that we may suggest something which, duly attended to, may 
serve as an antidote to the apprehended evil. 


" On looking into the Word of God, we find it there enjoined upon 
the ministers of religion that they be thoroughly furnished unto every 
good work be always ready to make full trial of their ministry 
that they affirm constantly that such as believe be careful to maintain 
good works, and especially that they charge those who abound in the 
goods of this world to be rich in good works and glad to communicate 
of their store. These things every minister should be prepared and 
ready to do himself, and not depend upon another to do them for him. 
If the extension of the Redeemer s kingdom is an object dear to heaven, 
it ought of course to be dear to the heart of every minister of heaven, 
and he should most carefully study the best means of effecting the 
same, regarding it as a most important and interesting part of that work 
to which he has solemnly devoted himself. If it be required of all 
Christians to be zealously affected in good things, it is most inexcusable 
in a man of God, whose duty it is to stir up even the purest minds to a 
sense of their high obligation, to be himself indifferent and inefficient 
as to all those important objects which are committed to the special 
care of agents. 

One of the most effectual methods of exciting an ardent zeal in our 
own bosoms, is to study well the .nature and importance of these good 
objects, in order that we may urge others by the most convincing argu 
ments to engage heartily in them, not leaving it to the uncertain and 
distant visits of comparative strangers, to stimulate ourselves and peo 
ple to a becoming zeal. The ministers of religion will best show their 
own deep sense of the great importance of these objects by constantly 
affirming that believers should do these good works, not merely at 
special select meetings, when many are purposely absent, but in the 
fullest assemblies on the blessed Sabbath, when no collection has been 
notified, or is to be called for, when all may have an opportunity of 
learning the true nature of benevolent institutions, and of hearing what 
the privilege and happiness of giving is. 

" They should let their people see and feel how anxious they are to 
have those committed to their care take an active part in the holy en 
terprises of the day, and that they are neither afraid nor ashamed to 
open their mouths boldly in behalf of them, instead of throwing the 
odious task upon a passing agent. If ministers were thus conscien 
tiously and zealously to perform their duty, no agents would be so 

CONVENTION OF 1838. 145 

effective as themselves, and God would support them by his blessing, 
giving them a favor in the sight of their people, such as few agents are 
likely to obtain. 

" We feel it our duty to add, that in the Episcopal Church, whose 
congregations and ministers are frequently visited by those superior 
officers whose duty it is to exhort to all good works, this description of 
laborers ought to be less necessary than in any other denomination. If 
the Bishops of the Church would make full trial of their ministry, by 
earnest appeals to the people and private exhortation to the ministers, 
there surely ought to be but little necessity for traveling agents for 
any purpose. 

" The lukewarmness, timidity and false delicacy of ministers must, 
therefore, be the chief reason why so many persons are employed, at 
great expense, for doing that which might, we think, more effectually 
be done in some other way. In proportion as the Bishops and paro 
chial clergy can be induced to feel and act with becoming zeal on all 
these great questions now before the Christian world, so will the neces 
sity for multiplied agencies diminish. But seeing that so many fail in 
their duty, we do not undertake to decide how far it may be expedient 
to make up the deficiency by means of agents, or to interfere with the 
liberty of each minister, as to the agents whom he may choose to en 

"As, however, the discussion arose on the proposition to recommend 
the agent of the Bible Society of Virginia, and as that excellent Society 
has so often received the hearty approbation of the Convention, and 
has so long honored one of us with its highest office, we must express 
the hope that every minister will cherish it, either by an annual collec 
tion made by himself, or by affording an opportunity to some respect 
able agent to present the worthy object to his people. 

"As to other institutions more immediately connected with the 
promotion of religion within our own communion, we hope it is 
unnecessary to recommend to each minister a regular and systematic 
effort for our Diocesan Seminary, by such moderate contributions each 
year as are indispensable to the support of that to which, under God, 
the Church in Virginia is so much indebted for her present prosperity. 
Nor should the missionary enterprises of the Church at large be disre 
garded by any minister or congregation in the Diocese. Let them be 
freely patronized by regular collections in the congregations, or by 
pious associations, so as to render unnecessary the frequent and ex 
pensive visits of multiplied agents." 

Mr. Edmund I. Lee offered the following : 


146 CONVENTION OF 1838. 

Resolved, That the first and third resolutions of the Convention of 
the aoth of May, 1837, in relation to the permanent fund for the support 
of the Bishop, passed in May, 1818, be and the same are hereby re 
pealed, and that the resolutions of May, 1818, be and shall remain in 
full force. 

And the ayes and noes being required on the passage 
thereof, it was carried in the negative as follows: ayes 23, 
noes 43. 

The following were adopted: 

Resolved, That the Treasurer of the Fund for the Relief of the 
Widows and Orphans of Deceased Clergymen in the Diocese of Vir 
ginia, be and is hereby directed to pay from time to time, to the order 
of said Society, the annuities that may be due to the widows and or 
phans of its deceased members. 

It was 

Resolved, That the widow and orphans of the late Rev. William F. 
l^ee be placed upon the footing of annuitants out of the Fund for the 
Relief of Widows and Orphans of Deceased Clergymen in the Diocese 
of Virginia, upon the payment of the aforesaid $1.50 for every year he 
exceeded the age of thirty. 

The Rev. William Norwood offered the following resolu 
tion, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the recommendation of the Trustees of the Theolo 
gical Seminary, respecting the establishment of a High School in con 
nection with the Theological Seminary, be approved by this Conven 
tion, and that they are hereby requested to adopt such measures as in 
their judgment may be necessary to effect that object. 

It was 

Resolved, That any clergyman failing to attend the Convention, shall 
send a report in conformity with the form of a parochial report ap 
pended to the Journal, accompanied with a written excuse for his 
absence, and in the event of not sending this written excuse, he shall, 
in person, render that excuse at the next Convention which he may 



Convention met in Christ church, Norfolk. 

Antrim parish, Halifax county, Walker s parish, Albe- 
marle, St. James church, Kichmond, were admitted into 
union with the Convention. 

In his address Bishop Moore said : 

"Having heard much said on the subject of a late publication in 
England, distinguished by the name of the Oxford Tracts, it would be 
improper in me to pass over them in silence, especially as one of the 
English Bishops and several of the most eminent clergymen of that 
Church have expressed in most decided terms their disapprobation of 
some of the principles and views they contain. The Bishop of Chester, 
alive to the consideration of those dangers resulting from the tracts in 
question, has thus addressed the clergy of his Diocese: Many sub 
jects present themselves, toward which I might be tempted to direct 
your thoughts. One more especially concerns the Church at present, 
because it is daily assuming a more serious and alarming aspect, and 
threatens a revival of the worst evils of the Romish system. Under 
the specious pretence of deference to antiquity, and respect for primi 
tive models, the foundations of our Protestant Church are undermined 
by men who dwell within her walls, and those who sit in the Reformers 
seats are traducing the Reformers. It is again, continues the Bishop, 
becoming matter of question whether the Bible is sufficient to make 
man wise unto salvation. The main article of our national confession, 
.Justification by Faith, is both openly and covertly assailed, and the 
stewards of God are instructed to reserve the truths which they have 
been ordained to dispense, and to hide under a bushel those doctrines 
which the apostles were commanded to preach to every creature. 

" To be reserved, my brethren, when discoursing on the atonement 
made by the Lord Jesus Christ, would be a departure from duty of the 
most unpardonable character, and would subject any clergyman who 
should attempt it to the charge of a denial of that Being who has 
bought us with the price of his most precious blood. It was the object 
of St. Paul to bring forward the Redeemer in bold relief to the view of 

148 CONVENTION OF 1839. 

all the Christians to whom his epistles are directed ; for God forbid," 
said that venerable apostle, that I should glory save in the Cross of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Nay, so deeply was his mind impressed with 
the importance of that principle, that he again declares, I am deter 
mined to know nothing among you save Jesus Christ and him crucified. 

" The Tracts are also charged with erroneous views on the subject of 
the justification of penitent man in the sight of God. Our Church 
declares in language the most explicit, that We are accounted righ 
teous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, by faith, and not for our own works and deservings, and the 
apostle declares that our justification is not of works, lest any man 
should boast. 

" The clergy of this Diocese I have always considered, and do now 
consider them, decidedly pure and correct on the subject of the atone 
ment made on the cross for the sin of the world, and also in their views 
of the justification of the returning offender in the sight of God; and 
I trust, my beloved brethren, while we live and are permitted to exer 
cise our official duties, we shall keep in view the cross of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and proclaim to penitent sinners that by grace they are 
saved through faith. 

" It is under the banner of the Redeemer that we have enlisted. It 
is under his banner that we have succeeded in our ministry, and that 
our labors have been blessed. It is by preaching the doctrines of the 
cross that the Church in Virginia has been resuscitated, and that it now 
holds a conspicuous place in our communion; but should the awful 
period ever arrive, when we should be reserved on the doctine of the 
atonement, or teach poor fallen man to trust to his own merits for sal 
vation, the blessing of Almighty God would be withdrawn from us 
Ichabod would be written on the doors of our sacred temples, and we 
should be left to grope our way in midnight darkness. Let me entreat 
you, then, my clerical brethren, to hold fast to the faith once delivered 
to the saints, and so fully expressed in the articles and liturgy of our 
holy and apostolic Church. It was on the cross that the covenant of 
peace and reconciliation with God was made it was on the cross that 
the fountain for sin and uncleanness was opened and it is to that 
sacrifice, once made on Calvary, that we are to depend for our present 
and eternal happiness. To withhold from the view of the believer the 
principle of the atonement, would be to remove from beneath his feet 
the foundation upon which he has erected the superstructure of all his 
hopes his support in every difficulty the rock of his dependence in 
death, his only ark of safety, when the heavens shall be rolled up like 
a scroll, and the elements melt with fervent heat. Be steadfast, then, 

CONVENTION OF 1839. 149 

my beloved brethren, I beseech you, in the discharge of your duties 
suffer not your minds to be influenced by any novel doctrines which 
may be presented to your view by restless and speculative men; be im 
movable always abounding in the work of the Lord forasmuch as 
ye know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord." 

A committee was appointed to devise a plan for raising a 
competent support for the Bishop and assistant Bishop. 
Rev. Thomas Atkinson presented the following I 

At a meeting of the Faculty of Hampden Sidney College, held in the 
chapel on Wednesday evening, March 27, 1839: Present, William Max 
well, President R. G. Branch, J. W. Draper, and F. H. Smith, Profes 
sors. The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the trustees be, and they are hereby respectfully re 
quested, to provide and ordain that all pious youths in indigent circum 
stances who may wish to pursue their studies at this college with a view 
to prepare themselves for becoming ministers of the gospel in connexion 
with any Evangelical Church in our State and country, and who shall 
be recommended accordingly by some proper authority of such Church, 
shall be privileged to enjoy all the instruction and other advantages of 
the institution, subject only to the general regulations of the same, with 
out any charge for tuition. 

Ordered, That the clerk of the Faculty communicate the foregoing 
resolution to the next meeting of the Board of Trustees, and also to 
the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, which is about to 
meet in Norfolk, Virginia. 

Rev. Thomas Atkinson presented the following, among 
other resolutions connected with the same subject: 

Be it Resolved, That a committee of five persons (two of them to 
be the Bishop and the assistant Bishop of this Diocese) be appointed to 
inquire into the practicability of obtaining, on satisfactory terms, the 
ownership of the Southern Churchman. 

2. Resolved, If it can be purchased for a sum not exceeding $2,000, 
and they who shall sell their interest in it will be willing to look for 
payment of the purchase money to the profits of said paper, that then 
said committee be authorized to purchase it in their own names, and 
hold it in trust for this Convention. 

3. Resolved, That it shall be the duty of said committee, in case they 

150 CONVENTION OF 1839. 

make the purchase, to provide for conducting the paper, either by the 
voluntary services of some of the clergy, or by procuring an editor 
who shall serve for such time and on such terms as may be agreed on 
between him and them, and shall be in all respects responsible to 

They were postponed to the next Convention. 

The Seminary Trustees announced the determination to 
have a High School established,, to be under the charge of 
the Rev. William N. Pendleton, then a professor in Newark 
College, Delaware. 

The following were offered and approved: 

Whereas, from the destitute condition of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in many parishes and counties in this State its members and 
friends are prevented from worshiping God in their public assemblies 
according to its venerable forms, and also from enjoying the regular 
instructions of its ministers, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this Convention do affectionately recommend to all 
the candidates for the ministry in this Diocese to turn their attention to 
such destitute parishes, and take seriously into consideration whether 
they are not called to supply their wants. 

Resolved, That the Diocesan Missionary Society be so reorganized as 
to contribute towards the comfortable support of any clergyman who 
will labor in such destitute places. 

Resolved, That the above object be recommended to all the churches 
in this Diocese as one every way worthy of their support. 

They were referred to a committee, upon whose recom 
mendation it was resolved that the Missionary Society be 
reorganized, and its name changed to that of the "Protest 
ant Episcopal Association for the Promotion of Christianity 
in Virginia." Its Executive Committee was required to 
gain all needed information concerning destitute parishes 
and counties, and to make full report of their work at each 
Convention. If there should be a deficiency of funds the 
churches should be appealed to. If a surplus, the Execu 
tive Committee to have power to give the same to the 

CONVENTION OF 1839. 151 

Foreign and Domestic Missionary Society of the Church, 
for Domestic Missions. 

In closing their report, the Committee on the State of the 
Church said: 

The subject of Diocesan Missions, and the supplying of our destitute 
parishes with efficient aid, are matters of deep importance. The time 
has come when the attention of the Church should be fully turned to 
these points; and your committee rejoice that the subject has been 

brought before Convention. 


Lastly, in reference to the excellent address of our Diocesan referred 
to us, we remark that we deem well-timed the effort made therein to 
place the members of our Church on their guard against the influence 
of error. To " resist the first beginnings of evil" to espy temptations 
at a distance, in order the better to guard against them and to give 
warning of approaching danger, are common duties of God s ministers 
and people. And he knows little of the weakness and depravity of our 
nature who thinks either that the orthodoxy of all the members of our 
Church is proof against heresy, or that the holy wisdom of our people 
is superior to all the wiles of the arch-adversary. As to those who pub 
lish such works in our country, without most amply exposing the poison, 
and placing the antidote close by its side, they are engaged in a work of 
very questionable morality and expediency. And those whom God has 
placed on the watchtowers of Zion cannot without guilt see the enemy 
coming, and neglect to give warning. Should the press introduce and 
facilitate the progress of this enemy over the country, may the provi 
dence, the spirit and the people of God "lift up their standards" 
against him. 

Mr. S. H. Lewis, from the committee appointed to devise 
means for raising a fund for the support of the Bishop and 
assistant Bishop, submitted the following report, which was 
adopted : 

The committee to whom was referred the consideration of the reso 
lution to inquire into and report to the Convention a plan for raising a 
competent support for the Bishop and the assistant Bishop of the Dio 
cese, have, according to order, performed that duty, and beg leave to 
recommend the adoption of the following: 

Resolved, That it would be expedient to raise annually in each 
parish in the Diocese a sum equal to a contribution of fifty cents by 

152 CONVENTION OF 1840. 

each communicant therein that the ministers be requested particularly 
to call, annually, the attention of their respective parishes to the im 
portance of a punctual compliance with this requirement, and that the 
several vestries take order for the collection of their respective quotas, 

and transmit the same, annually, to the Convention. 

* ****** * 

Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to 
interfere with or repeal any existing resolution or canon in relation to 
the Contingent Fund. 

On motion of Kev. Mr. Atkinson, 

i. Resolved, That this Convention recognize with great pleasure the 
liberal spirit which has induced the Faculty of Hampden Sidney Col 
lege to make the offer contained in the resolutions presented yesterday 
to the Convention, and thankfully accept the same for such young men 
of our communion as may be so situated as to avail themselves thereof. 

z. Resolved, That this resolution be spread on the minutes of this 
body, and the secretary be directed to forward a copy thereof to the 
Faculty of Hampden Sidney College. 


Convention met in Christ church, Charlottesville, May 

Meade parish, Loudoun, and Woodville parish, Botetourt, 
were admitted into union with the Convention. 

A committee was appointed consisting of twelve clergy 
men, representing different sections of the State, whose duty 
it would be to give information to the Missionary Society 
concerning the condition and wants of the State. 

Episcopal Fund, $7,686. 

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, the religious instruction of our colored population must 

CONVENTION OF 1840. 153 

manifestly appear a subject of the most serious importance; and, 
whereas, it is firmly believed every minister, and master, and mistress, 
will be called upon to render an account of their stewardship touching 
this solemn duty, at that day when God, who is no respecter of per 
sons, will judge the world in righteousness; and whereas, it is believed 
this subject has not hitherto received that full attention and interest 
which it merits and most urgently demands; therefore, 

Resolved, That a Special Committee, of seven, to be composed of 
the Bishop, assistant Bishop and two others of the clergy, and three of 
the laity, be appointed to report to the next Convention the most 
efficient system of oral religious instruction, both public and private. 

Resolved also, That if deemed necessary, they report who amongst 
the colored people are to be considered the proper subjects of baptism, 
both infant and adult. 

A committee of five was appointed to publish in the 
Southern Churchman a catalogue of such doctrinal and 
practical works as they may deem most important and 
proper to be read by the laity. 

The following report was accepted: 

The committee to whom were referred certain resolutions, offered at 
the last Convention, touching the propriety of obtaining for this body 
the ownership of the newspaper called the Southern Churchman, beg 
leave respectfully to report, that as they understood their duty, the first 
object required to be attended to by them was to ascertain the terms on 
which the said paper could be obtained. For it seemed to be agreed 
that the Convention ought not to incur any debt in making the purchase 
which the profits of the paper would not probably pay. It was thought 
that if twenty shares were gratuitously bestowed on the Convention the 
remainder might be bought without any danger of financial embar 
rassment. Applications were made by letter and otherwise to the dif 
ferent proprietors, of whom it was thought proper to make such a re 
quest. But although several very readily expressed their willingness 
to further the object by the gratuitous surrender of their interests, yet 
the number of such was not sufficient to warrant the hope that the re 
mainder might be purchased safely and prudently. They, therefore, 
recommend the adoption of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the committee to whom was referred the inquiry into 
the expediency of purchasing the Southern Churchman be discharged 
from the further consideration of that subject. 

154 CONVENTION OF 1840. 

The Seminary Trustees reported an invested fund of 
.$2Y,500, the interest of which was supplemented by contri 
butions, so as to furnish means to pay the professors sala 
ries. They also say : 

The trustees would report with thankfulness to God that the High 
School near Alexandria has gone into operation with the most flattering 
prospects. God has evidently smiled upon this effort to promote the 
cause of Christian education ; and there is good reason to hope that 
the High School will prove to be a blessing not only to the Church but 
to the whole State of Virginia. During the past year the spirit of God s 
grace has been poured out on the school, and the hearts of parents 
and teachers have been gladdened by seeing a goodly number of the 
youth of the school consecrating themselves to the service of God_ 
The trustees would earnestly recommend this school to the prayers and 
patronage of the Church. 

Mr. S. H. Lewis then presented the report of the Commit 
tee of Finance : 

The Committee on the Finances of the Church having performed the 
duty assigned them, beg leave respectfully to report, that they find by 
reference to the Journal of the last Convention, (pages 21, 22,) that it was 
made the duty of the vestries of the several parishes " to take order for 
the collection" of a sum " equal to fifty cents for each communicant, to- 
be forwarded to the Convention;" and whilst they take pleasure in 
stating that most of the parishes have complied with that duty with 
becoming promptness, they regret to report that some of them have 
failed to do so, causing a deficit in our treasury. We feel it to be our 
duty to present to the Convention a list of those who have not paid 
their quotas, that they may be admonished of their delinquency. The 
committee think that the obligation which rests on the vestries to col 
lect the moderate amount required by the Convention should not be 
less imperative, because there is no power to coerce its payment r 
with Christian men it should be sufficient to insure a cheerful contribu 
tion of the sum assessed, to know that it is wanted in the economical 
administration of the financial business of the Church. 

The committee take great pleasure in stating that our Right Rever 
end and beloved Diocesan, as soon as he ascertained that the Monu 
mental church was deficit to a considerable amount, promptly assumed 
its payment, proposing to deduct that sum from the $300 now due him 
for 1839, and they trust that his generous example will be followed by 


all the delinquent vestries. Assurances have also been given by the 
lay delegate from Christ church, Norfolk, that what is lacking there 
will shortly be paid in. 

The Society for the Promotion of Christianity reported 
having expended $525 in aiding five missionaries, laboring 
respectively in Wellsburg, Point Pleasant including G-alli- 
polis and Mercer s Bottom Charlotte and Campbell, Coals- 
mouth and Rappahannock. 


Convention met in Christ church, Alexandria, May 19th.. 

Mr. William Williams was elected Treasurer of the Dio 
cesan Missionary Society. 

Holston parish, Washington county, and St. James church,. 
Culpeper, were admitted into union with the Convention. 

The Committee upon the Eeligious Instruction of the 
Colored People, were continued. 

The Seminary Trustees presented a very encouraging 
report. They said: 

The Trustees of the Episcopal Theological Seminary and High 
School in Virginia report, that through the good providence of God 
the institutions under their direction are in a condition so prosperous as 
to call for the devout thankfulness of the Church in Virginia. Though 
still needing the liberal benefactions of the Church for their full com 
pletion, they are unincumbered by debt, and are admirably fulfilling the 
holy and exalted purposes for which they were founded. The blessing 
of God has most evidently rested upon them, and they give the happy 
promise of not only being the nurseries of our Church, but of extend 
ing its influence and blessings to every part of the State of Virginia.. 
Already are decayed and waste places revived, renewed and improved 
by heralds of the Cross instructed and prepared at one of these insti- 

156 CONVENTION OF 1841. 

tutions, and even beyond the limits of the Diocese the sons of this 
school of the prophets are filling high stations in the Church, and also 
proclaiming the truths of the glorious gospel of the grace of God upon 
the shores of foreign and distant lands. The great missionary enter 
prises, undertaken by many of those whom the Church in Virginia has 
nursed and educated, has thus by her been most nobly sustained, and 
we trust her love and zeal will in these respects as in others abound yet 
more and more. 

The Theological Seminary, as will be seen by the annexed reports of 
Faculty and Professors, has a large increase in the number of its stu 
dents. It will also there be seen that the students have pursued their 
prescribed studies with commendable diligence and progress. They 
have now the additional assistance of the Rev. Dr. Sparrow, whose 
valuable services the trustees have succeeded in obtaining, and have 
elected him to fill the Professorship of Ecclesiastical History. The trus 
tees knowing the gentleman they have selected to be eminently quali 
fied for his duties, consider his appointment as an important accession 
to the Seminary, and believe it will conduce to its increased success. 
The Theological Seminary of Virginia having now four well qualified 
professors, and presenting ample means for acquiring a thorough edu 
cation for the ministry of the gospel, at an expense not so great as 
some, and lower than any others, possessing the same advantages, stands 
upon an equal footing with any other institution of the kind belonging 
to the American Protestant Episcopal Church, and it should continue 
to claim the deep interest and earnest prayers of the Diocese of Virginia. 

In their report respecting the High School, the Trustees have great 
cause to recommend sincere gratitude to the giver of every good and 
perfect gift. 

When this school was last presented to the notice of the Convention^ 
the experiment was just begun, the number of its pupils was small, and 
its buildings and accommodations were imperfect and contracted. 
Now the Trustees, having the experience of another year, can with 
confidence report that the experiment works well. They have been 
enabled, without incurring any debt, to add a large and commodious 
building to those originally purchased, and to provide them with every 
necessary convenience. The number of scholars is now as large as 
they have provided for, or have contemplated receiving it is one hun 
dred and one. Of the whole number that has been received, twenty 
have been confirmed, and seven more are candidates for that apostolic 


The Trustees conclude their report with a brief and general state- 


ment of the funds of the Theological Seminary. They are all invested 
in good stocks and bonds, and amount to 128,620. Balance of cash 
on hand with the Treasurer, $146.64. 

Missionaries were reported at work in seven fields, in 
cluding Danville and Abingdon, and $4*75 paid in stipends 
by the Society for the Promotion of Christianity in the 
Diocese of Virginia. 

The Committee on the State of the Church said in their 
report : 

The general condition of the Diocese remaining substantially the 
same as when last reported, your committee find on that point but little 
that it falls legitimately within their province to notice. For that the 
Divine blessing is still vouchsafed us, that the Church is gradually ex 
tending herself, and that religion in its outward forms, and as we think 
in its ameliorating and sanctifying influence, is still, to a large extent, 
winning its way through the State, is quite evident from the cheering 
intelligence contained in the parochial reports and the statements of 
our Right Rev. Fathers who preside over the Diocese. 

In this connection, however, three facts appear to us to deserve es 
pecial notice, and we bring them out prominently to view in hope that 
the consideration of them may lead to profitable results. * * * 

One of the facts to which we refer is, that in several parishes parson 
ages have been erected for the benefit of the Rector. This augurs well 
for the cause of religion among us, and we invoke the attention of the 
Diocese to this point, for a well-settled clergy will do away the com 
plaint of a " clergy perpetually on the wing," and when we consider 
the small revenues, and the often large families of our ministers gen 
erally, parsonages will appear a truly valuable perquisite. The above 
fact evidences too, as far as it goes, a healthful state of feeling on the 
part of the friends of the Church. Prudence and benevolent and en 
lightened piety unite therefore in saying, " Go and do thou likewise." 

The second fact to which your committee advert with much pleasure 
is the effort that has been made in several instances to secure regular 
religious instruction to a portion of our colored race, and the pleasing 
prospect thereby afforded of ameliorating the spiritual condition of that 
part of our population. ****** 

Lastly, that " in the midst of judgment God remembers mercy," your 
committee think sufficiently evinced by the fact that, though as a pun 
ishment for her religious declension, and a warning to " repent and do 
her first works," he has seen fit to permit the spirit of error and popery, 

158 CONVENTION OF 1841. 

under the guise of suitable "tracts for the times," to array itself against 
the Church, yet he has been graciously pleased to save the Church of 
Virginia from the infection of this plague. For though a few may have 
been in doubt as to the dangerous tendency of Oxfordism, it has now, 
by the good providence of our God, been so fully developed, that the 
ignorant and unguarded are no longer in much danger of being caught 
in the enemy s snare. 

In this we cannot but see the hand of heaven, and the distinguishing 
goodness of God to our Zion, and this calls upon us for gratitude, while 
it warns us to exercise increased vigilance against the wiles of the 
adversary. And as some around us may look for our " halting," and 
stand ready to reproach us with secret leanings towards popery, and 
with having departed from the genuine principles of the Protestant 
faith, your committee think it proper in self-defence, and due to the 
cause of Protestant truth, and real godliness, to say distinctly that the 
Church in Virginia, disclaims all sympathy with the Oxford Tract sys 
tem, and denounces it as containing some of the worst doctrinal errors 
of popery we are obviously called upon, too, with increased zeal and 
fidelity to rally around our standards, to study more thoroughly the 
principles of the glorious reformation, to exercise redoubled vigilance 
against the prevailing errors of the age, and to make ourselves more 
fully acquainted with the hydra heresies, superstitions and abomina 
tions of that corrupt Church, from which we have been happily deliv 
ered, and with whose worse than "beggarly elements," some who call 
themselves Protestants have recently become so much enamored. 

Your committee also cannot but invoke the attention of the members 
of the Convention, and through them the attention of all the friends 
and members of the Church in the Diocese, to the subject of Diocesan 
Missions. ** *.* * 

If we do not wish to incur God s own censure upon those who pro 
vide not for the members of their own household, we must now direct 
the course of our charities to the wants of our own Diocese. Nor can 
we fail to do so in the judgment of your committee without neglecting 
a most important duty. Our " Protestant Episcopal Association for the 
promotion of Christianity in Virginia" is loudly crying out for help. 
God put it into the hearts of our people liberally and immediately to 
fly to the rescue. 

The report from the Committee on the State of the Church 
facing under consideration, it was moved and seconded to 
recommit said report, with instructions to strike out so much 
thereof as relates to the Oxford Tracts. This motion pro- 



duced an animated discussion which lasted until near night, 
when the question to recommit was taken and determined 
in the negative by a very large majority. 

On the llth day of November, in this year, the venerable 
Bishop Moore died. 


Convention met in Trinity church, Staunton, May 18th. 
In his address, Bishop Meade said: 

" DEAR BRETHREN IN CHRIST : Through the good providence of 
God we are permitted to meet once more in consultation for the wel 
fare of that portion of his Church with which it is our high privilege to 
be connected. May that gracious presence which has hitherto been 
vouchsafed us be now more abundantly afforded according to our 
present need. 

" The Great Head of the Church, who for a long time has continued 
to the Diocese of Virginia the counsel and superintendence of a very 
beloved father, has, since our last meeting, been pleased very suddenly 
to take him away. I hope it will only make us look the more humbly 
and steadily to him, from whom all good counsels come, that the in 
terests of true religion may not suffer in our hands. If there be any of 
you, my friends, who deeply feel the absence of our beloved father 
(and which of you does not), how much more must I, who for so many 
years had been unitedly and harmoniously laboring at his side, as a 
son with his father, and who had begun seriously to think that my 
auxiliary services might probably be over before he should be called to 
his rest. God has otherwise determined, and permitted to devolve on 
one illy able, either in body or mind, to sustain it, the undivided respon 
sibility of superintending this Diocese. 

" It is not my intention to undertake either an eulogy or biography of 
our departed father ; that having been already done, and often and well 
done, by others, both from the pulpit and the press. And indeed there 
was something so peculiarly amiable in his character, and so corres 
pondingly interesting and venerable in his form and countenance and 
manner, that it were worse than useless to attempt a delineation of one 

160 CONVENTION OF 1842. 

who has been so recently among us, and who can be so much better 
remembered than described. May God rather give us grace to imitate 
those traits which endeared him to the heart. For myself, who of 
necessity must now take his place, and enter more entirely upon all the 
anxieties and responsibilities of the Episcopal office, I must ask of you, 
my brethren, both of the clergy and laity, not only great indulgence 
for infirmities and unfitness, of which I am daily more and more sensi- 
sible, but a very large share in your most earnest entreaties at a throne 
of grace, that the cause you have entrusted to me may not suffer. This 
I ask not in feigned humility ; but, as God knows, from the very depth 
of a heart which feels more of its deficiencies than can be known to 
any human being. 

The Bishop then gave solemn exhortations to the clergy 
and laity, following them up with accounts of visitations to 
various parts of the Diocese, concluding as follows : 

" Having concluded my notices of Western Virginia, I feel it to be an 
act of justice to my brethren, the clergy, of that portion of the Diocese, 
to notice a circumstance which has obtained publicity through some of 
our religious papers in such a way as to make a false impression as 
to their participation in the same. I allude to the proposition for 
the formation of a new Diocese out of parts of Pennsylvania and Vir 
ginia, and for which it has been stated the clergy of Western Virginia 
are particularly desirous. The fact, as stated to me by the worthy 
brother who first made the suggestion, is simply this : on meeting with 
a presbyter of Pennsylvania, during the last summer, he mentioned the 
subject, not having consulted with any one of the other four who com 
pose the clergy of Western Virginia. The suggestion being well re 
ceived, a time was proposed for a meeting of the clergy, to take the 
matter into consideration ; when it was insisted upon by the brethren 
of Virginia that it should be held at a time when I was expected at 
Wheeling, so that the consultation might be in my presence. At a sub 
sequent time it was also proposed by the same that the laity should be 
invited to attend. Only two others of the clergy of Western Virginia 
had ever heard of the proposition, until they saw it announced in the 
public papers. All of these are, however, now well satisfied that any 
plan which would disjoin Western from Eastern Virginia, would be 
highly injurious to the former. 

" My chief reason for adverting to this, is the desire to do away the 
impression which the publication referred to is calculated to make 
that on the part of the clergy of Western Virginia there was a want of 

CONVENTION OF 1842. 161 

due consideration for the Episcopal office in not conferring with me on 
the subject. Even if it were wrong to consider such a matter without 
the previous consent of the Bishop (which I am far from maintaining), 
in this case the worthy brother, who begs to be considered as alone 
responsible among the clergy of Western Virginia for what was medi 
tated, resolved that nothing should be wanting in the way of due 
regard to myself and office." 

A committee of four clergy and four laity were appointed 
to report to the Convention "some appropriate mode of 
expressing its sense of the loss which the Church has sus 
tained in the death of its late venerable and beloved Dio 
cesan, and also of testifying its respect for his memory." 

They reported a series of affectionate resolutions, which 
were entered upon the Journal. 

Trinity church, Franklin county, St. John s church, City 
Point, and Cedar Run parish, Fauquier, were admitted into 
union with the Convention. 

The following was offered : 

Whereas, the extent of territory and the number of churches in this 
Diocese is so great as to deprive it of the advantages of frequent Epis 
copal visitation, and thereby impedes the growth and prosperity of the 
Church, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Convention that the division of 
this Diocese would greatly promote the interests of the Church therein. 

Resolved, That a committee consisting of five clergymen and three 
laymen be appointed to bring in a bill which shall divide the Diocese 
and designate the line of division, and also which portion of the Dio 
cese shall be denominated the new one, and to report the same to this 
Convention, if practicable, if not, to the next. 

Laid on the table. 

The Bishop then made to the Convention the following 
communication : 

" BRETHREN AND FRIENDS : Since the decease of our beloved father, 
Bishop Moore, my thoughts have been led to a subject which I now wish 
to propose for your consideration. I mean the appointment of an assist 
ant Bishop, to aid me in the arduous duties of this extensive Diocese. 

162 CONVENTION OF 1842. 

During the last twelve years I have, with the exception of a very few 
places, performed the whole of the itinerant duties of the Diocese. It 
has required, on an average, at least eight months in each year, of suc 
cessive services from day to day, to render what has still appeared to 
me very inefficient supervision of the Diocese. The effect of this in 
cessant labor of mind and body has been so injurious to me already, 
especially to my voice, which is often insufficient for duty, and the at 
tempt to continue the same, so likely to result in entire disability, that 
I feel it, a duty to ask, according to the provisions of the Constitution 
of the Church, that I may have an assistant, who may divide with me 
the labors of a Diocese, which from its extent, and other circumstances, 
is much more difficult to be served than any other in our country. I do 
this under the advice of many friends, and also of physicians, who are 
competent to judge of my infirmities. Hoping that you will accede to 
my request, and that God may guide you in the choice of a suitable 

" I remain your faithful friend and brother in Christ, 


Colonel F. H. Smith thereupon offered the following, 
which was subsequently withdrawn : 

Resolved, That yielding to the necessity presented by the Bishop of 
this Diocese for aid in the discharge of his Episcopal duties, this Con 
vention do adopt the recommendation of the Bishop, and will proceed 
to-morrow, at 8 o clock, to the election of an assistant Bishop of this 

After some discussion, and in order to obtain the sense of 
the Convention on both the foregoing subjects, the Rev. Mr. 
Woodbridge offered the following, which was adopted: 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to report on the commu 
nication of the Bishop to the Convention, in relation to the election of 
an assistant Bishop, or the division of the Diocese, to consist of four 
clergymen and four laymen, and to report at 4 o clock this afternoon. 

The committee appointed on said resolution consisted of 
the Rev. Messrs. Woodbridge, Grammer, J. P. M Guire and 
Adie, and Messrs. Lewis, Burwell, Carter Harrison and 

CONVENTION OP 1842. 163 

The Kev. Mr. Woodbridge, from this committee, presented 
the following : 

The committee appointed to take into consideration the communica 
tion of the Bishop to this Convention, relating to the election of an 
assistant Bishop, and also the proposition for a division of the Diocese, 
have discharged the duty assigned them, and beg leave respectfully to 
report, that it is inexpedient to divide the Diocese at this time, for the 
following reasons : 

ist. The impossibility of fixing upon any geographical limits, or 
other well defined boundaries, either by counties or parishes, on either 
side of which there should be the requisite canonical number of pres 
byters, the whole number being only about sixty. 

2d. The difficulty of dividing the funds of the Diocese and establish 
ing any regulations for the control and support of the Theological 
Seminary and High School. 

3d. The impolicy of separating the Church in this Diocese, which 
hitherto has been so harmonious and conduced so much to the binding 
together and consolidating the different sections of the State. 

4th. The fact that an associate would have to be appointed to the 
present Bishop, whichsoever of the two divisions he might select. 

5th. This plan would postpone the relief of the Bishop for at least 
three years, a period when relief might no longer be availing, and 
moreover the Convention, at either of its two succeeding sessions, 
might act upon this subject in time for the General Convention. 

Your committee, therefore, deem it inexpedient at this time to take 
any action upon the subject of a division of the Diocese. 

With respect to the election of an assistant Bishop, the only remain 
ing subject submitted to their consideration, your committee deem it 
highly expedient that it should be done at once. The Bishop s health 
imperatively demands repose. If he attempt to discharge the duties 
which will devolve upon him during the present season, unaided by an 
assistant, the most serious consequences are to be apprehended. His 
physicians prescribe repose as absolutely necessary to the continuance 
of even his present health. They, therefore, respectfully recommend 
to this Convention the election of an assistant Bishop. 

The report was adopted. 

The Convention resolved that at 9 A. M., next day, it 
proceed to the election of an assistant Bishop. 

The Convention met agreeably to adjournment at 9 A. M., 
Saturday, May 21. 

164 CONVENTION OF 1842. 

Bishop Meade opened the meeting with prayer. 

On motion of the Kev. Mr. Slaughter, and agreeably to 
adjournment, the Convention proceeded to the election of an 
assistant Bishop. 

After some appropriate remarks by the Bishop, in refer 
ence to the importance of the work they were now about to 
be engaged in, the clergy and laity, with all present, were 
called upon, as usual on such occasions, to devote a few 
moments in silent prayer to Almighty God, for the aid and 
guidance of his Holy Spirit. 

In compliance with the 5th article of the Constitution,, 
the Convention was then organized into two deliberative 
and elective bodies. 

Kev. Messrs. Atkinson and Grammer were appointed tel 
lers on part of the clergy. 

Rev. Mr. Atkinson rose and said that, although aware the 
name of no individual had been formally announced to the 
Convention as a candidate for the high trust about to be 
bestowed, it was known to many of the friends of the Rev. 
Mr. Cobbs, that that gentleman s name had been mentioned 
in connection with the office of assistant Bishop. He would 
therefore state to the friends of Mr. Cobbs, and at his par 
ticular request, the desire that his name might not be used; 
and further, that he had deposited with him (Mr. A.) his 
ballot for Dr. Johns, of Maryland. 

General Lewis, in a few remarks addressed to the laity r 
stated (in corroboration, if necessary, of what had been 
said) that a similar request was made through him, of the 
Rev. Mr. Cobbs. 

Whereupon, the clergy proceeded to cast their votes, and 
on the first ballot it appeared that the whole number of 
votes taken were 49 ; of which number the Rev. John Johns, 
D. D., of Maryland, received 43. 

The Rev. Dr. Johns was thereupon nominated by the 

CONVENTION OP 1842. 165 

clergy to the laity as a suitable person for the office of 
assistant Bishop of Virginia. 

Mr. John Nelson, and Mr. Cassius F. Lee were appointed 

The votes of the laity were then received, and on the 
first ballot announced to be as follows : Whole number of 
votes given, 33 ; of which the Kev. John Johns, D. D., of 
Maryland, obtained 25. 

The Eev. Dr. Johns was then declared by the President 
to be canonically elected assistant Bishop of Virginia. 

The Society for the Promotion of Christianity reported: 

The committee to whom were referred the accounts of the Treasurer 
of the Protestant Episcopal Association for the Promotion of Chris 
tianity in the Diocese of Virginia beg leave to report that they * * * 
find that the receipts of the society have considerably increased since 
its new organization, but they think that yet they are greatly below 
what ought to be contributed to such an object by a Diocese like that 
of Virginia. 

In the Southwestern part of this Diocese there is a region of country 
larger, it is believed, than the whole of Massachusetts, or even Mary 
land, in which region, however, there is not a single Episcopal Church 
or minister. In many parts of it the gospel is preached very imper 
fectly, and with not a few corrupt additions. In some parts it is hardly 
preached at all. ****** 

We have similar wastes, though not so extensive, in the Northwest 
in the Southeast, and in other parts of this Diocese. * * 

The General Missionary Society will do nothing for them, because 
they belong to our Diocese, which is supposed to be able and willing to 
do the missionary work in its own limits. But how are we doing it ? 
In all this wide field, embracing hundreds of thousands of souls, we 
have five missionaries, laboring at an expense of $600 or $ 700 a year. 

The subject is recommended to the attention of the Convention, 
although no definite action is asked for at this time. 

In their report the Trustees of the Seminary say : 

The Church will perceive with sorrow that there is no report from the 
Rev. Dr. Keith, and must deplore the event which has deprived this in 
stitution of his able and efficient services. But while we mourn most 

166 CONVENTION OF 1842. 

sincerely over this affliction, we still look forward with hope to the con 
tinued usefulness of the institution. It is each year acquiring more sys 
tem, more completeness, increased facilities, and more prominence 
before the Church. * * * * 

The permanent funds of the Seminary now amount to 127,500, and 
are all invested, it is believed, in good stocks and bonds. Balance of 
cash now in the hands of the treasurer $350. 

The High School, which is entrusted to the care of this Board, is be 
lieved to be faithfully conducted according to the principles upoa 
which it was established, and to be well deserving the confidence and 
patronage of the Church and community. We hope and trust that it 
will be cordially and efficiently sustained, and that it will fully accom 
plish the objects for which it was instituted. * 

Rev. Mr. Atkinson, from the committee appointed to fix 
the salary for the support of the assistant Bishop, presented 
the following: 

The committee to whom was referred the subject of fixing the salary 
of the assistant Bishop, and designating the source from which it was 
to be raised, have had the same under consideration, and beg leave to- 
report, that they are of opinion that the sum of $1,500 a year is an 
adequate provision for that object, while they are well assured that, or 
a larger sum, if necessary, would be readily contributed by the Church 
in Virginia. They know of no more equal or convenient mode of rais 
ing it than increasing the assessment already levied on the parishes for 
the purpose of meeting the expenses of the Diocese. By an addition 
of half a dollar to the rate already paid for each communicant, a sum 
will be raised sufficient for the salary of the Bishop elect, and his 
traveling expenses, and leaving perhaps a small surplus. They there 
fore recommend the adoption of the following resolutions : 

ist. Resolved, That the Bishop of the Diocese, in communicating to 
Dr. Johns the fact of his being elected assistant Bishop, be authorized 
to offer him a salary of $1,500 besides his traveling expenses. 

and. Resolved, That the vestries of the different parishes in the 
Diocese be required to send to the next Convention their respective 
quotas towards the payment of the expenses of the Diocese, assessed 
at the rate of one dollar for each communicant. 



Convention met in the Monumental Church, Richmond,, 
May 17th. 

The Society for Promotion of Christianity reported hav 
ing paid out $1,400 the past year, and asked for $2,500 for 
the year ensuing. The name was changed at this session 
to "Diocesan Missionary Society/ 

Grace Church, Petersburg, and Grace Church, Genito 
parish, Powhatan county, were admitted into union with 
the Convention. 

On motion of Kev. Thomas Atkinson, 

Resolved, That the second resolution, making provision for the sal 
ary of the assistant Bishop, passed at the last Convention, be amended 
by inserting the word "white" before "communicant 1 so that the said 
resolution will hereafter read as follows : 

Resolved, That the vestries of the different parishes in the Diocese 
be required to send to the next Convention their respective quotas 
towards the payment of the expenses of the Diocese, assessed at the 
rate of one dollar for each white communicant. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Meade presented his annual ad 
dress, from which is quoted as follows : 

" It will be observed that during the past year, as well as that pre 
ceding it, the additions to the communion have been large beyond 
all former years. This is to be ascribed to the sovereign grace of 
God, working by the means of Divine appointment, on the more dili 
gent use of which the more abundant blessing is usually bestowed. 
In no previous years have the labors of our ministry, in preaching 
the word and offering up prayers, not only in the large and conse 
crated temples of religion, but from house to house, and in other 
places, been so abundant; in none have the ministers associated to 
gether so much in preaching the word, line upon line, and precept 
upon precept, for several successive days and nights. While the suc 
cess attending such diligent use of means encourages us to perse- 

168 CONVENTION OF 1843. 

verance, in the hope of the continuance of great grace from above, we 
should not be unmindful of attendant dangers. Among the dangers 
belonging to such a season of great effort and proportionable success, 
is that of a too hasty admission to full communion with the Church, of 
those who, it is hoped, will be saved. Old and 

experienced ministers have declared, that while they had often cause 
to regret giving encouragement to hasty professions of religion, they 
had never repented of advising a little delay in order to more thorough 
examination and preparation. The relative positions of the different 
denominations of Christians in our land, and the anxiety to add to 
their numbers, together with the desire of each individual minister to 
increase his own body of communicants, tends much to promote this 
evil. In times of unusual interest, when the cry from many hearts is, 
"What must I do to be saved?" there is the temptation strongest to 
say too speedily, partake of the ordinance of God s Church, and to 
add come and partake of them with us, and join with us in the ever 
lasting covenant, and we will do you good. This fear of losing and 
desire of gaining new converts who are undecided as to the choice of 
a communion, has probably contributed no little to betray ministers 
into the error of removing scruples, which, in some cases, had better 
been encouraged for a time, and to lead some to be more ingenious to 
persuade the awakened that they are already Christians, than faithful 
to declare what it is to be truly Christian. 

"Against yielding to such temptations I would affectionately warn 

my brethren. 

"While at no previous period of time has there been such a number 
of students, so at none has there been so much of the regular observ 
ance of all the rules established for the good order of the Seminary, 
and of diligent attention to all the studies and exercises thereof. 

" While, however, we thus, with thankfulness to God, speak of its 
prosperity in these respects, it becomes us faithfully to set before the 
Church the duty resting upon all its friends, to furnish the pecuniary 
means, which from year to year, are needful for its due support. 

" Our vested capital being utterly insufficient for the support even of 
the professors, we depend in a great measure, for them as well as for 
the beneficiaries, on annual contributions. 

" This statement brings me to a subject, which, after much delibera 
tion and consultation, I have determined to present to the considera 
tion of the Convention. 

"Although the earth is the Lord s, and all that therein is, yet has he 
been pleased to allow this his property to be divided among the in- 

CONVENTION OF 1843. 169 

habitants of this world in different proportions, and to be regarded, 
in one sense, as their own ; with an express understanding, however, 
that for the use of it they must be accountable to him. In compliance 
with the plain directions of his word many feel themselves solemnly 
bound to expend a portion thereof in promoting the welfare of his 
kingdom upon earth. Some, unable to do what they desire during life, 
resolve to do it at their death, and their bequests, under certain regula 
tions, have ever been held sacred. 

" It has long been a matter of grief and complaint that so little favor 
has been shown to this right by the Legislature of our State. At dif 
ferent times applications have been made by the Trustees of benevo 
lent, religious and literary Institutions, or of particular congregations 
belonging to the different denominations of Christians, asking of the 
Legislature some protection for property given during life, or be 
queathed at death, by friends to these several Institutions. These 
applications have, for the most part, been unsuccessful, and the chief 
reason assigned has been the fear of seeming partiality to the denomi 
nation making the request; but the sentiment has been often expressed, 
that if all the Christian societies in the State would unite in a petition 
for some general act in behalf of all literary, religious, and benevolent 
Institutions, the Legislature would not refuse so reasonable a claim. 
We are encouraged to hope that such would be the case from the fact 
that, in the session before the last, an act was passed securing to every 
congregation which might choose to avail itself of the benefit, a por 
tion of ground for a church and parsonage. If it could be shown to 
any future Legislature, that an extension of this protecting act to useful 
institutions is most needful to their well being, we may surely expect 
a favorable answer to a petition for such. 

My thoughts have been especially called to this subject by the fact 
that since our last meeting the institutions to which I have called your 
attention have sustained considerable losses through the want of that 
legal security which is pleaded for. Bequests to the amount of several 
thousand dollars have been declared to be null and void, only because 
there was no legislative act empowering our institutions to receive the 
same. Nor are these the only instances which have occurred. Within 
the last ten years I am confident we have in this way been deprived of 
as many thousand dollars, which the benevolence and piety of friends 
designed for the benefit of institutions which they loved. Such being 
the complaint, we believe, of all Christian societies in our State, may 
we not hope that they will concur in presenting to the Legislature a 
respectful request that this subject receive its impartial consideration." 

170 CONVENTION OF 1843. 

At the close of his address Bishop Johns said : 

" So far, my brethren, as my visitations have extended, I have been 
strongly impressed with the conviction that there is yet much, very 
much, for us to do in this Diocese. Prejudices with which the Church 
once had to contend are rapidly giving away, and a decidedly favorable 
feeling is beginning to prevail. A wide and effectual door is opening 
to us under God. I ascribe this largely to the meekness and moder 
ation which have marked the policy of the Bishops and clergy, to the 
plainness, simplicity and affection with which the gospel has been 
preached, and to the consequent and evident increase of piety on the 
part of those who confess and call themselves Christians. The silent 
but steady effect of this has been to disabuse the minds of many who 
were alienated from us, and to dispose them to appreciate what we 
regard as the distinctive excellences of our Zion. No furious zeal, or 
controversial strife, or disdainful sharpness of wit, could have accom 
plished like results. If we only persevere, as you have hitherto pro 
ceeded, I confidently believe that our sphere of usefulness will be limited 
only by the number of ministers we can procure, and the amount of 
our means to sustain them in their work. With men and I trust of 
the right stamp our promising Seminary we may hope will furnish an 
increasing supply. Let us then fervently pray the Lord of the harvest 
that from this and other similar sources he would send forth more 
laborers. And as for the means, I am persuaded, from the experiment 
which I have made, that if we appeal intelligently and confidingly to 
our people, they will not suffer the missionary operations to be straitened 
for want of resources. They love their own spiritual privileges too 
dearly not to sympathise with the destitute, and if need be make sacri 
fices to provide for their supply." 

The salary of the assistant Bishop was fixed at $2,000. 
The "belief was expressed that in addition to this the churches 
in Kichmond would grant him a house. 

The following report, submitted by Mr. Philip Williams, 
and, as subsequently considered and amended, was adopted: 

The committee to whom was referred so much of the address of the 
Right Reverend Bishop Meade as relates to the propriety of requesting 
some legislative enactment in relation to property given or bequeathed 
to religious, benevolent and literary institutions was referred, respect 
fully report, that it is expedient to ask the Legislature to pass some 

CONVENTION OF 1844. 171 

law authorizing religious, benevolent and literary institutions to take 
property which may be given, or devised, or bequeathed to them, and 
that a committee of nine, with power to increase its numbers, be ap 
pointed to prepare and present a memorial to the General Assembly 
upon the subject; and that this committee be authorized to solicit the 
cooperation of other religious denominations in the way best calculated 
to secure the object proposed. 

The Seminary Trustees reported forty-six students. 

The Bishop reported thirty-one candidates for orders, and 
that more than 1,000 persons had been confirmed by him 
and Bishop Johns. 

Contingent Fund, $3,780.22. 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Lynchburg, Ma}r 

St. Paul s church, Richmond, St. David s church, King 
William, St. Peter s parish, New Kent, St. John s church, 
King George county, and St. Paul s parish, Hanover, were 
admitted into union with the Convention. 

In his address Bishop Meade said : 

"The removals of so many of our brethren, and of some of them 
from very important positions, has, of course, led to other removals ; 
and these again to more in order to supply the vacancies created, so 
that our Diocese during the past year has been the subject of more 
ministerial, changes by far than I have ever known it to be. Al 
though I grant that changes are sometimes beneficial, yet I cannot but 
take this opportunity of warning both my brethren of the clergy and 

the congregations against their too easy and frequent occurrence. 


"While thus warning and remonstrating against a disposition to 

hasty changes, and stating the increased number of removals in this 


Diocese during the past year, I must not omit to mention with thankful 
ness that valuable source of ministerial supply which we have in our 
Theological Seminary. In the time of our greatest need it seems to 
promise us greater help than at any previous period, if not in the present 
yet in the coming year. Its number of students, coming from all parts 
of our country, but particularly from Virginia, exceeds that of any 
previous year, and promises to be yet larger during the next term. 
While this must be a subject of rejoicing and thankfulness to all its 
friends, it becomes me to state most emphatically that it should be the 
occasion of something else I mean of increased zeal and liberality, in 
order to meet increased expenses in doing our part towards preparing 
for the work of the ministry those whom God s Spirit has called to it. 
* ******* 

" Hitherto God has so blessed our efforts at supporting both profes 
sors and students with annual contributions, aided by a fund, whose 
interest is only a little more than sufficient for one salary, that we have 
not permitted the Seminary to suffer for the want of instruction, or a 
needy candidate to be turned away for the want of food, and lodging, 
and tuition ; but the time has come when, in the opinion of those most 
attentive to its concerns, it would be not a proper reliance on, but 
tempting of, Providence any longer to postpone judicious and active 
efforts at securing an increase of our permanent fund for the support 
of our professors, instead of relying so much on annual contributions. 
The great increase of our own Diocesan expenses in the support of the 
Bishops and Missionaries the increasing families of the ministers re 
quiring more support from their parishioners the greater number of 
our beneficiaries at the High School and Seminary the pressing de 
mand of our General Missionary Society all these, more or less, inter 
fere with the regular annual contribution to the support of our profes 
sors, and render it very desirable that we should have some more per 
manent source of supply. We must believe that there are many in our 
Diocese both willing and able to contribute to this object, from a deep 
conviction that there is no institution in the Church which has such 
claims on their pious liberality, whether they regard what it has done, 
is doing, or is likely to do in time to come. 

" And may we not most reasonably look for assistance elsewhere ? 
When we remember with pleasure how many young men have come 
from all parts of our country to receive the benefits of this institution 
from its first establishment, and have gone back again to their several 
places of abode, and are now preaching the gospel in every State of the 
Union when we think, with gratitude to God, how his unmerited grace 
has honored and blessed it to be the nursery of almost all our foreign 


missionaries, and how dear it is on that account to many hearts, we 
must believe that there are individuals in every part of our country who 
only require to be informed of its history, its character and needs, to 
make a free-will offering to it. 

"This brings me to another subject, in which all our institutions are 
interested, and which must not be passed over in silence I allude to 
the resolution adopted at our last Convention, to petition, in common 
with other denominations of our State, for some legislative act enabling 
our literary, benevolent and religious institutions to exercise under 
proper restrictions the right of receiving and holding property a right 
so freely granted to individuals and associations in the pursuit of any 
mere secular object. 

" The committee to whom the execution of the above-mentioned 
resolution was committed in the exercise of that discretion which was 
allowed to it on conferring with some judicious and zealous friends 
thought it best to decline a direct petition to the last Legislature, hoping 
that so moderate and reasonable a measure as that which was wished, 
and one so accordant with the unsolicited action of the Legislature of 
forty-one and two, might be obtained by the simple motion of some 
member of the house. In this hope, however, we have been disap 
pointed, and the pious and benevolent Christian who is about to depart 
this life, and desires to bequeath a portion of his estate to some beloved 
institution of religion, learning and humanity, must still, as heretofore,, 
leave it in the painful uncertainty of not knowing whether it shall be 
faithfully applied to the intended object, or whether his last and pious 
effort at beneficence is not to prove a temptation to relatives who had 
also shared in his living and dying kindness, to be guilty of the crime of 
defeating the intention of the deceased, and robbing religion, humanity 
and literature of those means of support which were given them under 
the most sacred sanction of a testament. Such, I say, is the temptation 
held out to sacrilege by the absence of any such provision in the State 
of Virginia, as that which is now desired, as I believe, by the Christians 
of all denominations amongst us a provision which we believe, after 
no slight examination, has been refused by no other State in our Ameri 
can Confederation." 

The following extracts are made from Bishop John s, 
address : 

"June i6th. I preached at Yeocomico and confirmed three persons. 
Unhappily the right of the vestry of this Church to control the use of 
the building has been questioned by some of our Methodist brethren,. 

1*74 CONVENTION OF 1844. 

who, regarding the building as public property, had made their appoint 
ments for preaching in it, as if it were free for all. This, of course, led 
to a misunderstanding, which might have been productive of conse 
quences deeply to be deprecated by both parties. In pursuance of what 
they no doubt regarded as a just claim, our Methodist friends brought 
the subject before the Legislature at its last session in the form of a 
petition to sell the property. This petition was referred to a commit 
tee, of which the Honorable Mr. (now Judge) McComas was the chair 
man. The committee reported the case as one not requiring legislative 
interference, and recognized the vestry s right of occupancy and con 
trol. This was adopted by the Legislature, with, I was informed, but a 
single dissenting voice. The Honorable Chairman alluded to, himself 
a member of the Methodist Church, was so fully satisfied of the truth 
and equity of this decision, that he generously volunteered a letter to 
his brethren in Westmoreland, counselling them to acquiesce in the 
view taken by the Legislature. It is to be hoped that the proceeding 
In this case will terminate all difficulty, and prevent any similar occur 
rence in other places. 

" Under ordinary circumstances, the preceding record of services and 
statistics, with such interspersed remarks as the facts suggested, would 
comprise all that is called for in an annual address. It is, however, as 
I have reason to believe, expected that I should embrace this occasion 
to record briefly my testimony touching the difficulties by which the 
Church at large has, within the last few years, been disquieted. Those 
difficulties have been too often identified to require being defined here, 
and too ably met, as I conceive, to need any new mode of resistance for 
their counteraction. To their origin, nature and tendency, your atten 
tion has just been directed by the address of my Right Reverend 
brother. With the principles of that address, my own views so accord, 
that to give it my endorsement would be enough to acquit my con 
science at this juncture. The whole system which it opposes, I cannot 
but regard as unscriptural at variance with the doctrines of the Refor 
mation as embodied in our Articles and so pernicious in its influence, 
that were it to succeed in effecting the changes which it seeks, by as 
similating to itself the standards and usages of the Church that Church, 
in the language of the present metropolitan of India, " would not be 
worth preserving " or rather, as far as primitive truth and protestant 
principles are concerned, it would be already destroyed. I am con 
strained to regard the whole system as originating largely in a most 
mistaken desire to magnify unduly the office and functions of the Chris 
tian ministry, by superadding to its just claims pretensions to a kind of 

CONVENTION OF 1844. 175 

priestly character and service, not only unrecognized, but discounte 
nanced by the gospel. To effect this, the nature, design, and efficacy 
of the sacraments, and the range and powers contemplated by the 
evangelical commission, are withdrawn from the light in which they are 
set by the inspired penmen, and shrouded in a mystery which overawes 
investigation, and invested with a superstitious sanctity which forbids 
all interference. The relation of anxious inquirers to the Saviour is 
thus seriously changed. Instead of a direct personal approach to him, 
whose language is, " Come unto me," they are required to seek ac 
ceptance and sanctification through the hands of a priestly order, to 
whom exclusively the dispensation of these blessings is committed, 
and by whom they are imparted in a way which, after all modest ex 
planation, savors more of spiritual legerdemain than of evangelical 
truth and simplicity. To sustain this spurious system, the appeal is not 
directly to the Scriptures these alone, by many who have spoken out, 
are represented as an insufficient, and on some points, an unsafe rule 
of faith and practice whilst others of this school, without indulging in 
positive expressions of distrust, betray the same mind by maintaining 
that the only safe position from which to study the Word of God is in 
company with the post Nicene Fathers, and in submission to their con 
sentient interpretations. Hence the theory which insists, not avowedly, 
on another rule than the sacred Scriptures but upon that which is 
tantamount to such substitution, the recognition of what is termed the 
concurrent testimony of the fathers as authoritative in the determi 
nation of the meaning of Scripture, and binding on the conscience. 
Their competency as witnesses to matters of fact we do not question. 
For the information which they furnish we are grateful. But as theolo 
gians and expositors of God s Word, we receive their opinions not 
without due consideration. The moment we admit the insufficiency of 
the sacred Scriptures associate anything coordinately with it as a rule 
of faith, or yield implicitly to the authority of any uninspired teachers, we 
become liable to gross imposition and fatal error. Any system which 
even connives at such a surrender of Christian liberty and prostration 
of human intellect, needs in my view, no other condemnation. The 
Bible, my brethren, after all, is and must be our religion. As clergy, 
we are bound by solemn oath of office, to teach nothing as necessary 
to salvation, but what may be clearly proved by sacred Scripture. It 
is because our Creeds and Articles may be so proved, that we believe 
them. And it is because our ecclesiastical organization and our mode 
of worship have, as we are satisfied, this clear sanction, that we main 
tain them. It may be necessary to feel one s way down into the dark 
ness and corruption of the middle ages in quest of other views and 

176 CONVENTION OF 1844. 

practices, which when found are worse than useless tending in gene 
ral to exalt the priest at the expense of the Saviour despoiling him of 
his mediatorial garments for the adornment of his ministers, and im 
poverishing and degrading his people, to aggrandize and glorify those 
who should deem it honor enough to be helpers of their faith and joy/ 
To say that the dogmas and ceremonies, which it is now attempted to 
revive amongst us under the miserable misnomer of Catholic verities 
and usages, and the sanction afforded by the unguarded language of 
later fathers and the occasional inflated phraseology of a few of earlier 
date do not differ materially from the wholsome truths set forth with 
so much simplicity in our Articles to maintain that the present con 
troversy is mainly a mere verbal disagreement, is preposterous unless 
words have no definite meaning, and serve only to cloud and conceal, 
and not to convey ideas. That the movement which we condemn is 
made in much mystiness that such, to a considerable extent, is the 
character of the style and thought of many of its abettors, we concede. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that they should sometimes be misappre 
hended and if so, the fault is with themselves. But it must be ob 
served, they profess to understand, and they deplore the uncatholic 
position of the Church to which they avowedly belong. They mourn 
over it as working in chains. They have declared their purpose to 
unprotestantize it. We give them credit for their discernment and 
design. We see that what they desire, would indeed be the result of 
the prevalence of their schemes, which we regard as Romanism, not in 
germ only, but in considerable and increasing development. And as 
we are satisfied with the Church as it is, and seek no change, but 
least of all, such change as they would give us, we feel bound, accord 
ing to our vow, with all faithful diligence, to banish and drive away 
from the Church these erroneous and strange doctrines, contrary to 
God s Word, and both privately and openly to call upon and encourage 
others to do the same." 

The Diocesan Missionary Society reported having em 
ployed thirteen missionaries, at an expense of $2,000. 

Kev. Mr. Slaughter offered the following, which was con 
curred in: 

As it is desirable that the missionaries should be supplied with Tracts 
and Prayer Books, your committee would take the liberty of adding 
another article to the Constitution of the Missionary Society, providing 
a depository for them in Richmond ; therefore, 

Resolved, That the Diocesan Missionary Society be directed to keep 


on hand a supply of Prayer Books and Tracts, to be distributed gratui 
tously, at the discretion of the Executive Committee. 

The following is taken from the report of the committee 
on the State of the Church : 

Among the favorable indications of advancement may be selected, 
for especial notice, the increase of candidates for Holy Orders during 
the year the unusual number of new parishes organized and received 
into connection with the Diocese by the present Convention, with the 
addition to our churches by those newly built, or old ones repaired, 
and once more rendered vocal with the praises of God, after the silence 
and profanation of many years. * * * And in this connec 
tion we would advert to the marks of unusual prosperity by which the 
Theological Seminary of the Diocese has been attended. The large 
addition of students, which a wide-spread public sentiment in behalf of 
evangelical truth has collected around the several chairs of its dis 
tinguished Faculty, gives a most encouraging prospect of good to the 
cause of religion and the Church, both within and without our own 
ecclesiastical limits. Long may this important institution, fostered by 
the unwearied supplications and benefactions of the Church, continue 
as a rich fountain of spiritual health, to pour its healing streams over 
the desolate and barren places of this and other lands, till the desert 
shall rejoice and blossom as the rose, and the earth be filled with the 
knowledge of God as the waters cover the sea. 

Something responsive to the addresses of the Bishops, delivered at 
the opening of the Convention, may not, in the existing emergency of 
the Church, be deemed inappropriate on the part of your committee. 
The clear and conclusive statements of the documents referred to, do 
not, indeed, leave much to be said, besides an expression of entire 
agreement in the arguments and facts therein brought to our view. The 
remark, however, may be allowed us, that they show that the errone 
ous tendencies apprehended and complained of by many as inherent 
in the Church, have not their origin in her Constitution or doctrines, 
but in the wrong dispositions and sympathies of our fallen nature, im 
pelled in a special direction by circumstances incidental to her peculiar 
relative position. Here we believe may be found the true source of 
men s affinity with Rome, and the antipathy of some to the magnificent 
cause and glorious achievements of the Reformation. That aversion 
to truth, and thirst for official dominion, which led the Papacy to 
degrade the Scriptures, and prefer, as the Homely speaks, " the stink 
ing puddles of men s traditions," to the pure waters of the well of life, 

178 CONVENTION OF 1844. 

the same disaffection and self-love still induce men to reject the hum 
bling and spiritual doctrines of the Gospel of Christ, and seek repose 
of mind, or a more convenient instrumentality on what may well be 
called "another Gospel." But truth only is God s instrument of spir 
itual good to man. Error has ever been and ever must be attended 
by appalling evils for both worlds. Whilst we, therefore, regard with 
unfeigned satisfaction, the scriptural and primitive purity of the Church, 
we cannot sufficiently evince our sense of the importance of preserving 
her undefiled. Yet this cannot be done without the price of a cease 
less vigilance and fidelity. It will be necessary that those who have 
been placed on the watch-towers of our Zion guard with sleepless eye 
the avenues to her inner sanctuary. The admission is sufficiently pain 
ful that here chiefly lies the danger. The experience of the past, like a 
flaming beacon, admonishes to beware of an unsound and benighted 
priesthood. "Like priest, like people," is a proverb sustained by the 
testimony of ages. If the congregation of the Lord, then, is to be 
duly fed and nourished with the bread of life, the chief officers of watch 
and ward must especially beware of slumbering at their posts, or wa 
vering in the hour of trial. No Church, however pure, can long bear 
the weight of a ministry " destitute of the truth, and supposing that 
gain is godliness." Of this we have a warning voice of startling em 
phasis from Rome on the one hand, and from Geneva on the other. 

We are happy in the belief that, in regard to the questions here re 
ferred to, and those genera^ which now agitate the Church of our 
affections abroad and at home, there is an essential harmony of senti 
ment prevailing in this Diocese not often to be found in so large a com 
munity. Fidelity to the Church and her ascended Lord forms the 
sacred bond which binds in such pleasant agreement of thought and 
action the whole body of her Bishops, clergy and laity. Loving the 
Church as she is, regarding her as a true interpreter and witness of 
Divine truth, they desire no further reformation, especially no reforma 
tion backwards. May this hallowed unanimity this dwelling together 
of brethren in unity, be long continued to us as t a pledge of favor and ap 
probation by him who is " the author of peace and lover of concord." 

Seminary Trustees report nothing special. 
The High School gave appearances of failure. 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 179 


Convention met in St. George s church, Fredericksburg, 
May 21. 

William M. Blackford was appointed Secretary. 

St. John s church, Green Spring parish, Louisa county, 
was admitted into union with the Convention. 

In his address the Bishop said : 

" It is an useful employment for societies, as well as individuals, at 
certain seasons, to look back through their past history, and mark the 
dealings of a kind Providence towards them. The history of the Epis 
copal Church of Virginia has, by universal consent, been from the very 
beginning, a most interesting and eventful one beyond that of any 
other Diocese in the Union. I would briefly refer to some of its partic 
ulars, in order to raise our hearts in gratitude to God for its wonderful 
preservation, and to make us more faithful and zealous in using the 
proper means for its further advancement. 

" The Episcopal Church of Virginia commenced with the first settle 
ment of the first colony. The code of laws of that colony was drawn 
up at a time when religion (as Bishop Taylor expresses it), was painted 
upon banners, for it was divine, martial and moral] all in one, being 
enforced, even among Protestants, by civil pains and penalties, which 
we would fain now banish from our recollections, and blot from the 
page of history. 

" That there was much of sincere piety moving the hearts of those 
who incorporated the forms of the Episcopal Church with the colony 
of Virginia, as well as of those who established other forms among the 
Pilgrim Fathers of New England, I doubt not. Nor do I question the 
piety and fidelity of some of the people and pastors during its whole 
subsequent history. But that its spiritual condition was ever, at any 
time, even tolerably good, bearing a comparison with that of the 
Mother Church, over whose defects also there was so much cause to 
mourn, faithful history forbids us to believe. Many were the disadvan 
tages under which she had to labor, during the whole period of her 
existence in connexion with the Government of England, which were 
well calculated to sink her character beneath that of the Church of 

180 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

England, and of some other Churches in America. Immense were the 
difficulties of getting a full supply of ministers of any character ; and 
of those who came, how few were faithful and duly qualified for the 
station. One who was indeed so faithful as to be called the Apostle of 
Virginia, at an early period of its settlement, lamenting over the want 
of ministers in the colony, thus upbraids those who refused to come : 
Do they not either wilfully hide their talents, or keep themselves at 
home for fear of losing a few pleasures ? Be not there any among 
them of Moses and his mind, and of the apostles, who forsook all to 
follow Christ? The Council of Virginia also addressed the most 
solemn and pathetic appeals to the clergy of England, beseeching 
them to come over to the work of the Lord in the colony though, it 
is to be feared, with little success for in the year 1665 it is recorded, 
that many places were destitute of ministers, and like still to continue 
so, the people not paying their accustomed dues. There were at this 
time about fifty parishes in the colony, most of which were destitute of 
clergymen, as there were only ten ministers for their supply. To 
remedy this evil, it was proposed to establish in the English Universi 
ties Virginia fellowships, imposing it as a condition that the fellows 
spend seven years in Virginia ; but we do not read of its execution. 

" That the ministers then in the colony were men of zeal, can scarce 
be supposed, as a law was required enjoining it upon them to preach 
constantly every Sabbath and administer the sacrament at least twice 
every year. 

" If we proceed in the history of the colony another fifty years, which 
will carry us beyond the first century of its existence, we shall find only 
a few more parishes established, and though glebes and parishes had 
been provided, not more than one-half of the congregations were sup 
plied with ministers, the rest being served by lay readers. In some 
places, indeed, lay readers were preferred to settled ministers, because 
less expensive to the parishioners. The tenure by which ministers held 
their livings was precarious, and this contributed to the negligence of 
some, and was a severe trial to the fidelity of the more worthy. If a 
clergyman was faithful to his duty, and preached against the vices of 
the people, he was removed ; and instances are numerous of clergy 
men having been displaced by vestries without a charge made, or even 
a reason assigned for it. The effect of this on the better portion of 
the English clergy who might be disposed to emigrate, need not be 
stated. As to the unworthy and hireling clergy of the colony, there 
was no ecclesiastical discipline to correct or punish their irregularities 
and vices. The authority of a Commissary was a very insufficient sub 
stitute for the superintendence of a faithful Bishop. The better part of 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 181 

the clergy, and some of the laity, long and earnestly petitioned for a 
faithful resident Bishop, for the Bishop of London was of necessity only 
the nominal Bishop. 

" For about two hundred years did the Episcopal Church of Virginia 
try the experiment of a system whose Constitution required such an 
head, but was actually without it. No such officer was there, as the 
Church requires, to watch over the conduct, and punish the vices of the 
clergy ; none to administer the rite of confirmation, and thus admit the 
faithful to the Supper of the Lord. 

" It must be evident, that the Episcopal Church without such an officer 
is more likely to suffer for the want of Godly discipline, than any other 
society of Christians, because all others have some substitute, whereas 
our own Church makes this office indispensable to some important 
parts of ecclesiastical government and discipline. 

" Such being the corrupt state of the Church in Virginia, it is not 
wonderful that here, as in England, disaffection should take place and 
dissent begin. The preaching and zeal of Mr. Whitfield, who visited 
Virginia about this time, contrasted with the sermons and lives of the 
clergy generally, contributed no doubt to increase disaffection. The 
pious Mr. Davies, afterwards President of Princeton College, made the 
first serious inroad upon the unity of the Church. His candid testimony 
deserves to be here introduced. I have reason to hope, he says, 
that there are and have been a few names in various parts of the 
colony who are sincerely seeking the Lord, and groping after religion 
in the communion of the Church of England. Had the doctrines of 
the Gospel been solemnly and faithfully preached in the established 
Church, I am persuaded there would have been few dissenters in these 
parts of Virginia, for their first objections were not against the peculiar 
rites and ceremonies of that Church, much less against her excellent 
articles, but against the general strain of the doctrines delivered from 
the pulpit, in which these articles were opposed, (or which was the more 
common case,) not mentioned at all, so that at first they were not 
properly dissenters from the original constitution of the Church of 
England, but the most strict adherents to it, and only dissented from 
those who had forsaken it. 

"That there was at this time not only defective preaching, but, as 
might be expected, most evil living among the clergy, is evident from 
a petition of the clergy themselves to the Legislature, asking an increase 
of salary saying, that the small encouragement given to clergymen is 
a reason why so few come into this colony from the universities, and 
that so many who are a disgrace to the ministry find opportunities to fill 
the parishes. 

182 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

" It is a well established fact, that some who were discarded from the 
English Church, yet obtained livings in Virginia. 

"Such being the case, who can question for a moment the entire 
accuracy of the account, both of the preaching and living of the clergy 
of his day, as given by the faithful and zealous Mr. Jarratt, and who 
could blame him for the encouragement afforded to the disciples of 
Mr. Westley, at a time when neither he, nor they, thought there could be 
a separation from the Church of England. 

" Dissent, from various causes, was now spreading through the com 
monwealth ; dissatisfaction with the Mother Country and Mother Church 
was increasing, and the Episcopal clergy losing more and more the 
favor of God and man, when this devoted minister, almost alone in- 
preaching and living according to the doctrine, discipline and worship 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and was glad to avail himself of 
any aid in the good work he was endeavoring to perform. For the 
time, however, his efforts were unavailing. The war of the Revolution 
was approaching, and with it the downfall of the Church. 

" Many circumstances contributed to this event. The severities exer 
cised towards some of the dissenters in times past had embittered their 
minds against the declining establishment. 

"The attachment of some of the clergy to the cause of the king sub 
jected the Church itself to suspicion, and gave further occasion to its 
enemies to seek its destruction. The dispute about church property 
now came on, and for twenty-seven years was waged with bitterness 
and violence. At the commencement of the war of the Revolution, 
Virginia had ninety-one clergymen, officiating in one hundred and 
sixty-four churches and chapels ; at its close only twenty-eight ministers 
were found laboring in the less desolate parishes of the State. Whither 
numbers of them had fled, and to what secular pursuits some of them 
had betaken themselves, it is not in our power to state. Had they been 
faithful shepherds, they would not have thus deserted their flocks. We 
come now to the efforts of the more faithful, though faint-hearted ones, 
to strengthen the things that remained and were ready to die. 

" In common with some other Dioceses, the church in Virginia re 
solved on an effort to obtain consecration from abroad for a Bishop 
who might complete her imperfect organization. A very worthy man, 
the Rev. Dr. Griffith, was selected for the purpose ; but so depressed 
was her condition, so little zeal was found in her members, that though 
for three successive years calls were made upon the parishes for funds 
to defray his expenses to England, only twenty-eight pounds were 
raised, a sum altogether insufficient for the purpose, so that the effort 
on his part was abandoned through poverty and domestic affliction. 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 183 

" Even at a subsequent period, when renewed efforts, prompted by 
shame at past failures, and a sense of duty to the Church, were made 
to secure what was necessary for Bishop Madison s consecration, a 
sufficiency, even with some foreign aid, was not obtained to pay all the 
necessary expenses of the voyage. The object, however, was accom 
plished, and at the end of almost two hundred years from the establish 
ment of a most imperfect Church in Virginia, a Bishop was obtained. 

" But she was too far gone, and there were too many opposing 
difficulties for her revival at that time. From the addresses of Bishop 
Madison to the Episcopalians of Virginia, it will be seen that he 
entered on his duties with no little zeal and with very just views of the 
kind of men and measures necessary for the work of revival. He 
plainly admits the want of zeal and fidelity in many of the ministers 
as one of the causes of the low condition of the Church, and that the 
contrary qualifications were indispensable to her resuscitation. He 
made an ineffectual effort at bringing back into the bosom of the 
Church, the followers of Mr. Westley, for they had now entirely sepa 
rated from her. 

"After a few partial visitations of the Diocese, his hopes of the revival 
of the Church evidently sunk ; and the duties of the College of William 
and Mary, of which he was President, requiring his attention during the 
greater part of the year, at the Convention of 1805, he called for a Suf 
fragan or Assistant Bishop. The subject was referred to the next year s 
Convention, but no such meeting was held, nor was there another until 
after his death. For seven years it seemed as if the worst hopes of 
her enemies, and most painful fears of her friends were about to be 
realized in her entire destruction. In the General Convention of the 
Church, held in the city of New Haven in 1811, there was no represen 
tation, or any report whatever from Virginia, but the following entry is 
found on the Journal, they fear, indeed, that the Church in Virginia is, 
from various causes, so depressed, that there is danger of her total ruin, 
unless great exertions, favored by the blessing of Providence, are em 
ployed to raise her. 

"During the ensuing Spring Bishop Madison died, and shortly after a 
Convention of the clergy and laity was invited by Dr. Buchanan, at the 
instance of the Rev. Dr. Wilmer and myself, both of us then min 
istering in Alexandria, for the purpose of electing a Bishop. Important 
as was the object, and imperious as was the necessity of such a meeting, 
in order to the existence of the Church, only thirteen clergymen, and 
about as many laymen, were found, who had interest enough in the 
cause to come together. The result was, the election of Dr. Bracken to 
the vacant Episcopate, who, however, declined at the ensuing Con- 

184 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

vention. At that Convention, only eight clergymen and ten laymen 
met together for a few hours around a table in one of the committee 
rooms of the Capitol, in Richmond, and when they separated, scarce 
expected ever to meet again for ecclesiastical purposes. 

"During the following year, however, in the good providence of God, 
circumstances arose which led to further efforts. The Monumental 
Church, built on the ruins of the Richmond Theatre, needed a minister; 
and the minds of a few individuals interested for a suitable supply for 
that interesting station, and also for the vacant Episcopate, were by a 
most gracious overruling Providence directed to one at a distance, per 
sonally unknown to any, and only by good report to a very few. I need 
not add that the person alluded to was the good Bishop Moore, so long 
the affectionate pastor of one of the churches in Richmond, and the 
beloved Bishop of Virginia. At the Convention, however, which elected 
him, only seven clergymen were present. It would thus appear, that 
after the lapse of two hundred years, the Church of Virginia was 
reduced to about the same number of ministers, which served at her 
altars during the first ten years of her existence. And is it wonderful 
that many, even of sincere friends, should think that the effort at resus 
citation must be fruitless, and that enemies poured derision upon the 
same. I well remember, even some years after this, and when our 
prospects had brightened not a little, as I presented a petition to that 
great and good man, Chief Justice Marshall, a true friend to the Church, 
asking a contribution to our Seminary, that, although with his accus 
tomed liberality, he freely gave, he yet accompanied the gift with a 
remark, that it seemed almost cruel to tempt young men to enter the 
ministry of a Church which was too far gone ever to be recovered. But 
he lived long enough to rejoice in his mistake, and to see children, and 
children s children blessed by the fruits of an institution which he 
feared might be worse than useless. I may be permitted to add, that 
when the Church of Virginia, at an early period, wished to unite sister 
Dioceses with her in the great work of ministerial education, it was 
made an objection to the proposal, that her morals and religion were so 
corrupt, that it would be unsafe to trust such an institution within her 
borders. We wonder not at such reproaches, although they may some 
times have come with an ill grace from those who made them, seeing 
that the whole Church largely partook of the same corruption. I can 
remember too well the time when, in every educated young man of 
Virginia, I was prepared to meet a sceptic, if not a scoffer. At the time 
of my first ordination, by Bishop Madison, about a year before his death, 
although it took place on a bright Sabbath morning, only about fifteen 
gentlemen, young and old, and two ladies, were present in the old and 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 185 

venerable church of Williamsburg. More of the young men indeed did 
I meet on my way to the church, with guns on their shoulders and dogs 
at their sides, going into the fields and woods in search of game, than 
were to be found in the church itself. 

"And what more could be expected from the character of the clergy 
generally at that time, or for a long time before. It is a melancholy fact 
that many of them had been addicted to the race-field, the card-table, 
the ball-room, the theatre nay, more, to the drunken revel. One of 
them, about the very period of which I am speaking, was, and had been 
for years, the President of a Jockey Club. Another, after abandoning 
the ministry, fought a duel in sight of the very church in which he had 
performed the solemn offices of religion. Nothing was more common, 
even with the better portion of them, than to celebrate the holy ordi 
nance of baptism, not amidst the prayers of the congregation, but the 
festivities of the feast and the dance, the minister sometimes taking a 
full share in all that was going on. These things being so, and the 
churches having been, on accounts of such things, almost entirely de 
serted, or else occupied by those who only held our Zion up to derision, 
what but a firm conviction of God s watchful providence over her could 
keep alive hope in the most ardent of her friends ? How often in look 
ing at the present comparative prosperity of the Church, do we say, 
surely God must have greatly loved this branch of his Holy Catholic 
Church, or he would not have borne so long with her unfaithfulness, 
and so readily forgiven her sins. 

" It becomes us, my brethren, with deep humility and lively gratitude, 
to compare together our past and present condition, and say what 
hath God wrought? If, towards the close of two hundred years, 
there were nearly one hundred ministers and one hundred and sixty 
churches, and then in a seven years after, only a few faint-hearted ones, 
serving in the few remaining and almost deserted sanctuaries; now 
again, after the labors of only one-third of a century, our hundred 
ministers are restored, and one hundred and sixty churches at least are 
open for the people of God. If for two hundred years not a Bishop 
ever visited the Diocese, and even after one was sent only a few 
ministrations performed; now two Bishops have full employment in 
visiting nearly two hundred churches or stations. If it was for years 
found impracticable to raise sufficient funds for the consecration of one 
Bishop ; now funds are raised for the annual support of two, indepen 
dent of parochial charges. If it was once proposed in a declining state 
of the Church, but in vain, to raise funds for the education of only two 
candidates for the ministry ; now more than fifty are receiving prepara 
tory instruction at our Seminary. Whereas, formerly, we were entirely 

186 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

dependent on foreign parts for our supply of clergymen, insufficient as 
to numbers, and worse as to character ; now, by the blessing of God on 
our Seminary, we are enabled to send forth to the decayed churches, or 
to the heathen of Europe, Asia and Africa, a goodly number of faithful 
and zealous missionaries of the cross. Whereas formerly, and for at 
least a century, numbers were deserting our communion, as that which 
had deserted God, and was deserted of God ; now, for the last thirty- 
years or more, either themselves or their children, or children s children 
have, in considerable numbers, been returning to our fold, as to one 
which God himself was keeping and blessing. Whereas, once, almost 
all men thought and spoke ill of our clergy and communicants, as de 
void of piety; now, only those who are misinformed, or most pre 
judiced, refuse to acknowledge that, through God s grace, there is at 
least as large an amount of true piety in both priests and people as is 
to be found in those of any other denomination. Whereas, once, we 
had for many years no conventions, and then, for some years, a few 
faint-hearted ministers and people meeting together ; now, what num 
bers of clergy and laity delight to assemble, not for the dry business of 
legislation only, or for religious controversy, but chiefly for the blessed 
privilege of joining hearts and voices in the sweet exercises of God s 
Word and worship, and thus becoming knit together in love. 

"Thus graciously hath God dealt with us. But does it not, out of 
gratitude to God, and that we may continue to enjoy his smiles, become 
us to enquire by what means this hath been done ; how our Jacob arose, 
when he was not only so small, but crushed to the earth, trodden under 
foot of man, after having been betrayed by friends, and dishonored by 
the very ministers of God, who were appointed to defend him. In the 
character, habits, views and history of the man whom God sent to us 
from a distance, to be our head and leader in this work, and in the 
views of those, whether from our own State or elsewhere, who entered 
into the service, may be seen the religious principles and methods of 
action, by which, under God, the change has been effected; and it need 
not be said how entirely different they were from those by which the 
disgrace and downfall of the Church had been wrought. Of the effi 
cacy of these means we are the more convinced, from the peculiar and 
very great difficulties to be surmounted, which have, nevertheless, in a 
great measure, been surmounted. We are persuaded that, in no part of 
our own land, were such strong prejudices and such violent oppositions 
to be overcome as in Virginia, in consequence of the former character 
of the Episcopal clergy, and the long and bitter strife which had existed 
between the Church and those who had left its pale, which latter were 
never satisfied until the downfall of the former was accomplished. 


" Let me briefly allude to the means used. Bishop Moore, in his pre 
vious correspondence, and his first sermon and address, declared his 
determination to preach as he had ever done, when God so greatly 
blessed his ministry, the glorious doctrines of grace, instead of a mere 
morality, such as many of the English clergy had once preached, and 
such as had been but too common in Virginia. The young clergy who 
engaged in the revival pf the Church of Virginia, took the same resolve,, 
and made the great theme of their preaching Jesus Christ and him cruci 
fied, on the ground of a total apostacy from God on the part of man,, 
which required such a sacrifice, as well as the renewing of the Holy 
Ghost, in order to meetness for the joys of heaven. But they did not 
turn this grace of God into licentiousness, and think that either priest 
or people might indulge in sin. Among the first acts of the earlier 
Conventions it will be seen that it was at once set forth before the world 
that the revival of the Church was to be undertaken on principles en 
tirely different from those which had hitherto prevailed, and under the 
influence of which religion had been so dishonored. It was plainly 
declared that there was need of discipline both for clergy and laity,, 
and canons were provided for the exercise of the same. Not merely 
were grosser vices stigmatized, but what, by some, were considered the 
innocent amusements of the world, and which the clergy themselves 
had advocated and practiced, were condemned as inconsistent with 
the character of a Christian Professor. 

" Baptism, by which we renounce the pomps and vanities of the world, 
as well as the sinful lusts of the flesh, and which had been customarily 
celebrated in private, directly in opposition to the Rubric, and often 
amidst ungodly festivities, was now sought to be performed only in the 
house of God, and with pious sponsors, instead of thoughtless and irre 
ligious ones. Candidates for confirmation, instead of being presented,, 
because they had reached a certain age, and could repeat the catechism, 
were told what a solemn vow, promise and profession they were about 
to make, and that it was none other than an immediate introduction 
with full qualification to the Lord s Supper. Of course very different 
views of the Lord s Supper, and the conduct of communicants were in 
culcated, and the minister even bound by express canon to converse 
with each one before admitting him for the first time to the Lord s 
Supper. Thus was the whole tone and standard of religion changed to 
the dissatisfaction and complaint, it is true, of some of the old members. 
of the Church, and not without condemnation of some from abroad. 

" In due time the important measure of requiring that all who enter 
our Convention to legislate for Christians and Christian ministers, should 
themselves be Christian professors, was adopted, though there were. 

188 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

those at home who feared the attempt, and there were those abroad 
who prophesied evil in such a manner as to encourage disaffection at 
home. But God was with us, and has granted most entire success. 

"As to the manner of exciting zeal in Christians, and awakening 
interest in those who were not, it was thought that no better example 
could be followed than that of the apostles, who preached not only in 
the temple and synagogues, but in some places, from house to house, 
as occasion required, and opportunity offered. As to the manner of 
preaching, written sermons were generally preferred in the pulpit; 
extemporaneous exhortations were often resorted to in smaller assem 
blies, and without slighting the excellent prayers of our Liturgy, there 
were many occasions, both in private families and in social meetings, 
when extemporaneous petitions seemed edifying both to the pastor 
and his flock. As to the great benevolent and religious institutions of 
the age, our ministers felt that they were doing well to encourage their 
people to a lively participation in them. The Missionary and Bible 
Societies, the Colonization and Temperance Societies especially, re 
ceived their most cordial support and they considered it a subject of 
devout thankfulness to God, if their congregations took a deep interest 
in the same. 

"To provoke each other and their congregations to zeal in all good 
works, and especially to awaken the careless to a sense of their lost 
condition, the ministers would meet together occasionally, and for 
several successive days, make full trial of prayer and God s Word, 
expecting the blessing promised to two or three who come together 
and ask somewhat of God. 

" To these, I will only add a few words as to the spirit cherished and 
the course pursued towards our Christian brethren who walk not with 
us in all things of Church order and worship. 

" We have seen how long and bitter the strife that subsisted between 
them and our fathers, how violent the prejudices that raged against us; 
and it would have been . easy to enter on the work of revival in the 
spirit of retaliation and fierce opposition. But would it have been 
right, and as our Master would have had us do? Had not our fore 
fathers done religion and them some wrong? Had not God made 
much use of them for good to religion ? Were they not most sincere 
in their fear of us, and opposition to us ? Did it not become us rather 
to win them over by love, and secure their esteem by living and preach 
ing differently from our predecessors ? 

" Such was the conciliatory course pursued by our deceased father in 
God, and followed by those who perceived the good effects of his ex 
ample ; and most happy was the effect of the same. 


" And now, brethren, are there any who, in view of the past, and of 
God s blessing upon the doctrines preached, and the measures adopted, 
would, for a moment, listen to the proposal of a change ? More espe 
cially when we remember that, in the course adopted by us, we only 
followed closely in the footsteps of a noble host of faithful ministers 
and laymen in our Mother Church, who, during the last fifty years, have 
been so successfully engaged in the work of her revival. Though not 
so deeply corrupted as the Church of Virginia, yet was the English 
Church most sadly defective, both in doctrine and practice. But God 
raised up the Venns, Newtons, Scotts, Cecils, Martins, Buchanans,, 
among the clergy, and the Wilberforces, Thorntons, Grants, and Han 
nah Moores among the laity, to bear their testimony against the jejune 
morality of the pulpit, and to condemn as well by their writings as 
example the worldliness both of clergy and people in that day. And 
what a blessed change has been effected ? None pretend for a moment 
to question either the effect or the cause thereof. And yet, alas ! so 
fickle, so fond of various experiment is man, there are not a few who, 
within the last twelve years, while lavishing praises on those who were 
the chief instruments of the happy change, have yet proposed to do 
more good by means and instruments widely different from those which 
heaven has so greatly blessed for the last half century. I need not tell 
of the confusion, discord and unhappiness already produced by the 
unwise experiment, and the injury our Church is suffering thereby. We, 
my brethren of the clergy and laity, will keep to the old ways, assured 
that he, in whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning, will 
continue to bless us as he has done, and yet more abundantly, if we 
will only be more faithful in those ways. 

" And while we have reason at thought of our present, by comparison 
with our past condition, to exclaim what hath God done to thank 
him and take courage, yet should we beware of boasting, or of sup 
posing that all is done, or that what remains will certainly and easily be 
done. I consider it as the great error of many in our Church, through 
out the land, that we are too much given to boasting, too apt to over 
rate our own successes, and calculate too largely on far greater, while 
underrating the present or probable future successes of others. God 
will in his own way correct us if we be guilty of presumption. Our 
Jacob is still small, and it becomes us now, as of old, to ask by whom 
shall he rise ? Much is there yet to be done, and there are many diffi 
culties in the way. Though we have a goodly number of ministers, 
yet by no means enough to carry on the work of enlargement as we 
could wish, and as the door seems opening to us. 

" Although we have many churches, yet how many of the congrega- 

190 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

tions are small, and not rapidly increasing, being still unable to afford 
even a moderate support to the ministry. 

" Many are the discouragements which meet us in our efforts to sustain 
some of the old, and to raise up new congregations. Among the most 
painful is the difficulty of attaching the poor of this world to our com 
munion. When our Lord was on earth he gave as one of the signs of 
his heavenly descent, the blessed fact that to the poor the gospel is 
preached, and the common people, it is written, heard him gladly ; 
the multitudes followed him. Such should be our constant endeavor, 
my brethren of the clergy, and if, from the causes alluded to, in the 
past history of our Church, one description of the poor of Virginia 
have been almost entirely alienated from us, let us rejoice to know 
that there is another description not less acceptable in the sight of 
Heaven, who if we are kind to them, and will take due pains to win 
them over, will more easily be led to come under the faithful preaching 
of the Word. The poor servants will, if we persevere in our labors of 
love towards them, and be to them what God s faithful pastors in every 
age have been to the poor, be benefited by our ministry, and may, if 
we will, in conjunction with their owners, attend to them betimes as 
we do to our own children, become regular and pious members of our 
communion. But whether we think of the rich, or the poor, or those 
of any and every condition and character amongst us, with the hope 
of converting them to Christ, and attaching them to the communion of 
our Church, we need not expect much success, without much zeal and 
diligence, such as was put forth in our first efforts for its resuscitation. 
Our State is not one of those whose population is rapidly increasing, 
in which flourishing villages are springing up in every direction, calling 
for neat churches to fill up the measure of their beauty and excellency, 
and where the support of the ministry is sure, so that our Zion must 
needs lengthen her cords, and strengthen her stakes. Very different 
is it with us now, has it been for many years, and will it, in all proba 
bility be, for many years to come. It is only by patient perseverance 
in well-doing, that we can hope to make advances in the establishment 
of our Church. Much self-denial, and enduring of hardship, and abound 
ing in labors and itinerant zeal, and contentedness with a little of this 
world s goods, on the part of many of our ministers, are indispensable 
to the growth of the Church in Virginia, much beyond her present 
attainment. Without these things she may continue stationary, or even 
retrograde in some places, during years to come. The want of such 
ministers, and the pressing demands of our Missionary Societies, and 
of vacant places in other Dioceses, depriving us of a number of our 
young men, and of some of those more advanced in life, has left us, 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 191 

during the last year or two, with a larger number of destitute places 
than usual, which I fear will not be supplied during the present year. 
In addition to these difficulties in the way of our rapid progress, re 
quiring great zeal and self-denial in order to advancement, I should 
suppress the truth were I not to say, that recent circumstances in the 
history of our own and Mother Church have contributed not a little to 
revive old prejudices and former opposition, which for the last thirty 
years had been gradually and happily subsiding, under the faithful 
preaching, and peaceable, conciliatory deportment of our ministers. 
The cry of false doctrine and Romish tendencies has been renewed 
under circumstances well calculated to mislead the judgments of many 
good people who are not so well qualified to distinguish between the 
errors of individuals and the positive corruptions of a Church. There 
are those, who, of course, would make use of these circumstances to our 
injury, the temptation being too strong for poor human nature entirely 
to resist. And in what spirit and with what weapons shall we meet and 
contend with this old enemy now risen up with renovated strength 
against us ? Surely it becomes us to remember in what manner and 
with what success old prejudices were put down, and former opposition 
in a measure disarmed. Let us adopt the same method now, when we 
would overcome a less formidable foe, for it cannot be that prejudice 
now exists to the same extent as formerly. Making all allowance for 
honest prejudice, and little regarding any other, let us in the spirit of 
Christian kindness and patience set forth the true doctrines of our 
Church as established by the Reformers, and their conformity with 
Scripture more emphatically than ever. 

"Let us avoid as much as possible all contention, not rendering railing 
for railing, but contrarywise blessing, and thus as in former times, 
commend our Church to the hearts and judgment of the pious and 
peaceable. I well know the difficulty of this, in some places, and 
under some circumstances, but am not the less persuaded of the duty, 
because of its difficulty, and the temptations to an opposite course. 

" To conclude. In urging you my brethren, to an adherence to those 
modes of exhibiting truth, and those means of advancing religion, 
which in our Mother Church, and in the Church of Virginia, have been 
so blessed of Heaven ; in warning you against changes in this time of 
innovation ; you will not understand me as intimating that those who 
were first engaged in the work were incapable of error, and that no 
improvement could be made, neither that circumstances being changed 
in the progress of events, there might not be some modifications in the 
manner of promoting the same great object. 

" I am well aware of the folly of supposing that any one age or gen- 

192 CONVENTION OF 1845. 

eration can be an unerring standard of truth and holiness. I admit the 
justness of the wise son of Sirach s warning, say not that the former 
times were better than these, for thou speaketh not wisely concerning 
this thing. I admit, with readiness and gratitude, a general improve 
ment in the condition of mankind, as to morals and religion, not only 
since my own recollection and observation, but for a much longer previ 
ous period. I dissent entirely from those who can see nothing but dete 
rioration in the history of man, either in our own, or other lands. I see 
the very reverse of it in all Protestant Christendom, and even in some 
parts of the corrupt Church of Rome. Nevertheless, I cannot close my 
eyes to the fact, that some in the Episcopal Church of England and 
America, in their desire for its rapid extension, and its universal preva 
lence, and in their haste to attain some ideal perfection of unity, have 
embraced exploded errors, and subjected the whole Church to the 
charge of retracing its steps towards apostate Rome. In this, and in 
the vigorous and too successful efforts of Romanist to regain some of 
their lost power, we may perhaps see the approach of that last fearful 
couflict between truth and error, which is, happily, however, to be of 
short duration, and to end in a sure victory to the former. However 
this may be, my brethren, and whether we shall see, or be engaged in 
this battle or not, one thing is certain, that we cannot be too earnest in 
our endeavors, each one, after personal holiness. We need not fear as 
an innovation or presumption, the attempt to be more holy than any 
who have gone before us, provided only, that we go by the rule of God s 
Word. Neither can we be too zealous and faithful in preaching accord 
ing to the law and testimony. If, in any thing, any of us find that we 
have erred, laying too much or too little comparative emphasis on 
doctrines, duties, ordinances, promises, threatenings, or any thing per 
taining to the whole council of God ; of course it is our duty, by the 
unerring word, to correct the same, not without a careful regard to the 
warning and instructive voice of history, which shows how prone some 
have been to give to the mint the annice and cummin of religion, that 
regard which is due only to the weightier matters of the law." 

An order was passed by which rectors were required to 
report, by the first day of each Convention, the number of 
white communicants, which number shall determine the 
amount to be paid to the Contingent Fund. 

The Trustees of the Seminary were directed to reopen the 
High School as soon as possible and to engage the services 
of the Kev. E. A. Dalrymple as rector. 

CONVENTION OF 1845. 193 

A committee was appointed to raise funds for repairs 
and furniture of the High School. In a few minutes they 
reported that $1,000 had been obtained. 

A resolution of thanks was adopted, to Mrs. Griswold, 
widow of Bishop Griswold, for the donation of the library 
recently made by her, according to the provisions of her 
husband s will. 

The Executive Committee reported having expended 
$1,83 7.50 in support of missionaries, $21 for Prayer Books, 
and $54.45 for tracts. Thirteen parishes were helped. 

A resolution was adopted by which the Secretary was 
directed to return for correction all parochial reports not 
prepared according to the form, and if not properly pre 
pared the second time, they were ordered to be excluded 
from the Journal. 

In their report the Trustees of the Seminary say : 

The year just closed has certainly been marked by blessings from 
God and favors from men. For reasons, which we need not here state, 
the attention of the Church has been recently directed with more than 
ordinary interest to the institution under our care ; and the indications 
of friendly regard among those who love the truth as it is in Jesus 
have been neither few nor unimportant. The number of students is 
greater than at any previous period. A considerable amount has been 
added to the permanent fund, and a large addition secured to the 
library; at the same time the duties incumbent upon professors and 

students have been so discharged as to promise the happiest results. 
* ******* 

The efforts to obtain funds for the endowment of one or more pro 
fessorships in the Seminary, and the measure of success attending them, 
have been stated by the Bishop and assistant Bishop in their reports 
read to this body. For their success we offer thanks first to God, who 
has ever been our unfailing friend, and then to the brethren and others 
by whom they were so kindly received. The amount pledged, and 
which will probably be collected, is about $15,000. As it comes to 
hand, it is carefully invested for the purpose of increasing the perma 
nent fund, the understanding when it was solicited being that nothing 
but the interest should be used. Thankful, as we doubtless are, for 
whatever has been thus obtained, yet it is matter of duty with us to 

194 CONVENTION OF 1846. 

remind you that the object contemplated by the last Convention has 
not been fully secured. A considerable sum is still requisite for the 
endowment of professorships, and we earnestly call for renewed exer 
tions among our many friends, particularly those found within the limits 
of our own Diocese. * * * The present amount of the principal 
is $34,119- 

Since July last the exercises of the High School have been sus 
pended. At that time the Rev. Mr. Pendleton resigned his station as 
its Principal. In parting with this worthy and excellent brother, we 
thought it to be not only just to him, but due to our own feelings, to 

enter upon record some expression of our confidence and regard. 
The reopening of this school has been with us a subject of great 
anxiety, and kept constantly in view. Deeming it an object of such 
vast importance, we are glad to believe that the attempt can now be 
made with a reasonable hope of success. The Rev. E. A. Dalrymple 
has agreed to take charge of the institution, and proposes to commence 
his duties during the next fall. * 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Petersburg, May 

Bishop Meade said in his address : 

"Having thus briefly stated my Episcopal duties in the Northern 
Neck, I must beg leave to advert to a circumstance which was particu 
larly presented to my consideration while near the site of one of our 
old churches in the county of Northumberland, and which has been not 
a little misunderstood, and even misrepresented in the public prints, 
and on the floor of our Legislature. In the spring of 1840, I received a 
communication from Mr. Joseph Ball, an old and valued member of 
our Church, in Northumberland, on the subject of the sale of the 
church in his neighborhood. It was then just in that condition, when 
spoliation of the bricks having begun, it would become an object of 
plunder to all around, and soon disappear. One of the neighbors, 

CONVENTION OF 1846. 195 

therefore, proposed to purchase it, and my consent was asked. I re 
plied that I had no right whatever to dispose of it. Visiting that part 
of the State soon after, Mr. Ball informed me that a gentleman living 
near the church, and professing an attachment to it, declared that it 
distressed him to see the church thus treated ; that in a short time not 
a brick would be left ; that they would be used for hearths, chimneys, 
and such like purposes, all the country around ; that if Mr. Ball would 
consent, he would give $500 either to rebuild it or to take it down the 
materials, in the latter case, being his own ; that he had consulted a 
lawyer, who told him that the head of the church could dispose of it. 
As Mr. Ball was an old warden of the parish, and the only surviving 
member, the gentleman thought he might be regarded as the head ; 
but on being told that the Bishop was so regarded, it was referred to 
myself. In reply to the renewed proposal, I stated again that I had no 
right to sell it, and was unwilling to have anything to do with it, as it 
might be misunderstood and misrepresented. On its being urged by 
Mr. Ball that a refusal to give such permission would only encourage 
great numbers to robbery, I at length said that if he chose to sell it I 
would receive the proceeds and place them in the hands of the Trustees 
of our Theological Seminary, to be returned, should it ever be called 
for to build a church in its room. I was induced to do this partly by the 
consideration that our Convention had, many years before, passed a 
resolution calling upon persons having church plate in vacant parishes 
to send it for safe-keeping to the Bishop of the Diocese, liable to be 
called for, should the parishes ever be revived. Such property has been 
given into the hands of Bishop Moore and myself, and has been lent to 
other parishes on that condition. I accordingly, in writing, stated my 
assent to the sale of the walls of the church (nothing else remaining), 
for $500, giving what right I might be thought to have. I looked upon 
the transaction as an affair between the person proposing it, Mr. Ball, 
and myself, as friends to religion and the Church, who were desirous to 
prevent a dishonorable use of the remains of a building not likely to be 
wanted again, and as an act which would be approved by all good and 
pious persons. After having paid one-half of the money, the purchaser 
refused the remainder, on the plea of its having been an improper sale. 
In order to prevent all future misunderstanding of this transaction, I 
have thought it best thus to place it among our records. The two 
hundred and fifty dollars which were paid were expended, I believe, 
on the chapel attached to our Theological Seminary, and I hold myself 
personally responsible for its return, whenever any competent au 
thority shall claim it." 

196 CONVENTION OF 1846. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society reported having assisted twenty missionaries. Re 
ceipts, $2,673.34. They contrast this with the year 1839, 
when their receipts were $29. They purchased 1,200 
Prayer Books, and 91,540 pages of tracts. They distrib 
uted 632 Prayer Books, and 44,468 pages of tracts. 

The Seminary Trustees reported forty students, and 
$38,000 invested funds. In regard to the High School, 
which was recently reopened, they say 

The High School, under the management and instruction of the Rev. 
Mr. Dalrymple, is growing in number and efficiency. We cannot but 
express our earnest hope that it will receive the warm patronage of all 
the friends of the Church. Its value as an auxiliary to the Seminary, in 
furnishing for that institution well-trained youths, can hardly be too 
highly estimated. But its influence on the laity will, we trust, be not 
less healthful. While it will train those for the Seminary who have 
chosen the ministry for their profession, it will bring our youths, who 
among the laity are to have a controlling influence upon the future 
destiny of the Church, under the most valuable moral and religious 

The Committee on New Parishes recommend to grant the 
petition of Grace church, Lexington, for division of Wood- 
ville parish ; St. Stephen s church, Bedford, for division of 
Eussell parish, Bedford. Shelhurne parish to have Middle- 
burg and vicinity, with the tract of country between Mid- 
dleburg and Aldie, separated from Shelburne parish and 
joined to Meade parish, Fauquier. 

St. James, Mecklenburg county, to erect a new parish, 
called St. Luke s ; also the admission to union with the Con 
vention of Wytheville parish and parishes in Wood and 
Jackson counties. All of which was approved. 

In view of the depressed condition of the Education So 
ciety, collections were earnestly requested from the parishes 
before the meeting in July. 

The Committee on the State of the Church deprecated 

CONVENTION OP 1847. 197 

the effect of the religious controversies of the day, and de 
plored the spirit of worldliness, and urged the communi 
cants to avoid all familiarity with the seducing and cor 
rupting pleasures of the world. 

In concluding their report they say 

Your committee would make a passing remark in reference to our 
form of (annual) prayer and thanksgiving to Almighty God for the fruits 
of the earth, and the other blessings of his merciful providence. As our 
civil authorities never call upon us to observe a day of yearly thanks 
giving, there is reason to fear that it is too generally neglected by the 
-clergy of this Diocese. Certainly, the service is both appropriate and 
highly expedient. Certainly, good will be done by calling the attention 
of our people yearly to this interesting subject. Your committee, there 
fore, hope that our hundred congregations will remember every year 
publicly to thank and pray to Almighty God for the fruits of the earth, 
and the other blessings of his merciful providence. 


Convention met in Christ church, Winchester, May 19. 
The assistant Bishop in his address laid hefore the Con 
vention the following statement: 

" In October last I received an unofficial communication, made for 
the purpose of ascertaining whether, if elected, I would accept the 
Presidency of William and Mary College, assuring me at the same time 
that if it were understood I was disposed to favor the appointment, it 
would be so made, and urging my consent by various strong consider 
ations, which I need not recite. From my reply to this very interesting 
communication I take the following extract: When I consider the 
nature of the duties of the Episcopal office, and the incessant and in 
creasing demands of a Diocese, so extensive as this, it seems to me that 
a Bishop in Virginia may not look to any other employment than that 
of the ministry for which he is specially consecrated. It is from the 

198 CONVENTION OF 1847. 

nature of the case, and under existing circumstances, a mastery incom 
patible with any second occupation. It would, I fear, only be by rob 
bing it that a second could be served. With these impressions I cannot 
respond to your suggestions as you desire. Yet so deeply do I feel the 
responsibility imposed on me by your communication, that I am un 
willing to send you a final answer before consulting with my honored 
associate, in whose judgment and wisdom we all have good cause to- 
repose the greatest confidence. I expect to meet him in Lynchburg on 
the i3th of this month, when I shall take pleasure in laying your letter 
before him, and availing myself of his excellent counsel. If his views 
differ from my own, and the considerations furnished by him produce 
any change in the opinion which I have expressed, I will then imme 
diately apprize you. 

"In the conference which I anticipated, this subject was carefully 
examined by Bishop Meade and myself, and as nothing appeared that 
wrought any alteration in my convictions, I found it unnecessary to 
trouble my correspondent with any further communication. 

" By others interested in the proposed arrangement, it was again and 
again earnestly pressed during the past winter. On every such occa 
sion I returned substantially the reply which had been previously made. 

" In the month of February I was called on by one of the Board of 
Visitors, who renewed the application, and with great zeal and ability 
urged my compliance, assuring me that it was greatly desired, and that 
the Board would make every arrangement as to services and time which 
might be requisite to prevent any interference with the duties of the 
Episcopate. His statements did not change my convictions. They 
did, however, lead me to suspect that perhaps I was too confident in an 
opinion, from which this gentleman and others, entitled to my highest 
respect, seemed to differ so decidedly. I therefore thought it but proper 
to say, that if Bishop Meade and the Convention approved of the pro 
posed arrangement, I should feel it my duty to make the experiment. 
Not that I supposed it possible to do what I am now performing, and 
at the same time meet the demands of the new station ; but such ap 
proval on their part I should regard as an expression of their judgment 
that I ought to dispense with so much of my present engagements as 
might be necessary to enable me to enter upon the presidency, with 
some hope of answering the expectations of my friends. On this state 
ment, the gentleman alluded to replied that he would, with this under 
standing, assume the responsibility of nominating me to the Board. 

" Subsequent correspondence, with persons most likely to anticipate 
the probable action of the Convention, led me to the conclusion that 
the proposed arrangement would not be favorably regarded by the 


Diocese that no such general concurrence could be secured as would 
be necessary to justify the experiment. I, therefore, to prevent all 
misapprehension, and to avoid even the appearance of any ground of 
dissatisfaction, immediately addressed to the gentleman alluded to a 
letter, from which I give the following extract: With the knowledge 
of the fact stated, it might seem to be trifling with the Board of Visitors 
if I were to acquiesce in your kind purpose to nominate me for the pre 
sidency. You must, therefore, permit me to return to the original 
position from which your earnest appeal in some measure moved me.* 

" This letter was laid before the Board at their last meeting, when, as 
informed by a communication from the Rector, dated February 24th, I 
was elected President of William and Mary College and Professor of 
the Moral Chair with great unanimity. 

"To this communication I replied as follows: Under the peculiar 
circumstances in which I am placed, and in view of the statement which 
I forwarded to Judge Christian, and which, I understand, he submitted 
to the Board of Visitors, no action on my part can be expected at pre 
sent. I conclude, therefore, to wait respectfully for such further informa 
tion as may place me in a position to dispose of the honorable appoint 
ment, without even seeming to be insensible to its importance, or averse 
from any course which duty may require. 

" Such, my respected brethren, is a brief history of this transaction, a 
knowledge of which I supposed it might be important for you to pos 
sess, that in the event of its being in any form presented for your con 
sideration, you may be prepared to take such counsel as will best 
subserve those great interests for the promotion of which we are 

The subject was referred to a committee, consisting of the 
Rev. Messrs. Mann, Sparrow, E. C. McG-uire, Hodges, Castle- 
man, and A. Jones, Messrs. Bryan, Nelson, Page, Richard 
Randolph and Colston. Their report, made on Friday after- 
ternoon, was as follows: 

The committee to whom were referred so much of the report of the 
assistant Bishop as relates to the Presidency of William and Mary Col 
lege, have given to that subject the most earnest consideration. They 
are deeply impressed with the importance of this subject, and therefore 
trust that, on both sides of this question, a spirit of calm consideration 
may be displayed, which will give just weight to all reasons which have 
influenced their minds on this difficult subject. Your committee feel 
that, under the providence of God, great benefits might result to the 

200 CONVENTION OF 1847. 

Church in Virginia, by placing that venerable and well-endowed institu 
tion under such influence as they believe the assistant Bishop would 
exercise there. They cannot but feel a deep interest in the success of 
this College, which has conferred such lasting benefits on Virginia and 
the world, in the education of many of our own ancestors, and many of 
the most distinguished fathers of the Republic. They are not insensible 
to the benefits which might accrue to this whole Commonwealth from 
placing this valuable institution under not only religious but Episcopal 
influences ; and yet your committee sincerely regret to say, that not 
withstanding all these desirable results, they are compelled, in view of 
the great difficulties and serious objections which present themselves, to 
concur with the assistant Bishop in the opinion that this appointment 
should be declined. Whilst your committee have come with pain to 
this conclusion, they feel that some explanations are due to the authori 
ties of William and Mary, and as these can better be made in a full and 
frank correspondence, than detailed in a report, your committee beg 
leave to conclude with the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Bishop and assistant Bishop be requested to 
unite in a letter to the authorities of William and Mary College express 
ing the thanks of this Convention for the confidence they have mani 
fested in the Episcopal Church of this Diocese, by honoring one of her 
chief pastors with the highly responsible office of President of that 
most respected and valued institution ; and also to explain to them the 
objections, in our view insuperable, which compel this Convention, with 
great regret, to decline advising our assistant Bishop to accept that 

The rectors and wardens of the several parishes were di 
rected to inform the Secretary before each Annual Council 
of the number of white communicants in their respective 
parishes; also of any delinquencies in payment of the Con 
tingent Fund, and whether the same has been or is likely to 
be paid, or to make any proper explanation in relation 
thereto ; the letters to be sent by mail, so as to reach the 
Secretary on the first day of the session of the Convention, 
and to be delivered by the Secretary to the Finance Com 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the resolution of the Convention, passed igth May, 

CONVENTION OF 1848. 201 

1827, recommending the Protestant Episcopal Sunday-School Union to 
the patronage of this Diocese be hereby rescinded. (See page 125.) 

The following was also adopted : 

Resolved, further, That the thanks of this Convention, and of the 
friends of Evangelical truth throughout the Church, are due to our be 
loved Bishop for the faithful manner in which he has warned the Church 
against the errors contained in some of our Sunday-School books and 
other publications. 

Heber parish, Bedford, was admitted into union with 
the Council. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society reported $2,396.98 receipts, and aid extended to 
seventeen missionaries. 933 Prayer Books and 26,808 pages 
of tracts distributed. 

Rev. Messrs. Castleman and C. K. Nelson were appointed 
agents to raise $20,000 additional for the vested funds of the 
Theological Seminary, and, in the event of a vacancy, the 
Bishop was given power to fill the same. The Seminary 
Trustees reported an invested fund of $40,442.50. Ac 
counts from both the Seminary and High School were 


Convention met in Christ church, Norfolk, May 1*7 th. 

Trinity church, Martinsburg, and St. George s parish, Ac- 
comae, were admitted into union with the Convention. 
A petition was presented for the admission of a new congre 
gation in Trinity parish, Portsmouth. This petition, with a 
counter-petition, was referred to the Committee on New 
Parishes, and considered on Saturday night. 

202 CONVENTION OF 1848. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society reported having aided fourteen missionaries, at a 
cost of $2,018.50. Paid for Prayer Books $61.62; receipts, 

The Trustees of the Seminary say 

The Church in almost every Diocese is feeling the salutary influence 
of the Seminary. Its Alumni are scattered from Maine to Texas, and 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Africa, in China, in Greece, they 
are faithfully endeavoring to fulfil the last command of the Lord, to 
preach the gospel to every creature. It is emphatically The Institution 
of the Diocese. It is identified with all our future anticipations of the 
prosperity of the Church. 

A report was adopted warmly recommending the South 
ern Churchman to the confidence and patronage of the 

The Committee on the State of the Church warned the 
Diocese against the growing " eagerness for scenes, exhi 
bitions and amusements, the thoughts of which would once 
have been repelled as utterly incompatible with the dictates 
at least of female delicacy and propriety. As nothing could 
be more fatal to the social and domestic virtue of our land,, 
not to say its piety, than such ruthless inroads of foreign 
fashions, manners, and principles, we do earnestly deprecate 
so great a curse, and trust that the public virtue may lift up 
a standard which may turn back the tide and save our be 
loved country from the foul ravages with which we are 

On Saturday night the Convention proceeded to the con 
sideration of the petition for a new congregation in Trinity 
parish, Portsmouth. 

The petition and counter-petition were then read, and, on 
motion, James Murdaugh, Esq., appointed by the petitioners 
to appear before the Convention, was introduced into the 



Holt Wilson, Esq., then addressed the Convention, and 
was answered by Mr. Murdaugh, and after a lengthened 
debate, the following resolution was adopted by a nearly 
unanimous vote. 

Resolved, Without expressing any opinion in the slightest degree re 
flecting upon the character of the Rev. Mr. Wingfield, that the prayer 
of the petitioners be granted, and that they have leave to form a new 
congregation in Trinity parish, Portsmouth. 


Convention met in Christ church, Charlottesville, May 

The assistant Bishop laid before the Convention another 
overture to him from the Visitors of William and Mary 
College to accept the presidency of the same. In speaking 
of it he said: 

" In the month of November last I received a communication from 
the Honorable John Tyler, Rector of the Board of Visitors of William, 
and Mary College, informing me that, at their recent meeting in Oc 
tober, they had appointed me President of the College and Professor 
of Moral Philosophy, to take effect on the first of July next. As im 
mediate action was not required on my part, and as it was now made 
under circumstances which gave it an aspect very different from that 
of the overture of 1847, I deemed it my privilege, and but due to the 
Church in this Diocese, to wait and take their counsel before forming 
my own decision. My reply to the communication from the Rector,, 
therefore, was as follows : 

" My relation to the Protestant Episcopal Church in this Diocese is 
such, that it would not be proper for me to act on this important ap 
pointment without first availing myself of the counsel of our Conven 
tion. This I will take in May next. If, in the opinion of that body, I 

204 CONVENTION OF 1849. 

ought to accept the office to which the Board of Visitors have called 
me, I should not feel at liberty to decline the responsible service. 

" I have recently received another communication from the Rector of 
the College, enclosing a copy of certain proceedings of the Board of 
Visitors, to be laid before this Convention, which I now present : 

" RESOLUTIONS AND ADDRESS of the Board of Visitors of William and 
Mary College, adopted at a meeting held on Wednesday, the i7th of 
April, 1849, in the city of Williamsburg, and ordered to be transmitted 
to the Convention of the Episcopal Church of Virginia through the 
Right Reverend John Johns, D. D. : 

" Whereas, at a meeting of the Board of Visitors of William and Mary 
College, in the month of October, 1848, the Right Reverend John Johns 
was elected to the Presidency of the same ; and, whereas, it is under 
stood that he has determined to refer the question of his acceptance to 
the Episcopal Convention about to assemble ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That this Board transmit, through the President elect to 
the Convention, the following expression of their views and wishes, in 
the hope that it may influence that body to consent, though it should 
only be for a limited period, to the surrender of such portions of the 
time of Bishop Johns as the present exigencies of the College de 
mand, and the Episcopal Church may be able to spare, without injury 
to herself. 

" The Board of Visitors having regard to the charter and early his 
tory of the College, and the religious opinions and ecclesiastical con 
nections of a long line of Presidents and Professors, and desirous to 
enlist the ministers and members of the Episcopal Church of Virginia 
more actively in its behalf, have been induced to invite the Right 
Reverend Bishop Johns to a chief place in its government, confident 
that his zeal and abilities will render most effectual service in the 
efforts to place it on the best foundation of which it is capable. 

" While, however, the Visitors thus invoke the special cooperation 
of the Episcopal Church of Virginia, they must distinctly declare 
that they have no wish to make it a sectarian institution by exclu 
ding from the Faculty or Visitorial Board suitable persons of other 
denominations, or by introducing in the instructions delivered to the 
young anything which can be justly offensive, either to themselves or 
their parents, in the way of denominational peculiarities. In this re 
spect, they desire and propose to follow the example of many other 
colleges in our land, which, though under the predominant influence of 
some one denomination, have nevertheless found it to be in accordance 
with the dictates of sound wisdom and true Christian charity to avoid 

CONVENTION OF 1849. 205 

what is controversial and offensive, and to see that only the great, un 
disputed doctrines and duties of our holy religion are sought to be 
enforced on the pupils thereof. 

" With the expression of such views, the Visitors cannot but hope 
that the Convention will see fit to comply with their earnest desire to- 
obtain the services of Bishop Johns. 

" (Signed), on behalf of the Visitors, 


"Rector of William and Mary College. 
" [A correct copy from the records.] 
" WM. M. MOODY, Secretary. 

" The preceding statement is, I presume, quite sufficient to put you in 
possession of the important overture in reference to which I now re 
spectfully ask the advice of the Convention. If this body decide that 
the interests of religion call for our adoption of the proposed arrange 
ment, and that my Episcopal services can, without detriment to the 
Diocese, be so far dispensed with for the present, as to enable me to 
devote sufficient time to the responsible duties of the College, such de 
cision will control my own opinions and inclinations, and determine me 
to accept the appointment and make the experiment. If, however, the 
voice of the Diocese is not decidedly in favor of the arrangement, I 
shall be relieved from all anxiety, and feel at liberty to confine myself 
to my present position and its more congenial duties." 

The Convention, after long debate, gave its consent to the 
assistant Bishop s acceptance of the position. The vote 
stood: clergy, ayes 45; laity, ayes 28; negative, clergy 13, 
laity 15 ; majority for the measure 45. 

Armory church, Eichmond city, and Rivanna parish, 
Fluvanna, were admitted into union with the Convention. 

St. James -Northam parish, Goochland county, was di 
vided. No metes and bounds stated. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary So 
ciety reported having assisted sixteen missionaries. 

The Trustees of the Seminary reported twenty-five stu 
dents in the Seminary, sixty-six pupils in the High School, 
and an invested fund of $47,479.24. They say amongst 
other things : 

206 CONVENTION OF 1849. 

It is, however, a subject of deep regret and painful anxiety, that so 
few students are now connected with our Theological Seminary. Its 
present number is but twenty-five. A few years since and its average 
number was scarcely ever less than forty. This diminution of numbers 
is by no means peculiar to our Seminary. The number of those who are 
now looking forward to Holy Orders is but a small part of the number 
who, a few years since, were pressing into the ministry. To what other 
cause can we ascribe it than the want of faithful, ardent, persevering 
prayer ; of earnest supplication that the Lord of the harvest would send 
forth laborers into the harvest? The ministry, acting through the 
mighty power of the Holy Ghost, is God s gracious instrumentality for 
the reformation of the world and the salvation of man. It is His ap 
pointed means, and He will use no other. Yet for this He will be en 
quired of by us to do it for us. Let prayer be made without ceasing of 
the Church unto God, and he will give the word, and great will be the 
company of the preachers. 

A report of a body of canons was made and all were ap 
proved except the XIXTH, which is as follows: 



"Any member of the Church, being a communicant thereof, conduct 
ing himself or herself in a manner unworthy of a Christian, ought to be 
admonished, or repelled from the Lord s table, by the minister of the 
parish or church, according to the Rubric ; and gaming, attendance on 
horse-racing and theatrical amusements, witnessing immodest and 
licentious exhibitions or shows, attending public balls, habitual neglect 
of public worship, or a denial of the doctrines of the gospel, as gene 
rally set forth in the authorized standards of the Church, are offences 
for which discipline should be exercised. This enumeration, however, 
shall not be construed to include all the subjects of discipline in the 
Church, and in cases where it may be deemed expedient by the minis 
ter, or may be requested by the accused, the church wardens, or either 
of them, if communicants, shall be summoned to assist the minister in 
ascertaining the facts of the case : provided, that if such warden or 
wardens shall fail or refuse to act within ten days, the minister shall 
proceed to act under the Rubrics of this Church." 

Upon this, after a long and animated debate, the vote was 
taken by orders, and resulted as follows : 




Ayes Right Rev. Bishop Meade, Right Rev. Bishop Johns, Rev. 
Messrs. Andrews, Ambler, Bowers, Bryant, Castleman, Chisholm, Cole, 
Cooke, Carraway, Caldwell, Denison, Dana, Earnest, Friend, Gibson, 
Grammer, HofT, Johnson, Keppler, Locke, Lockwood, Meade, J. D. 
McCabe, J. C. McCabe, McElroy, J. P. McGuire, F. H. McGuire, E. B. 
McGuire, W. McGuire, Pendleton, Perkins, Stringfellow, Slack, Smith, 
Sparrow, Towles, Temple, Ufford, Woodbridge, Wade 42. 

Noes Rev. Messrs. Berkeley, Cummins, Empie, Fisher, Kinsolving, 
Leavell, Mann, Meredith, Nelson, G. T. Wilmer, Withers, Wingfield 12. 


Ayes Messrs. Merriwether, Thornley, Coles, F. Nelson, P. Nelson, 
Smith, Carter, Hurt, Williams, W. Nelson, Lee, Ellis, Urquhart, Lewis, 
Donaghe, Meade, Tayloe, Warwick, Chewning 19. 

Noes Messrs. Harris, H. Wilson, Terrill, T. Nelson, Broadnax, Kean, 
Fisher, Bryce, Breckenridge, King, Shelton, Lindsay, Tucker, Jones, 
Minor, Owen, Carrington, Taylor, Gait, Page, Leftwich, G. Wilson 22. 

CLERGY Ayes, 42 LAITY Noes, 22 

Noes, 12 Ayes, 19 

Majority in favor, ... 30 Majority against, .... 3 

The two orders not concurring, the Canon was rejected. 

A resolution to reconsider was adopted unanimously. 
The further consideration of the same was postponed 
until the next Convention. 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Alexandria, May 

The assistant Bishop announced that he had accepted the 
Presidency of William and Mary College. 

208 CONVENTION OF 1850. 

Montross parish, Westmoreland ; St. John s church, Har 
per s Ferry; Trinity parish, Marshall county; Trinity 
church, Piedmont parish, Fauquier; St. Paul s parish, 
Putnam county, and St. John s church, Wheeling, were 
admitted into union with the Convention. 

The XIXTH Canon, the consideration of which was post 
poned by the last Convention to this, was taken up. 

After debate it was adopted as reported at the last Con 

The vote was taken by orders, and resulted as follows: 


Ayes Right Rev. William Meade, D. D., Right Rev. John Johns, 
D. D., Rev. Messrs. Adie, Andrews, Ambler, Bowers, Castleman, Cald- 
well, Cummins, Chisholm, Clark, Cole, Cooke, Carraway, Earnest, 
Friend, Fisher, Goodwin, Grammer, Gibson, Hyland, Hoff, Irish, John 
son, Jackson, Jones, Kinckle, Kinsolving, Locke, Lockwood, Minni- 
gerode, John C. McCabe, E. C. McGuire, William McGuire, E. B. 
McGuire, Meade, Norton, Nash, Pendleton, Rumney, Stringfellow, 
Sparrow, Shield, George A. Smith, Temple, Towles, Ward, Webb, 
Walker, Whittle 50. 

Noes. Rev. Messrs. Berkeley, Brown, Disbrow, Leavell, Meredith, 
Nelson, Peterkin, Sale, Withers, Wharton, Wingfield, Rich d H. Wilmer, 
Weed, George T. Wilmer 14. 


Ayes. Messrs. Ambler, Berkeley, Butler, Bradford, Brent, Chewning, 
Cosby, Chambliss, Derby, Fowle, Fisher, Fleming, Grice, Gray, Gait, 
Gantt, Hunter, Hooe, Harris, Harrison, Horner, Lee, Lewis, Martin, 
Montgomery, Thomas F. Nelson, Francis Nelson, William Nelson, 
Francis K. Nelson, Pryor, Powell, Page, Russell, Sheffey, Stevens, 
Shelton, Stewart, Stuart, Tayloe, Tarry, Taliaferro, Tyler, Weir, Wash 
ington 44. 

Noes. Messrs. Anderson, Carrington, Durfey, Edmunds, Hoggard, 
Macfarland, Minor, Oliver, Pollock, Skipwith, Smith, Taylor, Wilson, 
Watkins 14. 

Three clergymen, Kevs. J. Packard, D. D., Mark L. 
Chevers and E. A. Dalrymple, and two lay delegates, 

CONVENTION OF 1850. 209 

Messrs. C. J. Merriwether and Henry L. Davis, who were 
out of their seats when the vote was taken, were allowed to 
have it recorded that they would have voted in the affirma 
tive. One lay delegate, Dr. R H. Webh, not present, was 
allowed to make record that he would have voted in the 

A communication was received from the Bishop showing 
how a number of legacies and other property was lost to 
the Diocese from the insufficiency of the law to protect it. 

The committee to whom was referred the proposition from 
the Board of Trustees of the Virginia Female Institute at 
Staunton, submitted a report, which, as amended, is as 

The committee appointed for that purpose have had under consider 
ation a resolution adopted by the Trustees of the " Virginia Female 
Institute," on the 6th of May, 1850, in which they tender to this Con 
vention the property of said Institute, on the conditions that the Con 
vention will assume the debts thereof (the same being estimated at not 
more than $7,500), and the said Institute be continued as a school for 
the instruction of females. 

The committee beg leave to report, that they are unanimously of 
opinion that the Virginia Female Institute, if continued as a female 
school under the auspices and influence of the Church, will prove a 
nursery of piety and knowledge, and a blessing to the Diocese, and 
that the threatened danger of its sale and transfer to other hands 
ought, if possible, to be averted. They are, however, unwilling to 
recommend to the Convention (at this time) the acceptance of the 
proposition of the Trustees ; but trust that by the adoption of the reso 
lution they herewith submit, the means may be raised to avert the sale 
of the Institute, and to preserve to the Diocese a female school, which 
may hereafter be brought under the direct supervision and control of 
the Convention. They, therefore, respectfully recommend the adoption 
of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Convention highly appreciate the importance of 
the Virginia Female Institute at Staunton, and recommend to the 
friends of the Church to aid in extricating it from its present pecuniary 


210 CONVENTION OF 1850. 

The Convention approved Bishop Johns s connection 
with William and Mary College and recommended it to the 
patronage of the Church. 

A committee was appointed to consider the expediency of 
reducing the present parochial assessment for the Contin 
gent Fund. 

A committee was appointed to inquire into the manner in 
which the funds of the Seminary, Diocesan Missionary So 
ciety, Widows and Orphans and Episcopal Fund, were 
invested, and to give "their opinion as to the safety of the 
said funds, and the best plan for securing the same." 

The Trustees of the Seminary reported a fund of about 

The Colonization Society was endorsed and commended to 
the aid of the Church in this Diocese. 

Eleven clergy and five laymen who voted against Canon 
XIX were allowed to record "that their opposition was for 
reasons involving its constitutionality and expediency." 
The names are 

Richard H. Wilmer, George T. Wilmer, Richard T. Brown, William 
C. Meredith, D. M. Wharton, J. Ambler Weed, P. F. Berkeley, John H. 
Wingfield, Nelson Sale, William T. Leavell, Edmund Withers, W. L. 
Watkins, B. B. Minor, Richard Anderson, Tazewell Taylor, George M. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society reported their receipts at $1,970.80. They aided 
nineteen missionaries, distributed 350 Prayer Books, and 
7,372 pages of tracts. 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 211 


Convention met in Trinity church, Staunton, May 21st. 

The committee appointed to make report concerning the 
funds of the Seminary, &c., suggested that all such funds 
be invested in public stocks, and that they be held according 
to a form of certificate proposed by them. Approved. 

Cassius F. Lee was elected Secretary and A. L. Seabury 
assistant Secretary of the Convention. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary So 
ciety reported having aided nineteen missionaries, at an 
expense of $2,254.17. 

Wetzel parish, Wetzel county, was admitted into union 
with the Convention. 

The Seminary Trustees reported thirty-two students ; 
about $60,000 invested; eighty-one pupils in the High 
School, and more than twenty declined for want of ac 

Upon the subject of purchasing the Virginia Female 
Institute at Staunton, a report was approved, which closed 
with the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Bishops are requested to appoint one or more 
agents to solicit from the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia sub 
scriptions and contributions to the sum of $7,000, to enable the Conven 
tion to purchase from the Trustees of the Virginia Female Institute at 
Staunton the real estate and school-buildings and other property they 
have offered to this Convention. 

It was also 

Resolved, That the Right Rev. William Meade, Right Rev. John 
Johns, Rev. Thomas Castleman, Dr. F. Stribling, W. W. Donaghe, 
Pike Powers, N. C. Kenney, Colonel F. H. Smith, and F. J. Michie, be 

212 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

appointed Trustees to govern said Institute, and that the Board of Trus 
tees be elected annually by the Convention. 

It was resolved to hold on the first Sunday after Trinity 
a service in the celebration of the third Jubilee of the 
English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign parts. 

This was done in response to a suggestion of the Arch 
bishop of Canterbury. The offerings were to be devoted 
" to the erection of a building for the Female Seminary in 

The address of Bishop Meade was quite lengthy, but ia 
deemed worthy of reproduction: 


" My Dear Brethren : In looking forward to this meeting, 
my thoughts have very naturally turned to some method 
whereby I might contribute to its usefulness. A word in 
season is good. To know what that word should be, passing 
events must be noticed, and a lesson sought from them. 
We live in an age of high religious excitement. Our own 
beloved Church partakes largely of it. What the meaning 
of God s Word is on important points of doctrine and order, 
and what the sense of our articles, offices and other stand 
ards, are topics earnestly discussed. As might be expected, 
each party adduces Scripture for its justification in con 
tending earnestly for the faith/ expressing a strong confi 
dence that it holds the faith as once delivered to the saints. 
Equally confident is its language as to the doctrine of the 
Church. Not only the correctness of the opposite party in 
its judgment of the Church s doctrine, but the sincerity of 
its attachment to the Church itself, is often called in question. 
To this evil habit there has ever been a strong propensity 
in human nature, wherever a difference of opinion exists on 
important questions, whether of Church or State, and the 



law of love has been often greatly violated. Zeal, whether 
for our Church or country, often becomes an ungodly and 
uncharitable thing. One has called it the curst ungodli 
ness of zeal. We would not, however, be guilty of violating 
the law of love in another way, viz: by condemning as 
utterly void of piety and patriotism all who are even violent 
and denunciatory towards those whom they regard as in 
great error. We would not be fierce, even for moderation, 
lest we fall into the same condemnation. There is what has 
been called an extreme middle, which is also to be avoided. 
To condemn all as wrong who are arrayed against each 
other in a warm contest on some important point, is a very 
easy and convenient way of deciding . controversy ; one 
which requires little study, and oftentimes has little of 
charity in it. To judge righteous judgment is what God 
requires ; and as zeal without knowledge is not likely to do 
this, so neither is indifference to the distinctions between 
truth and error ; for religion is that thing, above all others, 
about which we are not allowed to be lukewarm. 

" Without further preface, let me state to my brethren the 
subject of this address. It will be the consideration of a 
delicate question, sometimes not very kindly handled, viz: 
What constitutes true churchmanship, or who is that true 
churchman, that sincere and zealous friend and member of 
the Church, who must not be charged with unfaithfulness or 
false-heartedness? In the discussion of it, I shall make no 
invidious comparisons, indulge in no denunciations, but 
address myself honestly to the task, by such lights and 
authorities as the Word of God, faithful history, and the 
standards of the Church may furnish. 

" First. In endeavoring to show wherein true churchman- 
ship consists, and of course who the true churchman is, we 
should inquire into the origin and meaning of the terms. 
Though allowable when rightly used, yet are they not to be 
found in Scripture, and for the most part have been un- 

214 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

happily and unkindly used. The word church, however, 
from which they are drawn, is often used by the sacred 
writers, and there are also expressions in the Scriptures 
setting forth what these terms intend to declare, viz: great 
zeal for the Church of God, a true lover and faithful servant 
of the Church. The word church, from whence they are 
derived, has a general as well as limited meaning. In its 
general sense it denotes all God s people, and whatever per 
tains to his kingdom. The true churchman, in regard to 
this sense of the term, is one who is zealous for all things 
appertaining to Christ s kingdom on earth, loves the whole 
church of God the blessed company of God s faithful 
people and shows his churchmanship by what he does for 
it and them. But there is a peculiar and restricted sense in 
which the word church is used, and from it in that restricted 
sense, the terms churchman and churchmanship, as com 
monly used, are drawn. We read not only of the church 
of God the church of Christ but the church of Corinth, 
of Ephesus, &c. In all history we read in like manner of 
churches in the various countries of Christendom. After a 
time, when a great division took place, we read of the 
Eastern and Western church, and at a still later period, of 
the Roman Catholic Church, and of those who protested 
against its dominion and corruption. Among these we may 
reckon the Protestant Episcopal churches of England and 
America, the latter being derived from the former, and 
adopting her doctrine, worship and polity, making only such 
changes as the differences of civil government required. 
The title of churchman was at an early period of her history 
given to a member of the established church of England; 
and the distinctive appellations of high and low churchman 
were added to designate certain views entertained as to her 
Scriptural claims, or her authority as the established Church, 
or as to both. 

"In determining what true churchmanship is, we of 



America must leave out of view all that is peculiar to our 
mother Church as an establishment, and any things in her 
which may have been altered after our Kevolution. We 
may be allowed, and indeed are bound to have reference to 
the history of the reformation in England, the changes made 
in the Prayer Book, and the writings of the reformers ; for 
all these are genuine evidences of the mind of those who 
snaped our articles and prayers. 

"But besides these we have a very simple method of 
trying the true churchman, in those documents to which 
almost all declare that they appeal, as containing their 
views of doctrine and churchmanship, namely, our articles, 
liturgy and homilies, as we now have them; for though 
the two former have been subjected to several revisions, they 
are substantially the same as when first established. There 
are, it is true, those who seem disposed to erect another test 
or standard of orthodox churchmanship, almost elevating it 
to a level with that which is divine. They make, not the re 
formation and the fathers of our Protestant Church, the 
judge and pattern, but the Church at some early period, and 
the writings of ancient fathers. They prefer to be called cath 
olic churchmen or Catholics, thus inventing another name 
not found in Scripture, and using it even more improperly 
than the other; but as so many of them have of late years 
chosen to enlarge their title yet more, and become Eoman 
Catholics, and as, with such exceptions, churchmen declare 
themselves willing to be tried by our acknowledged stand 
ards, we shall pass by these unhappy deserters, and proceed 
to the application of the admitted test to all others. 

"In the Prayer Book and homilies then we have the 
Church s doctrine, worship, polity, discipline and her bear 
ing towards all other churches. Let us try the churchman 
by these, and in the order just mentioned. 

" 1st. Who is the true churchman as to doctrine ? Since 

216 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

God has chosen to save men hy the foolishness of preach 
ing, and to sanctify souls by the truth, we may well give 
this the precedence. The true churchman, if a minister, 
while, according to his ordination vows, he will carry every 
thing to the Bible, making the law and testimony of God 
the rule of his faith and the substance of his preaching, 
will also have a conscientious regard to his subscription to 
the creeds which were completed at different periods, as 
they were called for, and to the articles, those more enlarged 
creeds, which were either drawn up or confirmed after due 
examination by men as competent, and we believe as much 
under the guidance of God s spirit, as those who executed 
the former, though from their length, and the variety of 
subjects embraced in them, the latter are more likely to be 
misunderstood, and even to be in error. They were not 
merely drawn up, in the first place, by a few men of learn 
ing and piety, but have, during the last three hundred 
years, been subjected to reexamination by Bishops, other 
ministers and laymen, and been used and approved by mil 
lions of God s people in the Episcopal Church in England, 
America and elsewhere, and highly approved by other^ mil 
lions not of our communion. But little variety of opinion 
can be entertained as to the meaning of those great funda 
mental doctrines which are the life and soul of them. If 
the same cannot be said of a few words and phrases in some 
of the offices, yet their general meaning is evidently in 
strict accordance with the articles. As the latter were de 
signed to be, to a certain extent, expositions of the former, 
and set forth for the express purpose of determining contro 
versies, the true churchman will see in all of them not yea, 
nay that is different doctrines and palpable contradic 
tions but the same mind of the same persons, (for they 
were the work of the same persons,) and will, therefore? 
honestly esteem both, even though he might desire to see 


more clearness in some passages for the sake of concord. 
The true churchman will delight to see sound doctrine so 
well guarded, not merely by brief creeds, but by more specific 
articles, devotional offices and prayers. He will bless God 
that by such means greater unity is produced among her 
members than by all the infallible decrees of Home, and 
that, in some good degree, false doctrines are kept out of our 
pale. He is not, however, required, in the face of all his 
tory, to affirm that these or any other articles or prayers 
can prevent all heresy, but that they are admirably formed 
for this purpose, as numbers not of our communion can 
didly acknowledge. He will not regard them as inspired, 
as some have done their symbolical books; he will not 
esteem them either as equal to Scripture, or as unerring 
interpreters of Scripture, but will love them as in his 
opinion superior to any human composition, either an 
cient or modern, as containing much of the very best 
which has come down to us from primitive times, as being 
the result of great piety, much learning, undaunted firm 
ness, most laborious study, and as being worthy of most 
devout gratitude to that God, who, though he does not now 
inspire with unerring wisdom, as at the first, the expounders 
of Scripture, does still fulfil his promise of being with his 
Church to the end of the world, to preserve the sacred 
deposit of truth which was granted to it. Thus far and no 
farther can the true Protestant Episcopal churchman go, 
without going beyond our reforming fathers in England, 
and the reviewers of their works in this country. I need 
not add that the great doctrines which he will see in the 
Prayer Book, as the centre around which all others revolve, 
and which keep all others in their proper place, are those of 
the holy trinity, the atonement, the deep depravity of human 
nature, renewal by the Holy Spirit, justification by faith, 
and the sacraments as means of grace to those who use them 

218 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

faithfully. These must be received into an honest heart as 
the great doctrines of the Church; else, all other zeal in 
its behalf will not constitute us true churchmen. The 
reformers would have repudiated all such as mere formalists, 
placing them with those who cried the temple of the Lord, 
the temple of the Lord are we, while the Lord of the temple 
was not in them by his spirit and his word. 

" 2dly. Let us see who is the true churchman as to the 
next point, viz: the worship of the Church. That it is a 
most important and influential part of the provision made 
in the Prayer Book for the promotion of our salvation must 
be acknowledged, from the fact that in all ages so much 
care has been taken to make it as perfect as possible. God s 
ancient people had their prayers for the temple and the 
synagogue, some of which have come down to us, and may 
be read at this day. Our Lord and his disciples often joined 
in their use. Others were added from time to time, more 
suited to Christian worship. One given to us by our Lord 
himself, was incorporated into every office and liturgy of 
the primitive Church, and contains the substance of all 
other prayers into which it was amplified. With such high 
authorities, who can question the advantage of a public 
liturgy ? and among the various liturgies which have been 
adopted from the earliest ages to the present time, who but 
must give the highest place to our own? With the Word 
of God, the experience of so many ages, and all the liturgies 
of by-gone days before them as their guides, how could such 
holy, learned and faithful men otherwise than succeed in 
producing a book which for three hundred years has ap 
peared so excellent that but little alteration has been called 
for? Is it weakness or superstition, or mere sectarianism, 
to rejoice in it, to make our boast of it, to bless God for it, 
and to regard it as a glorious inheritance bequeathed to us 
by our forefathers, from which we will never part ? What 



individual or number of individuals, however holy and wise, 
if set down to prepare a liturgy without making use of the 
helps and materials of past ages, could have furnished one 
which may compare with it? In proof of which, let the 
prayer for public worship drawn up by that most holy and 
most talented man, Richard Baxter, and offered as a substi 
tute for the English liturgy, be examined. Nothing could 
more effectually have established the superiority of our 
service, than the proposition to supersede it hy that well- 
meant effort, but most utter failure, of Mr. Baxter. When 
we consider also the efficacy of a liturgy for the use of minis 
ters and people, in moulding the minds, establishing the prin 
ciples, and directing the feelings of the worshippers, how 
can we sufficiently rejoice in having one of so holy, heart- 
stirring and sublime a character as our own ? If it be true 
which has been said of the ballads of a country, that they 
have more power to form the character of its citizens than 
the statutes thereof, how much more true must it be of the 
prayers which are continually used, by comparison with any 
other provisions of the Church ? And who can but admire 
the spirit of our prayers? What book on earth save the 
Bible is so full of Christ as the Prayer Book ? Every peti 
tion is put up either to him, or through him. We fear to 
proceed more than a few short sentences in prayer, without 
stopping and calling on Christ to take our requests and 
plead for them with the Father. And need I speak of the 
spirit of adoption, the spirit of praise, of deep humility, of 
hungering and thirsting after righteousness, of earnest long 
ing for more grace, which breathes throughout them ? How 
can such poor creatures, who have need of so many helps to 
prayer, otherwise than rejoice in such ? He that calls him 
self a churchman, and delights not in her prayers, has taken 
a misnomer to himself. 

"And yet, while the true churchman loves the Church s. 

220 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

prayers, he is not required to deny that there may be and 
are other prayers, either extempore or composed, which are 
most acceptable to God, when the heart goes with them. 
He may delight to think that so many thousands of peti 
tions, public and private, uttered in other words, are most 
prevailing with Heaven. He well knows that there were 
occasions when holy men of Scripture Prophets, Apostles, 
and our Lord himself while generally uniting in established 
forms, must have used others some of which, indeed, are 
interspersed through the Bible. He knows that our fore 
fathers engaged in no warfare against other prayers, whether 
extempore or composed, but besides expressly sanctioning 
such, by Kubric, in pastoral visits to the sick, used brief ones 
in the pulpit before and after sermons, specimens of which 
we have in connection with some of our homilies, and with 
many of the sermons of the old divines. Nor has it ever 
been attempted, either in England or America, to forbid 
what some practice even to this day. Nor has such practice 
ever led to the thought of superseding the liturgy of the 
Church by any other prayers. And if such liberty has been 
ver allowed in the pulpit and before the great congrega 
tion, how much more on those occasions when the minister 
meets with a few of his people for prayer and exhortation 
in a less public way, especially when even then he shows his 
love of the Church s prayers by using a portion of the same? 

" 3dly. Let us now inquire what the true churchman holds 
as to the ministry and government of Christ s Church. 

" To him one thing seems to be clear, viz : that the Church 
of God, under each of its two great dispensations, has had 
divers orders of ministers in it. In the Jewish Church, be 
yond dispute, there were the high priest, priest and levite. 
In the Christian, we are expressly told that Christ gave to 
his Church, and that God hath set in his Church 
ministers of different orders, and for different purposes, as 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 221 

apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers. Al 
though some of these were of short duration, and for special 
purposes, yet the principle of subordination and the fact of 
divers orders seem to he clearly established. As to the num 
ber and precise office of those which were continued, there 
has been diversity of sentiment. At the time of the Refor 
mation, the Pope, with his chief devotees, maintained that 
there were only two of Divine appointment, viz : priests and 
deacons, and that the Pope gave to the Bishops their pre 
eminence over the presbyters. Some Protestants maintained 
that there was only one order of the ministry, though there 
were other officers to be helpers of the same. The wisdom 
and moderation of our Church oh this subject is worthy of 
all praise. In her articles she affirms nothing positively or 
dogmatically concerning it, although so clear and strong on 
the great points of doctrine. She only declares the neces 
sity of a lawful call to the ministry, in opposition to self- 
constituted teachers. But in the preface to her ordination 
services she exhibits the perfection of prudence, honesty and 
charity, in stating the grounds of her own decision and 
action. She there affirms her undoubting belief that from 
the apostles times, that is, even during their days, and ever 
since, there were and have been these orders, viz : Bishops, 
priests and deacons that while the apostles themselves 
were exercising their high and peculiar gifts there were 
these orders. In the services themselves she speaks of God 
as by his spirit and Divine providence appointing divers 
orders ; not that Christ himself expressly appointed them 
with his own lips as he did the sacraments, ordaining the 
apostles to be of the first order, and all Bishops to be full 
and regular successors to them in office. On this disputed 
ground she did not venture. As to the precise amount of 
apostolic power granted to them she says nothing. That 
they were successors to the apostles in some things, as infe- 

222 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

rior ministers were in other things, she doubtless held, 
although the only occasion on which the term apostolic suc 
cession is used, appears in an office (the institution of minis 
ters) where it must comprehend all orders of the ministry, 
and refers to their descent from the apostles, not to the 
powers possessed by them. She must have been well aware 
that as prophets and evangelists had ceased to be used in 
the Church, and as deacons had been created by the apostles, 
the Holy Ghost moving them thereto, so there were those 
who believed that the apostolic office ceased with the first 
apostles, and that bishops, as a new order, were appointed 
to govern the Church, and therefore may she have avoided 
the introduction of that disputed point.* 

* It may be thought that as for the most part the advocates of the 
apostolic succession, understood in its fullest sense, admit that some of 
the gifts of the apostles, as inspiration and miracles, ceased with them, 
and only the ordinary powers of government and ordination were con 
tinued to the Bishops as their successors, and as the opponents also 
admit that, although like the office of deacon, the Episcopal office was 
a new one, established by the apostles under the direction of the Holy 
Ghost, yet it did succeed to some of the powers of the apostolic office, 
therefore the dispute is rather one of words or names, and not of much 

The opponents, however, think otherwise, and say that as the over 
grown power of the Pope resulted from the doctrine of his succession 
to the alleged supremacy of Peter, so if each Bishop is to be regarded 
as a regular successor to the apostles, who had those great and unde 
fined powers which were necessary to the first establishment of Chris 
tianity, it may lead to a claim of much greater powers and privileges 
on their part than can consist with the rights of others and the welfare 
of the Church. This apprehension has been increased of late years by 
the high claims of tractarians in behalf of Bishops, who are declared by 
them to be the full successors to all the power, and channels of all the 
grace deposited in the apostles for the establishment and future govern 
ment and sanctification of the Church. The opponents also say that 
the Church has not only rejected this doctrine, by subjecting Bishops to 
laws made not by themselves only, but conjointly by other clergymen 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 223 

"And now, if it be, or if we believe it to be, that God has 
not only thus showed his preference to a three-fold ministry 
among the Jews, but by his spirit and providence led the 

and laymen, thus restricting their power, as was not the case with the 
apostles, but has carefully refrained from any language identifying the 
Episcopal with the apostolic office. A reference to the consecration 
service and other parts of the Prayer Book will show that they are cor 
rect in the affirmation of a careful avoidance of any expressions identi 
fying the two offices. The Bishops are indeed represented as doing 
some things after the. example of the apostles as in confirmation and 
reference is had to the apostles in the consecration service ; yet are the 
Bishops not declared to be of their order, not identified with them, as 
deacons and priests are with those who were first ordained to those 
orders. Let any one examine the various places, where, if this doctrine 
were certainly held by the Church, and intended to be taught, it would 
have been most easy, natural, and proper to introduce it, and yet see 
how it is avoided, and he must conclude that it is only a matter of 
private inference on the part of those who hold it, and from insufficient 
data. It may have been one of those doubtful points about which she 
chose to be silent, knowing that there was a diversity of sentiment. If 
the learned Dr. Barrow s testimony is of weight on this subject, the 
fathers themselves did not identify the two offices, as some have inferred 
from their language. See his able treatise on the Pope s supremacy. 
If the author is not mistaken, the writings of the reformers furnish 
abundant evidence that some of them made the same distinction. 
That Scripture which is most relied on for the identification of the two, 
is the promise of our Lord of being with the apostles to the end of the 
world. His presence with their successors in perpetuating the apostolic 
office and ordaining other ministers, is supposed to be the true meaning 
of that promise. Such does not seem to be sustained by the Church s 
teaching. In the homily on the Holy Ghost this promise is regarded as 
given to the whole Church, for the preservation of the faith. In the 
ninety-eighth hymn and in the institution office it is applied to all the 
ministers of the Gospel, no intimation being given that it was chiefly 
for the successors of the apostles in perpetuating their offices. The 
ninety-ninth hymn is a kind of paraphrase of that passage in Ephesians 
which speaks of the appointment of divers orders in the ministry, viz : 
apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers. 

224 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

apostles to ordain Bishops, presbyters and deacons as officers 
in the Church, what need we more to decide our choice most 
positively, and make us adhere to it most unwaveringly. 
Can we consent to place on the mere ground of human ex 
pediency, on account of the supposed advantages of epis- 

After speaking of the three former, as having been at the first, it 
represents the two last as still continuing. 

" In lower forms, to bless our eyes, 
Pastors from hence and teachers rise, 
Who, though with feebler rays they shine, 
Still mark a long extended line. 
So shall the bright succession run, 
Through all the courses of the sun, 
While unborn churches, by their care, 
Shall rise and flourish large and fair." 

Our present Bishops, of course, must come under the denomina 
tion of pastors, who are carrying on the work begun by apostles, 
prophets, and evangelists, which is not only the opinion of some judi 
cious commentators, but seems to be supported by the consecration 
service, where we find the term pastor emphatically applied to Bishops. 
In that service, when, if ever, the Church would identify the apostolic 
Episcopal office, we find that the title of apostle is never given to the 
Bishop, nor the term apostleship ever used. The terms used are 
Bishop and pastor the work of a Bishop the office to which you are 
called this administration, etc. Reference is indeed made to the apos 
tles in the service, and lessons from Scripture are used which relate to 
them, and most properly too, for the Bishop s office and work come 
nearest to that of the apostles, and follow after it ; but, as Dr. Barrow 
remarks, a dictator may appoint some one to succeed him in govern 
ment, but not in the same office of dictator, that being only temporary. 

From what has been said, we may surely infer that the Church does 
not require to be believed, as essential to a true attachment to herself, ^ 
what she has carefully avoided to inculcate in her standards. 

If we sincerely receive what she plainly teaches as to the Episcopal 
office, and those who fill it according to its requirements, and all men 
esteem them for their office, as well as work sake, we shall reap abun 
dant benefits therefrom. 


copacy, that for which we think we can produce such an 
exhibition of God s will? Seeing that human nature, 
whether as to civil or religious concerns, is so much the 
same in every age, and that in every age subordination, 
divers orders and officers, both in Church and State, are 
required, can we think that this was an intimation of the 
Divine will only for a certain generation, and that other 
generations might at pleasure change it for one which 
seemed to be suitable to themselves? A true churchman 
cannot do this. He will love and respect that system which 
he believes to be God s will, for the government of his house 
hold too much, to consent to any departure not justified by 
great necessity. But is it needful to go yet further in our 
belief of the Divine appointment of such a ministry, and 
say of it, as of the holy sacraments, that it is appointed by 
Christ himself, or, as of the holy law, that God spake these 
words and said ; and that it can admit of no change what 
ever without destruction to the whole, and that no diversity 
of opinion on the subject can be admitted? Is it necessary 
to true churchmanship, to a sincere and hearty approval of 
our ecclesiastical organization, and a zealous promotion of 
it, that we affirm there can be no other ministry whose 
labors are accepted and blessed of heaven, no other Church 
than that which has such a ministry? Then must we cease 
to claim fellowship on this point with our Anglican fore 
fathers, must forget all the past history of our Mother 
Church, strike from the list of true churchman her Cran- 
mers, and Jewels, and Hookers, and a long line of her best 
Bishops and other ministers, who held no such opinion, but 
declared the very contrary. 

" The well-known sentiments also of such fathers of the 
American church as White, and Wharton, and Smith, the 
chief reviewers of our Prayer Book, must be repudiated, and 
the language of its preface and other parts be entirely 

226 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

changed. If any think that they see a more exclusive doc 
trine in God s Word, or in ancient tradition, they can only 
claim the privilege of holding it as a private opinion. To 
treat it, and require others to hold it, as the doctrine of the 
Church, in spite of all her history, and to denounce those as 
false-hearted and unsound who do not, is itself, not only a 
violation of Christian charity, but, as we conceive, of true 
Protestant churchmanship, since nothing can be clearer than 
that our reformers in England, and our fathers in America, 
who impressed their views on the articles, offices and other 
parts of the Prayer Book, as well as set them forth in other 
ways, only held that our Episcopal regimen was essential to 
the perfection, and not to the existence of a Church. And 
need we add, that when perfection is required as a true note 
or mark of a church of Christ, then will there cease to be 
one upon earth? 

"4thly. Having considered what true churchmanship is 
in regard to order and polity, let us see what are its views 
as to the discipline of the Church. 

" Godly discipline has ever been regarded as one of the 
notes or marks of a true church. Our Protestant forefathers 
charged the Church of Home with being greatly wanting in 
this, and scarce deserving the name of Church by reason of 
such want. Discipline relates to the laws of any society, 
and the penalties of disobedience. All institutions must 
have laws for the good government thereof. Christ s King 
dom has its laws and penalties. Many of them were 
expressly appointed by Christ himself. Others, in con 
formity with the same, have from time to time been put 
forth by the Church. No true churchman can otherwise 
than acknowledge the obligation of obedience to such as are 
lawfully enacted. To obey the powers ordained of God, 
whether civil or ecclesiastical, when exercised according to 
his revealed will, is a most bounden duty. The ministers of 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 227 

our Church, at the time of their ordination, promise faithful 
obedience to those who are placed over them, and who exer 
cise their authority according to prescribed rules or canons. 
A due respect also is required to their godly admonitions and 
judgments. This obedience and respect is to be shown not 
merely to those with whom we may agree in sentiment, or 
sympathize in theological views, but conscientiously, as to 
the Lord ; and it may be done without any improper sacrifice 
of Christian liberty or right of private judgment. 

"As to all the rules and regulations of the Church 
called canons, rubrics, or by any other name, whether the 
observance be specially required by rulers or not, the true 
churchman will hold himself bound to do it. He will not 
select certain of them, such as he most approves, or most 
:accord with his doctrines, and scrupulously observe these, 
making such observance a test of churchmanship, and de 
nouncing those who do not, but he will do with them 
as with the laws of God, resolve to obey them all, out of 
respect to the authority enjoining them. And yet, as 
even the laws of God differ in importance, and may some of 
them be omitted or disobeyed under peculiar circumstances ; 
.since God himself, preferring mercy to sacrifice, allows even 
his holy Sabbath to be violated as to its letter, and sacrifices 
and offerings to be withheld; so a wise discretion has ever 
been conceded to God s ministers in the observance of inferior 
rules, or in regard to things become obsolete, having due 
reference to times, places and circumstances. Wherever 
such discretion has not been allowed, or exercised, the result 
has been that men have strained at the gnat and swallowed 
the camel, have tithed mint, anise and cummin, and neg 
lected the weightier matters of the law. It should always 
be remembered that as the Sabbath was made for man, and 
not man for the Sabbath, so rubrics and canons were made 
for the Church, and not the Church for them. In the course 

228 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

of a ministery of more than forty years, during which I have 
mingled much with brethren of all orders of the ministry, 
and all shades of opinion, and of course had much oppor 
tunity of observation, I have often discerned the propensity 
in persons of different views, habits and latitudes, to select 
their own favorite rubrics and customs for strict observance, 
and pass others hy as of little importance, while severely 
condemning those who did not think and act with them 
selves. As to that part of discipline which consists in the 
enforcement of penalties, whether on the clergy or laity, it 
is proper to say something. The true churchman, zealous 
for the honor, anxious for the purity of the Church, remem 
bering that judgment will begin at the house of God, and 
what charges are given on the subject in the sacred writings, 
will not be loose and negligent as to godly discipline. If 
the primitive church in some respects may have gone to an 
extreme in its use, the Church of England, ever since the 
reformation, has mourned over the want of it and prayed 
its restoration. Although too many of friends and foes, in 
England and America, have seemed to consider it a prom 
inent feature in the Church to leave all but the most 
extreme offenders to G-od and their own conscience, such was 
not the opinion and design of the reformers, however hin 
dered they may have been in the execution thereof. They 
drew their estimate of evil living, both in the clergy and 
laity, from the early Church, and renewed some of the 
canons of the same. They understood the works of the 
devil, the lusts of the flesh, the pomps and vanities of the 
world, as renounced in the baptismal vows, which vows were 
copied from the primitive liturgies, as they were understood 
in primitive times, that is, as being all manner of sins, 
whether of the flesh or spirit, all the vain and sinful amuse 
ments of the world, in which some professing Christians 
have ever delighted. Instead, therefore, of the true church- 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 229 

man leaving it to puritans and those of other denominations 
to condemn and oppose these things, and exercise discipline 
thereon, if he follows the reformers, as they followed the 
apostles and fathers, and is true to the spirit and design of 
our baptismal vows, rubrics and canons, none will be more 
decided in his condemnation of all evil living, and when 
either clergy and laity, of whatever order or rank, shall 
transgress, and bring reproach on the Church, will be ready 
to sustain and enforce all godly discipline. 

" Lastly. Let us inquire into the feelings and conduct of 
the true churchman toward all who call themselves by the 
name of Christ. This has become a most delicate and im 
portant question by reason of the numerous divisions of 
Christendom, and the differences existing between the 
churches thereof. To say nothing of those before the 
Keformation, at that time large numbers in connection 
with, and in subjection to the Church of Home, renounced 
her unscriptural authority, her false doctrines and corrupt 
worship. They who thus renounced her were divided into 
separate churches themselves, according to the different 
countries in which they lived, various circumstances con 
tributing to modify their forms of Church polity and public 
worship. In one thing, however, they have all agreed, viz : 
in refusing communion with the Church of Rome on ac 
count of her many abominations. The Church of Rome, on 
the other hand, has never ceased to anathematise them and 
their descendants as schismatics and heretics, who have no 
part or lot in the Church of God. She also continues to 
this day the same in doctrine, worship and manners ; and 
if Protestants are true to the principles of the Reformation, 
there can be no communion as churches, or as individuals, 
in religious ordinances, whatever may be the charities of 
social life. The consistent Protestant churchman who holds 
the Reformation in esteem, understands and appreciates the 

230 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

differences between us and Home, must perceive that, whilst 
she continues unchanged, any approximation on our part 
must be a departure from the principles of the Reformation, 
and fraught with danger. Our Mother Church for a long 
time publicly prayed against the wiles and artifices of 
Rome; and although we wish not that prayer restored, if 
we do not watch and pray continually, and adopt all proper 
means of defence, we shall suffer from that same foe, whe 
ther going about as a roaring lion, or in the garb of an 
angel of light. 

"As to the intercourse of Protestants and Protestant 
churches, one with another, it has varied according to times 
and circumstances. Some have refused intercommunion 
when it was believed that there had been such a departure 
from the faith, as set forth in the Bible, and the confessions 
adopted at the Reformation, as would justify such a re 
fusal. I need not say that our forefathers of the Refor 
mation held most friendly communion with the ministers 
and members of those continental churches with which they 
agreed so well in doctrine. They differed from them as to 
Church polity and worship, but did not consider this as a, 
bar to such friendship and cooperation as they could not 
conscientiously have with Rome. They could and did unite 
with them in the publication and circulation of that Bible 
whose use Rome forbids. They could and did unite in 
writing, circulating, and using tracts, catechisms and books, 
which were called for by the times in which they lived. 

"In the progress of events, and when secession, on what 
she regarded insufficient grounds, began to take place from 
the bosom of the English Church, it was not to be expected 
that this same sympathy and joint action should continue 
in all things, either as to kind or degree. But still even 
-dissenters from the Church of England were never regarded 
as the corrupt followers of Rome. They were never de- 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 231 

nounced as the great anti-Christ of Scripture. On the con 
trary, whereas upon more than one occasion when Rome was 
seeking to regain her lost influence and authority, we find 
all Protestants uniting as against a common foe, we never 
hear of English churchmen invoking the aid of Rome to put 
down Protestant dissent within the realm. * 

"What then is the proper course to he pursued "by a true 
and consistent churchman, whether Anglican or American, 
who desires to be regulated by the principles and practises 
of our forefathers? Will he seek to find some road just 
equi-distant between the Church of Rome and the non-Epis 
copal churches of the Reformation, or, as is sometimes said, 
between Rome and G-eneva? Such surely is not the road 
once traveled by our forefathers, and so deeply stained with 
the blood of the martyrs of the English Church. Such 
surely is not the road marked out in our Prayer Book and 
homilies. What if it be granted that our Church has re 
tained some few things which others laid aside, and thus 
may be said to stand between Rome and Geneva ; let it be 
remembered that one may stand between two points, or 
travel between two roads, and yet be very near to the one, 
while a great way off from the other. A churchman might 
in some things go between the two, and yet be very far from 
that via media for which some contend, and which, as the 
experience of the last few eventful years has proved, too 
often leads, like the old Via Appia, into the main street of 
Rome. The true churchman will indeed condemn and avoid 

* See how differently the Protestants from the Continent are enter 
tained at the great National Fair now going on in England, from the 
followers of Rome. The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of 
London, and noble laymen, are active in providing churches for the 
former, for the use of ministers and people, and addressing them in the 
most fraternal manner, while denouncing the latter as enemies. Such 
a course is surely not the via media between Rome and Geneva. 

232 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

all things which seem to be contrary to God s Word, and 
those standards which he has sincerely adopted, but then 
he will make a great difference between the corruptions of 
Rome and the backslidings of some Protestants. The false 
doctrines, idolatrous worship, and evil practices of Rome 
are established by her highest authority, are universally 
adopted, are gloried in, are required to be received of all in 
order to salvation. The apostacies of Protestants are those 
of individuals and parties who have deviated from the ac 
knowledged standards of their churches, and are very few 
by comparison with those of Rome. Such are the Socinians, 
the Unitarians and Neologists of Europe and America, w-ho 
have departed from the faith of their Protestant fathers, 
and some of whom have troubled Episcopal churches from 
the days of Arius to the present moment. Let us be thank 
ful that under God our articles and prayers and apos 
tolic form of government have contributed much to keep us 
more sound in the faith than some who have not enjoyed 
the same advantages, and let us adhere to them most 
steadily and zealously on that account. And now, if it be 
said, seeing there is such great difference between the errors 
of Rome and of some Protestant churches, may we not, 
while refusing all fellowship with the one, indulge in the 
freest and fullest intercourse with the other; we answer, it 
requires but little experience to satisfy a sound-minded 
person that the communion and amalgamation which some 
good people think so very desirable, and for which some 
designing ones argue, as may suit their purpose, is utterly 
impracticable, without producing worse evils than those 
sought to be avoided. This is true of all the various di 
visions of the Christian world, but especially so in relation 
to our Church, differing as it does so much from others as to 
its ministry and worship. The wise and candid of all de 
nominations see and feel that common churches, mixed ser- 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 233 

vices and partnership concerns fail of their object, or, at any 
rate, can only be justified in some infant state of religious 
society, and as exceptions to a general rule. But it may be 
asked whether, beside that Christian intercourse which the 
truly pious of every name should be always ready to hold 
as individuals and neighbors, there are not some objects and 
occasions which may unite not only the hearts but the hands 
of Protestants in promoting the truth as it is in Jesus, as 
was the case with our forefathers, and thereby prove to 
Romanists and infidels that we are agreed on the great 
essentials of the Christian faith, and are earnestly desirous 
for the extension of the Redeemer s Kingdom. The false 
assertion of Rome, that Protestants were all in utter con 
fusion among themselves, was disproved by the fact, that 
they agreed together, as we have said, in publishing and 
circulating the Bible, and many other books, setting forth 
the great undisputed truths of the Bible, and subsequently 
presenting in one volume all their confessions, thereby" 
showing a wonderful agreement on main points. And are 
there no such institutions in our day, having the same 
objects in view, in which all Protestants may unite without 
any sacrifice of principle? What shall we say of those 
noble institutions of England and America which are dis 
tributing in almost every tongue millions of the sacred 
Scriptures, in which, of course, all denominations believe 
they are disseminating their own views of Divine truth 
without any abatement? And may we not add to these at 
least two great associations of our land, in which, for so 
many years, Christians of the leading denominations have 
so harmoniously and effectively combined, our own Church 
having ever been fully and ably represented therein?* 
Who does not rejoice to think of the circulation by them of 

*The American Sunday School Union and American Tract Society. 

234 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

millions of excellent books, tracts, catechisms and hymns,, 
suitable for every age and class, and from which nothing 
is omitted which any but Komanists would consider essen 
tial to salvation ? We cannot but regard these institutions 
as raised up by Providence, as for other reasons, so es 
pecially for uniting Protestants in one common effort against 
the assaults of Rome in these latter days, when the battle 
of the Reformation is again to be fought, and by no Church 
more vigorously than our own. A more effective antidote to 
the poison which she would insinuate into all ranks of our 
citizens cannot well be conceived, than is to be found in 
those almost innumerable publications which are carried as 
by the winds of heaven into every nook and corner of our 
land. If it be pleaded that some things which different 
denominations deem important must be left out of these 
publications, we reply, let such things be set forth as they 
already are, and ever will be, by other societies. Denomi 
national zeal will always do this. And if any, either 
from conscientious scruples, or other cause, choose to devote 
their efforts and means entirely to these latter institutions, 
they, of course, have full liberty so to do, but let not such 
upbraid with false-heartedness to their own Church any who 
differ from them. For one, I shall not let my liberty be 
judged of in such matters by other men s conscience or 
opinion. Nor with such examples as I have quoted, and 
those which, in every period since the Reformation, might 
be adduced, do I feel that I am the less sincere and true in 
my loyalty to the Church of my Fathers and of my choice. 
And I humbly conceive that as the citizens of our country 
show their patriotism and attachment to the Constitution 
by a becoming respect to the well-known sentiments and 
conduct of the heroes and statesmen who secured our liber 
ties and founded our government, so may we show our 
churchmanship as Protestants, by a filial though not super- 

CONVENTION OF 1851. 235 

stitious regard to the sentiments, and a respectful though 
not slavish following after the example of the reformers and 
fathers of our Church. 


"In drawing these remarks to a close, let me now sum up 
in a few words the impression which prevails in my mind 
as to the character of a true churchman in our branch of 
the Christian church : 

"1st. He is one who is sincerely attached to the doctrines 
thereof, as seen in the Prayer Book, and confirmed by the 
cotemporaneous writings of those who drew up the Prayer 
Book in England, or revised it in America; not as inter 
preted by the fathers, or what is called Catholic consent. 
Nevertheless, according to the Prayer Book, he acknowl 
edges the Bible as the only Divine rule of faith, and 
esteems the doctrines of the Church, because he believes, 
them to be according to that Divine rule. 2d. He loves the 
liturgy of the Church, because he believes it to be according 
to the doctrines of the Bible and Prayer Book. As to her 
worships, he seeks to enter into its deep spirit of devotion, 
without which all his admiration and praise of it will be of 
no avail., If he be a minister, he will read it as one who 
feels its truth, and will seek to induce his congregation to- 
unite audibly and heartily with him. If a parent, he will 
not only open his mouth and utter it as one not ashamed, 
but seek to lead his children and others to do the same. 
3d. As to the ministry and government of the Church, he- 
will show his belief of its apostolic appointment and many 
excellencies, by obeying, according to his station, those who 
are over him in the Lord. He will honor each order of that 
ministry which he believes to have come down from the 
apostles, according to its office and the authority given to it,, 
not wishing to elevate or depress either of them. 4th. As 
to those divisions of Christendom which have, whether 

236 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

through unavoidable necessity, or mistaken judgment, de 
viated from what he conceives to he the apostolic regimen, 
he will seek to judge of them and act towards them as God 
sets the example, and our forefathers followed. He will see 
that God chose to use them as he did the reformers of our 
Mother Church, for restoring true faith and piety when they 
were almost vanished from among men; and that, to the 
present day, he still continues to use them for the purpose 
of promoting his cause upon earth. While, therefore, he 
laments what he regards as a defect, through which great 
evils have entered their communion, he dares not reject 
from the Church of Christ those whom Christ has thus 
honored, but as he hopes to meet with them, and be ever 
with them in his presence hereafter, so he delights to walk 
with them in love here below, and cooperate in all good 
works, so far as can be done without the sacrificing of con 
science and the engendering of discord and confusion. As 
a man may be a patriot and a philanthropist at the same 
time, may love his own country especially, and yet love the 
whole human race, so the churchman may love above all 
other his own particular Church, and seek its prosperity 
more diligently, and yet love all the people of God, by what 
ever name they be called. Thus while especially devoted 
to his own Church, and even to some portion of the same, 
it may be truly said of him, 

To sect or party his large soul 
Disdains to be confined, 

The good he loves of every name 
And prays for all mankind. 

"His charity only begins at home; it knows no bounds 
but those set by God himself for his own benevolence. 

God loves from whole to parts, but human soul 
From individual to the whole. 


"I confess, my brethren, that I have always loved our own 
and Mother Church for this, as for many other reasons, that 
I think in her whole history, from the Reformation to the 
present day, there has been a due admixture of this liberal 
feeling towards others with a most ardent attachment to her 
own peculiarities. If in either of them there has been, 
whether in public acts or private opinions, anything to the 
contrary (nor is this denied), it is believed that the great 
body of her members have not partaken of it. The high 
station they have occupied, and the intelligence belonging 
to them, have, doubtless, contributed not a little to such 
liberality; but the spirit breathing through all her devo 
tions, and the character and example of her early reformers 
and martyrs, and the compilers of her Prayer Book, have 
contributed much more. In her whole history there is also 
much to interest, though not without that which we must 
all lament and condemn. Let the history of the English 
Church be stricken from the annals of Christendom ; let the 
memoirs of her Bishops, other ministers and eminent lay 
men be consigned to oblivion; let all the volumes of ser 
mons, theological treatises and devotional works be dismissed 
from the libraries of the divines of every denomination, and 
what a melancholy blank would be created. And may I 
not add, that if the history of her youthful daughter in 
America, as seen in the early efforts for her first establish 
ment on the part of English friends, in the difficulties 
encountered in our own county, in the character of many of 
her leading advocates, both among the clergy and laity, and 
in the success which, through God s blessing, has crowned 
their labors, be considered, we have much to interest our 
minds, and much to endear her to our hearts. And may I 
not further add, that as there is a Church of England and 
America which we are allowed to love above all other great 
divisions of the Church of Christ upon earth, so there is to 

238 CONVENTION OF 1851. 

us, my brethren and friends, a Church in Virginia which 
we may love and care for with a yet more special affection. 
Is there nothing peculiarly interesting in her history to 
justify the historiographer of the Church in the United 
States to choose it for his first effort? Is there nothing in 
her earliest history to excite even a romantic interest in her 
behalf, though there be much more to mourn over in the 
progress thereof? Is there nothing to the same end in her 
struggles for existence itself at the close of the Kevolution, 
when thousands were crying out, Down with her, down 
with her, even to the ground ? Is there nothing to sustain 
our faith and excite our gratitude to God in the most unex 
pected resuscitation of her from a state of apparent death? 
Is there nothing to endear her to the heart in the repaired 
temples of our forefathers, and even in the yet remaining 
ruins of some of the old ones? Is there nothing to com 
mend her to our choice in the character of those individuals 
and families who, in times of desertion, still adhered to her 
fallen fortunes, and whose descendants now constitute the 
great body of her communion? Is there nothing in her 
well-attended Conventions, and the affection which has ever 
bound our hearts together on such occasions, to make us love 
the Church in this Diocese? Is there nothing to commend 
it to our affection and confidence in that Seminary which 
has not only supplied our own State with so many faithful 
ministers, but whose hundreds of Alumni are to be seen in 
all parts of our own land ; and, yet more, who form so large 
a proportion, almost, indeed, the entire band of those de 
voted missionaries, who in Europe, Asia and Africa, are 
seeking to spread the glorious gospel through the world ? 

"Is it weakness, my friends, to love such a Church, and 
speak of it sometimes even to boasting? Not, if at the 
same time we mourn over our unworthiness as members 
thereof, and do not withhold the candid acknowledgment of 

CONVENTION OF 1852. 239 

much error and sin pervading our portion, as well as all 
other portions of Zion. But with such feeling and confes 
sion we may, and I trust all of us will, as to our Church in 
its wide extension through the earth, and in her special 
location in our midst, take up the language of one of our 
sweet hymns : 

Beyond my highest joys 
I prize her heavenly ways, 
Her sweet communion, solemn vows, 
Her hymns of love and praise. 
If e er my heart forget 
Her welfare or her woe, 
Let every joy this heart forsake, 
And every grief o erflow.j| 
For her my tears shall fall, 
For her my prayers ascend, 
To her my cares ,and toils be given, 
Till toils and cares shall end. " 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Richmond, May 19th. 

Salem Parish, Roanoke county, Rockingham parish, Rock- 
ingham county, Leighton parish, Cumberland county, St. 
John s parish, Pleasants county and Ravenswood parish, 
Jackson county, were admitted into union with the Conven 

The following series of resolutions were offered, favoring 
the establishment by the General Convention, of a Supreme 
Court of Appeals : 

Whereas, a canon was proposed in the General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, at its last session, providing for the insti- 

240 CONVENTION OF 1852. 

tution of a Supreme Court of Appeals, to determine questions of law, 
upon proper appeal from the ecclesiastical authority of any Diocese ; 
and whereas this Convention believes such appellate tribunal, organized 
upon just principles, would tend to promote the best interests of our 
Zion ; and whereas it was decided by the House of Deputies that the 
subject was of importance, and should be referred to the next General 
Convention ; and whereas it may be supposed the national legislature 
of our Church will be somewhat influenced in its judgment by an 
expression of the known wants of their constituents ; therefore 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Convention, a Supreme Court 
of Appeals for deciding questions of law arising in Diocesan judica- 
tories, is needed, and that the want of such tribunal is a marked 
deficiency in our otherwise admirable and republican system of Church 

Resolved, That as a natural consequence of the absence of some 
general judicial review of mooted law points arising in various Dio 
ceses, the legislation of the General Convention has assumed, to some 
extent, the form of special enactment, tending to change the nature of 
our great law-making authority, and to substitute for its legitimate 
functions the exercise of powers judicial in effect. 

Resolved, That an important principle of all free governments for 
bids the vesting of legislative and judicial powers in the same hands; 
and as such combinations of functions in the same man or body of 
men is in civil governments deemed tyrannical, it cannot be safe in 
ecclesiastical politics, because experience has shown that ecclesiastics 
may run the same career of ambition and despotism as that pursued 
by other men. 

Resolved, That while we have no disposition to dictate a course of 
conduct for our delegates to the General Convention, neither do we 
express any opinion with regard to the precise organization of the 
supreme tribunal, yet we cannot but hope that a just and effective 
scheme may be presented and adopted for remedying the defect 
referred to; and we cannot but express our earnest solicitude, that 
those who have been constituted proper authorities for regulating the 
important matter, may be so guided in their deliberations and fur 
thered in their efforts, that the rights, liberties and privileges of all 
within our borders may be secured from the evils of injustice and 

They were referred to a Special Committee to consider 
and report to the next Convention. 

CONVENTION OF 1853. 241 

The Bishop was requested to put forth a form of prayer 
to be used at a service on a Sabbath named by him, when 
the congregations should have their attention directed to 
the great and increasing want of ministerial services. 

It was 

Resolved, That this Convention heartily approves the course of many 
of its members in forming themselves into convocations for continuous 
preaching, and for the purposes ordinarily contemplated in such organ 
izations; and that we do recommend to those of the clergy who have 
not yet adopted this practice, to unite in convocations whenever it 
may be practicable. 

A committee was appointed to present to the Governor a 
memorial from the Convention, to appoint a day for public 

The Rectors of the churches in Richmond were requested 
to cause collections to be made to-morrow morning in their 
respective churches, in aid of the Education Society. 

Measures were taken to raise the balance of the money 
necessary to pay for the Virginia Female Institute. The 
deficiency reported was $5,132.20 

The Trustees of the Seminary reported thirty students 
$62,000 invested funds. They also reported the High School 
to be in a very flourishing condition. 


Convention met in St. Matthew s church, Wheeling, May 

Bishop Johns presided, Bishop Meade being absent be 
cause of sickness. 

Rev. George D. Cummins was elected Secretary. 


242 CONVENTION OP 1853. 

Johns parish, Loudoun county, St. James parish, South- 
am, Powhatan county, and Luther parish, Clarke county, 
were admitted into union with the Convention. 

The Secretary read the report of Mr. George M. Carring- 
ton, treasurer of the fund for the purchase of the Virginia 
Female Institute at Staunton, showing a sum total received 
for that object of $2,843.04. 

The following resolution was offered and adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to obtain informa 
tion, and report some plan to the next Convention for the relief of 
disabled clergymen. 

Rev. Dr. Sparrow, chairman of the committee to whom 
was referred, at the last Convention, the resolution intro 
duced by the Rev. Mr. Norton, relative to the establishment 
of an ecclesiastical appellate court, read the report of the 
committee. We quote from it as follows : 

The committee appointed on the resolutions offered at our last Con 
vention, touching the subject of a supreme court of appeal in the 
general Church, beg leave to report : They regret that they have to 
begin with the remark that though they did not forget the matter 
referred to them at the close of our last Convention, they have been 
placed in circumstances in every view unfavorable to the satisfactory 
discharge of the duty devolved upon them. A meeting of the mem 
bers, at which they might, by a mutual comparison of their views, and a 
full discussion of principles, evolve the truth in their own minds, and 
arrive at a definite and settled conclusion, has been altogether impos 
sible. They are under the necessity of presenting results of very 
little conference and consultation. 

But even if they had enjoyed every opportunity of the kind referred 
to, they still must confess that they have found the subject submitted to 
their examination to be one involved in difficulty, so much so as to 
admit, on their part at the best, of a somewhat diffident and hesitating 

The report states at considerable length and with great 
ability the difficulties of the question, and concludes by 
saying : 

CONVENTION OF 1853. 243 

In view of these considerations, your committee do not feel strongly 
impelled to favor the movement made at our last General Convention 
towards the organizing of a Supreme Court in the Church, and likely 
to be farther prosecuted at the next. They think it a happy circum 
stance, however, that the subject has been brought before this Conven 
tion by the resolutions which have been submitted to it. The question 
of a court, whether it shall be or not be, is most important, and if de 
cided in the affirmative, then what form it shall assume, and what shall 
be its jurisdiction and its powers, is also most important. While, there 
fore, your committee are not at present very decided on these questions, 
they are ready to offer, in conclusion, for the adoption of this body, the 
following resolution: 

Resolved, That the question of a supreme court of appeal is one of 
the first importance, whichever way decided by our Church ; and that, 
if brought before the next General Convention as part of the unfinished 
business of the last, it should receive the deep and earnest attention of 
the delegates of this body. 

The resolution was adopted. 

A paper expressing affectionate sympathy with Bishop 
Meade and heart-felt confidence in him, was adopted, and the 
Secretary was directed to communicate the same to him. 

The following preamble and resolution were adopted: 

Whereas, The Protestant Episcopal Church acknowledges her obli 
gations, and professes herself to be a missionary Church ; therefore, 

Resolved, That in view of the great scarcity of clergy, the ministers of 
this large, and still, to a great extent, destitute diocese, be requested, 
either agreeably to their own arrangements in their convocations, or 
otherwise, to extend a portion of their labors to such fields as may be 
destitute in their respective vicinities ; and, furthermore, that the par 
ishes which have pastors, be requested to allow a reasonable portion of 
their time for this purpose. 

In their report the Committee on the State of the Church 

Another particular of encouragement : it makes us hopeful in regard 
to our condition as a church, that the laity seem to be taking a more 
active part than formerly in the spiritual as well as temporal interest 
of our communion. In these eventful times, this is an important fact. 
Accurate observers have been led to remark, both in this country and 

244 CONVENTION OF 1853. 

in England, that, so far as the class of mere instruments is concerned,, 
the hope of the Church for escape from the troubles which beset her is 
the laity. Perhaps the evils which we at this day deplore may be in 
part owing to this, that in former times the laity did not, in the measure 
and spirit of their calling, stand in their lot and discharge the duties 
belonging to them ; that by transferring to other hands what should 
have been tended by their own, they violated practically the proportion 
which the Spirit has established in the Church between clerical and laic 
functions and administrations ; and that this practical error has led to a 
corresponding theoretical error, or at least has fostered and sustained 
it. Be this as it may, we think there are indications that the laity are 
beginning to discover that they have an integral and substantive part, 
and above the mere supply of pecuniary means, in the great work 
which Christ has committed to his Church ; that, holding as they do the 
Holy Scriptures, the common standard of divine truth, in their hands^ 
they ought to be jealous for the purity of Christian doctrine ; and that 
possessed as they are of the influence which piety, intelligence and 
prominent station carry with them, they ought to be, in every way 
which does not trench upon the public preaching of the word and the 
administration of the sacraments, active for the diffusion of the truth 
throughout society and in the hearts of men. This is as it should be, 
for it is eminently Scriptural and Protestant. We pray that these indica 
tions may continue to increase. It may also be properly mentioned 
here, that it seems to your committee that this is one of the good results 
which God is working for us out of the notorious evils under which we 
labor as a Church at this time. If the supiness of the laity, and their 
readiness to let their own proper duties be discharged by proxy, or go 
altogether neglected, may have in any measure conduced to bring about 
existing evils, we trust the magnitude of these evils will be made the 
means of teaching the laity a solemn and long-to-be-remembered 
lesson, that their Master cannot dispense with their services in the affairs 
of his kingdom ; and that by failing to take a free and effective share 
in the various causes of truth and love which should engage the ener 
gies of the Church, and to qualify themselves for it by Scriptural study 
and the cultivation of a high style of Christian character, they expose 
their Zion to the inroad of error even amongst its ministers, and the 
cause of the gospel to decline and shame. 

The Seminary Trustees reported the resignation of Rev. 
E. A. Dalrymple as rector of the High School, and the 
election of Rev. John P. M Guire to fill the vacancy. They 
report an invested fund of $66,000. 

CONVENTION OF 1854. 245 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Lynchburg, May 17. 

A special report was made by the Seminary Trustees an 
nouncing the passage by the Legislature of "AN ACT incor 
porating the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary 
and High School in Virginia." Passed February 28, 1854. 

Kesolutions were adopted expressing gratitude to the 
Legislature for the act, and to the Eev. John Cole for his 
agency in securing the same. 

The name of Luther parish was changed to Clarke parish. 

The following resolution was offered and adopted : 

Resolved, That with a view to the general and united action on the 
subject, the Bishop be requested to appoint some particular Sunday 
during the year for a collection to be made in the churches throughout 
the Diocese in aid of the Educational Society. 

The following resolution was offered and adopted : 

Resolved, That the Special Committee appointed on the interests 
of the Southern Churchman, be requested to address a communication 
to the members of the Church throughout the Diocese who are parents, 
suggesting that they enlarge the circulation of that paper by sending a 
copy of the same from the office of publication to their sons and 
daughters who may be prosecuting their studies in colleges and schools 
away from their homes, it being the sense of this Convention that there 
would be few better methods of promoting the spiritual welfare of their 

Rev. J. Grammer presented the following document: 

" I beg leave to state to the Convention that I have set upon the table 
three pieces of communion plate, which originally belonged to the 
Church of Jamestown, the first Protestant Episcopal Church that was 
planted on the American continent. This plate was under the care 
of the vestry of Bruton parish, Williamsburg, when the Jamestown 
church fell into disuse and became extinct. In the summer of 1827, 

246 CONVENTION OF 1854. 

when I was about to be ordained a presbyter, the vestry of that parish 
learning through the Rev. Dr. Wilmer, who was then rector, that 
the parishes in which I was ministering, and endeavoring to revive 
and reorganize, were destitute of communion plate, very kindly and 
most unexpectedly sent me these three pieces, accompanied by a res 
olution requiring me to preserve the same and to return to said vestry 
an acknowledgment of its receipt, and an obligation binding myself, 
in the contingency of the future resuscitation of the church in the old 
Jamestown Island and the canonical organization of a parish therein 
in connection with the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of 
Virginia, to restore the said plate to such church. Such acknowledg 
ment and obligation I accordingly forthwith forwarded to the said 
vestry, and from that time have kept the said plate under my own cus 
tody, having used it only on the first occasion of my administration of 
the Sacrament of the Lord s Supper, when, finding the size of the chalice- 
rendered its use inconvenient, and being also otherwise provided 
with more convenient plate, this has since remained in disuse. These 
three pieces comprise a large silver chalice inscribed on the side with 
the words, Mixe not holie thinges with profane, and under the foot 
the words, Ex dono Jacobi Morrison armigeri, A. D. 1661. A silver 
Patten, with the same words inscribed on its bottom and underneath its. 
foot, and a silver Alms Basin or Plate, having inscribed on its rim the 
words, For the use of the James City Parish Church. 

" Having occasion, some few years since, to make enquiry, I learned 
from the Rev. H. M. Dennison, then Rector of Bruton parish, that my 
obligation to the vestry above mentioned could not be found, and that 
no record of the proceedings of the vestry of Bruton parish for 1827,. 
and several succeeding years, had been preserved, and the knowledge 
of this fact suggesting to me the impropriety of leaving property, over 
which the Convention only can be regarded as having any rightful 
ownership, in irresponsible and consequently insecure hands, I have 
brought the said plate with me to this place, and now present it to the 
Convention, with the suggestion and request that it be committed to 

, to be deposited by them in the library of the Theological 

Seminary of Virginia, there to be carefully preserved as a venerable 
historical memorial of our fathers, by whose pious zeal the Church of 
our affections was first planted in our land." 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the communion plate surrendered to the Convention- 
by the Rev. J. Grammer be now committed to the charge of Rev. Drs. 

CONVENTION OF 1854. 247 

Sparrow and Packard, to be by them carried to the Theological Semi 
nary and deposited in the Library thereof, to be there carefully pre 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society reported having added sixteen missionaries, at a 
cost of $1,975. 

A lengthy report upon the affairs of the Virginia Female 
Institute, was presented by Mr. D. H. Conrad, and laid 
upon the table. Other resolutions were adopted looking to 
the transfer to the Convention of all the stock of the Insti 

They are as follows : 

1. Resolved, That funds collected for the purchase of the Virginia 
Female Institute be deposited with Colonel George M. Carrington, 
subject to the order of this committee just appointed, whenever in 
their opinion the objects of this Convention can be fully carried out. 

2. Resolved, That the stockholders of the Virginia Female Institute 
having signified their willingness to transfer their interest in the Insti 
tute to this Convention, on the payment of a certain sum towards the 
liquidation of the indebtedness of the same, be respectfully requested 
to assign over and transfer, or cause to be assigned and transferred, in 
due legal form, to H. W. Sheffey, Eugene Davis, and the Rev. R. H. 
Wilmer (who are hereby appointed special trustees for the purpose), 
the whole of the stock held in said Institute ; and the trustees above 
named are requested to cause to be transferred to them the same, to be 
held by them, in their names, as stockholders in said Institute, in behalf 
of the Convention ; and, further, it is hereby earnestly recommended 
to those liberal laymen of our communion, who are sensible of the 
great value of this school to the Church, to subscribe for stock in this 
Institute to the amount of about $3,100, which will make the full sum of 
$7,000 originally assumed by the Convention. 

3. Resolved, That Messrs. H. W. Sheffey, E. Davis, and Rev. R. H. 
Wilmer, the trustees above named, be requested to see that the real 
estate and other property of said Institute be fully released from the 
deed of trust and other obligations against the same. 

The law of the State of Virginia prescribing the duty of 
ministers celebrating the rites of marriage, was ordered to 
be placed in the Journal. 

248 CONVENTION OF 1855. 


Convention met in Grace church, Lexington, May 16th. 

A committee of five laymen was appointed to report a 
scheme for the relief of disabled clergymen. 

H. W. Sheffey, Esq., in behalf of the Trustees of the 
Virginia Female Institute, appointed by the last Convention, 
made the following report, accompanied with a resolution : 

The committee consisting of Hugh W. Sheffey, Eugene Davis, and 
Richard H. Wilmer, appointed at the last Convention to carry out the 
views of the Convention, respecting the Virginia Female Institute, 
having reported that they have been embarrassed in the discharge of 
their duty, by doubts as to the wishes of the Convention, and having 
asked the instruction of the Convention in respect thereto, therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, That H. W. Sheffey, T. S. Gholson, and Rev. R. H. Wilmer, 
be and they are hereby appointed a committee, whose duty it shall be 
to consider and report the most expedient plan for holding the title to 
the Institute property, and for managing the affairs of the Institute. 

On motion, the resolution accompanying the report was 

A letter was read from the Presbyterian Synod proposing 
to the Convention to unite with them in appointing the 
fourth Thursday in November as a day of public thanks 

The Convention replied kindly through a committee, but 
declined because of the Kubric in the Prayer Book upon 
that subject. 

The following resolutions were adopted by the Conven 

i. Resolved by the Clerical and Lay Delegates of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Convention, That they cordially concur with the 

CONVENTION OF 1855. 249 

Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Virginia in their desire to have a 
day of public thanksgiving to Almighty God, fixed by the common 
consent of the Christian churches in Virginia, or by the proper civil 
authority, on which they may offer up their united thanks and prayers 
to God for his manifold blessings. 

2. Resolved, That the first Thursday in November having been estab 
lished by the supreme legislative authority of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and which they have no power to repeal, alter, or annul, they 
respectfully state this as the reason why they cannot resolve to fix upon 
the fourth Thursday in November, the day recommended by the Synod. 

j. Resolved, That the Synod be respectfully requested to join with 
this Church, and such other of the Christian churches in Virginia as 
may come into the measure, in memoralizing the Governor of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, to issue his proclamation for a day of 
thanksgiving and prayer to Almighty God, to be kept and observed as 
such by all the good people of Virginia, by solemn worship in their 
several churches ; and that he would be pleased to designate the fourth 
Thursday in November as that day, because of its general observance 
as such, in nearly all the States of the Union. 

4. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Convention be requested to 
transmit to the Chairman of the Committee of Synod, and through him 
to the Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Virginia, a copy of this 
report and these resolutions. 

5. Resolved, That the Synod of the Presbyterian Church be respect 
fully requested, if they concur in this proposal, to communicate with the 
other Protestant denominations of the State for their concurrence, and 
to memorialize the Executive of Virginia on this subject. 

Eesolutions were adopted expressing deepest interest in, 
and -calling for generous cooperation by, the Diocese, with 
the work of Foreign Missions, in order to repair a present 
deficiency in the funds and to provide abundantly for the 

The scheme for relief of disabled clergy was brought 
forward in an elaborate report and laid over to the next 

The following was ordered to be printed in the Journal : 

We, the undersigned, having been appointed by the Convention of 
the Episcopal Church, held in Lexington, to receive and hold the addi- 

250 CONVENTION OF 1856. 

tional shares of stock, and to receive assignments of other shares of 
stock in the Virginia Female Institute at Staunton, do hereby covenant 
and agree, to and with each other, as follows : that we will act as stock 
holders in said Institute, and that a majority of those of us who are 
present, in person or by proxy, at any meeting of stockholders, shall 
cast the entire vote vested in us ; and that in case of a vacancy in our 
number, by death, resignation, or otherwise, we will fill such vacancy 
by a retransfer of the stock into our names, and the names of such 
other persons as the next Convention of the Episcopal Church in Vir 
ginia, held after such vacancy occurs, may be suggested by said Con 
vention ; and we do further covenant and agree with each other that in 
case of the death, resignation, or removal from this Diocese of either 
of us, the entire interest and estate of the party who may die, resign or 
remove, shall become ipso facto vested in the residue of us. Witness 
the following signatures and seals, May nineteenth, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-five. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in open Convention. 

S. H. LEWIS, [Seal.] 

ALEX R BROWN, [Seal.] 

D. H. CONRAD, [Seal.] 

ED. T. TAYLOE, [Seal.] 

R. K. MEADE, [Seal.] 


THOS. S. GHOLSON, [Seal.] 

(Attest,) A. L. SEABURY, Assistant Secretary. 

There were reported to the Convention 6,081 commu 
nicants, 4T3 confirmations, and $36,900 contributed to the 
cause of religion and the Church. 


Convention met in St. George s church, Fredericksburg, 
May 21st. 

Eev. G-eorge Woodbridge, Secretary. 

CONVENTION OF 1856. 251 

Grace church, Alexandria, was admitted into union with 
the Convention, and Brandon church, of Martin s-Brandon 
parish, Prince George county, united with the church at 
Cahin Point, Surry county, as a separate congregation. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary So 
ciety reported having aided twelve missionaries, and having 
devoted $100 to Rev. Lewis Walke during the prevalence of 
the yellow fever in Norfolk, in the summer of 1855. 

Receipts for the year, $1, 726.5 I 7. 

The amount due hy the Convention on account of the 
Virginia Female Institute, was reported to be $341.31, 
which was announced to be raised immediately by persons 

The Bishop recommended in his report that steps be 
taken to provide for the education of the son of Rev. James 
Chisholm, who died during the yellow fever pestilence in 
Portsmouth, in 1855. He reported that he had received 
already $1,600 for that purpose, and asked that further 
action be taken. 

The matter was referred to the Committee on Widows 
and Orphans, who recommended that $150 be paid for the 
purpose annually until otherwise ordered. 

In his address the Bishop said : 

"Having, during the past year, been engaged in the more special 
examination of the history of the Episcopal Church in Virginia, from its 
first establishment to the present time, I have had forced upon my mind 
the conviction, that few if any portions of the Church of Christ can 
have had more unfavorable circumstances to contend with, as far as its 
spiritual prosperity has been concerned. Commencing though it did in 
the most pious missionary spirit, it was soon assailed by numerous 
untoward events well calculated to arrest the progress of true religion. 
Many of its ministers partook most largely of the coldness and for 
mality which, in a century after the Reformation, came over our Mother 
Church. Immense difficulties stood in the way of the successful minis 
tration of the more pious, arising from the size of the parishes, the 
sparseness of the population, and the entire want of education among- 

252 CONVENTION OF 1856. 

the people generally. The separation of classes the great distinction 
between the rich and the poor, the educated and the illiterate, laid the 
foundation for a great evil, over which we and our fathers have long 
mourned. In due time the fruits of this began to appear in the sepa 
ration of churches. The Revolution, with all its blessings, prompted 
this unhappy severance. The rise and progress of dissent was at 
tended with an increased prejudice against those who were more 
zealously attached to our communion. A contest for and against the 
establishment, for nearly half a century, in a great part of which poli 
ticians took an active share, left our Church, not only without her old 
emoluments, but a by-word and a proverb among the other denomi 
nations, and with those who, Gallio-like, cared for none of these 
things. The clergy, with a few exceptions, deserted the fast sinking 
vessel, and infidels triumphed over the scene. The beginning of the 
present century saw the Episcopal Church of Virginia in such a de 
plorable condition, so destitute of ministers and funds, her Annual 
Conventions abandoned, without any to represent her in the great con 
federated assemblies, that at one of the latter she was given over as 
beyond the hope of resuscitation, and a public record made of it. We 
cannot well conceive a state of things more unfavorable to a revival ; 
and God s goodness and grace, in what he has done for us, must be 
measured and estimated by the difficulties which opposed the first 
efforts at recovery. Nor were these difficulties only at the commence 
ment, when a mere handful of faint-hearted, discouraged, worn-out 
ministers were left. Prejudices, of the most inveterate character, have 
followed us to the present moment on the part of many most worthy 
and pious persons, who have, doubtless, believed they were doing God 
and his cause good service, in warning all men, especially the poor of 
the land, against our ministry and Church. Politicians also have often 
found it to their advantage to encourage this unhappy feeling, and 
identify our communion with the ancient aristocracy of the State, under 
the colonial establishment. Under these circumstances, what but the 
blessing of God on faithful preaching and zealous labors could have 
given even the measure of success we have enjoyed, a measure so 
much less than might have been under more favorable circumstances. 
The success which has attended the labors of our ministers must be 
ascribed to the Divine blessing on the preaching of a plain gospel, in a 
very different way from that but too common among the former clergy 
of Virginia, and to a moral and religious deportment of a much higher 
standard than theirs. Nor have we increased the violence of prejudice 
and opposition by uncharitable denunciations of others, but rather 
diminished it not a little by a contrary spirit and conduct. Nor have 

CONVENTION OF 1856. 253 

we sought to multiply our communion by encouraging the unprepared 
to come to the solemn ordinances which are only designed for the faith 
ful, that grace may be increased to them. Many more, for a time at 
least, might our ministers have presented for the rite of confirmation, 
had they regarded and recommended it as a converting ordinance, or 
one intermediate between baptism and the Lord s Supper, requiring a 
less degree of grace than the latter, and imposing no obligation to 
observe it. So far as I know and believe, there is not a minister in our 
Church at this time who does not hold that the same faith, penitence 
and holiness is required of those who come rightly to confirmation, as 
of those who worthily partake of the Lord s Supper, and that the 
coming to the one is in order to the immediate reception of the other. 
I desire never to lay my hands on any who intend to falsify the solemn 
vow, promise and profession, by turning their backs on the table of the 

" In estimating the amount of success attending the labors of our 
ministers for the last forty-five years, not for the purpose of boasting 
before men, or comparing it with that of others, but in thankfulness to 
God for his unmerited grace, we must take into account that Virginia, 
beyond any other part of our land, has for a long time been the nur 
sery of the west and southwest, supplying vast numbers to the churches 
and States thereof. It is not wonderful, therefore, that our domestic 
increase in regard to churchmen and citizens should have been se 
riously affected by the continual emigration of both. If the character 
of these colonies shall have contributed anything to the improvement 
of the places of their settlement ; if, in many instances, they shall have 
proved the seed of Episcopal congregations in the same, we must be 
thankful for the honor conferred on us by the Lord, and rejoice that 
others increase even if we decrease. Let it be our endeavor so to train 
them in the true principles of the gospel and of the Church of our Re 
forming Fathers, that those who leave us may be blessings to whatever 
home they may select. Let us especially be thankful that God has so 
highly honored our Diocese as to rear up in our midst a school of the 
Prophets, which has long been, and is now more abundantly, a nursery 
of faithful Evangelists to other parts of the land besides our own, and 
even missionaries to far distant countries. 

" By comparing our present condition with the past, we have, there 
fore, abundant cause for thankfulness and encouragement, though none 
for pride or boasting. I think I shall not err from the truth in saying, 
that less than fifty years ago our number of laboring ministers was 
not more than twelve, and these were almost all old men, faint and dis 
couraged, soon to cease from the little they were then doing, and with 

254 CONVENTION OF 1856. 

them the universal expectation was, that the Church would come to an 
end, and the old temples and congregations fall into other hands. 
Some of these twelve probably did not number more than twelve as 
their average congregations, and the whole number of attendants 
throughout the Diocese could not have amounted to more than a thou 
sand souls, perhaps much less. Compared with this small and most 
discouraging beginning, our present condition of an hundred native 
clergy, and nearly two hundred places of worship, with seven thousand 
communicants, calls for devout gratitude to our Great Head. Of how 
much greater increase our Zion is capable, until emigration shall roll 
back again, or, at least, cease to roll away from us, it is not ours to 
know. One thing is certain, that nothing but a continuance of the 
same evangelical and zealous, self-denying labors which God hath 
hitherto blessed, will avail for our future increase. May God give to 
us all the grace of faithful perseverance." 

A committee was appointed to ascertain if any system 
could be devised by which experienced, settled presbyters 
could, from time to time, engage in missionary work in 
destitute portions of the State. They reported at consider 
able length, and offered the following resolutions, which 
were adopted: 

1. Resolved, That the clergy in the several convocational districts in 
the State, whether organized or not, be recommended to distribute 
their labors in concert, and according to their best judgment, over such 
unsupplied region as they can reasonably embrace. 

2. Resolved, That the Bishops be requested to arrange with two or 
more rectors and parishes for a year s evangelist-duty by the former, 
and supply for the latter. 

j. Resolved, And that they also engage, if they can, one or more fit 
ministers, to be solely occupied, under their advice, in itinerant labor ; 
provided, that on appeal by them, issued in such form as they prefer, 
the necessary funds are raised for the purpose by those on whom this 
part of the responsibility may rest. 

A proposed amendment to the Constitution of the Church, 
fixing the representation of each Diocese in the General 
Convention at not more than four clergymen and four lay 
men and a proposed amendment leaving with each 

CONVENTION OF 1856. 255 

Diocese the mode of trying presbyters and deacons, until 
the General Convention should adopt an uniform mode of 
trial, were concurred in. 
On motion, it was 

Resolved, That this Convention, as the representative of this Diocese, 
which of course, has the deepest and most vital interest in the pros 
perity of our Diocesan Seminary, feels called upon to acknowledge with 
gratitude, the liberality of John Bohlen, Esq., of Philadelphia, and of 
the Rector and congregation of St. George s Church, New York, 
towards that institution, the former in erecting in part a library building, 
and the latter in making a large addition to the Seminary. 

The following proposed amendment to the Constitution of 
the Church, concerning the division of the Dioceses, was 
not concurred in : 


" No such new Diocese shall be formed which shall contain less than 
fifteen self-supporting parishes, or less than fifteen presbyters who have 
been for at least one year canonically resident within the bounds of 
such new Diocese, regularly settled in a parish or congregation, and 
qualified to vote for a Bishop. Nor shall such new Diocese be formed 
if thereby any existing Diocese shall be so reduced as to contain less 
than thirty self-supporting parishes, or less than twenty presbyters who 
have been residing therein and settled and qualified as above men 
tioned, provided that no city shall form more than one Diocese." 

The committee to devise a scheme for the Belief of Dis- 
ahled Clergymen made lengthy report, proposing that a 
fund be raised to yield at least $1,000 annually ; that it be 
held and disbursed by a committee of five laymen, and that 
no appropriation be made, in any one year, to exceed $250. 
All which was approved. 

In their report the Committee on the State of the Church 

We commend the establishment of Sunday schools in our towns, by 
the masters and mistresses in our Church, for colored children, where 
the instruction would be exclusively oral and governed by the standards 


of our Church. In connection with these, and as perhaps more impor 
tant and auxiliary, the catechetical instruction of young servants, by 
the masters and mistresses of our Church, in their families, is strongly 
recommended. And we further distinctly approve of the plan of making 
such domestic arrangements as will allow and encourage servants to 
attend upon the public services of the sanctuary, as well as at family 

There were reported 452 confirmations, 6,527 communi 
cants, and $60,949.07 contributions. 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Petersburg, May 

Kev. H. S. Kepler was elected Secretary. 

There was reported to be still due by the Convention 
$171.81 on the debt for the Virginia Female Institute. Its 
payment was ordered and the debt was announced as paid. 

A committee was appointed to revise the canon for the 
trial of a clergyman. 

In his address Bishop Meade said: 

"The following letter from our beloved brother, the Rev. Dr. Bedell, 
of New York, will further show with what favor God has been pleased 
to look upon our Seminary during the past year : 

" NEW YORK, May 16, 1857. 

" My Dear Bishop: Will you have the goodness to announce to the 
Trustees of the Theological School of Virginia, that my friends and 
parishioners, Mr. William H. Aspinwall and Mr. John L. Aspinwall, 
have each placed at my disposal the sum of ten thousand dollars, to be 
employed in buildings for the use of the Seminary, and for purposes 
connected therewith. 

CONVENTION OF 1857. 257 

" May I beg the favor of the Trustees to appoint a committee to 
whom I may more particularly communicate the plans in view, and 
who may decide all question arising in the execution of this trust. 

" The Trustees will, of course, appreciate the importance of having 
a small committee near the Seminary for convenience of consultation; 
and of clothing them with full power in the premises. 

" It is with great gratitude to God for being allowed to become the 
channel of my friends liberality, in behalf of this beloved Seminary, 
that I make this announcement. 

" Believe me, my dear Bishop, 

" Yours, with great respect and esteem, 

" G. T. BEDELL. 

" The above liberal donations have been made with a view to the 
entire renewal of the present Seminary buildings, with important 
improvements, for the benefit of the whole establishment. Prepara 
tions will be made during the present year for this renewal at an early 
period of the next. For all these helps we desire to be most thankful 
to God and our earthly benefactors. 

" I now proceed, according to promise, to take some notice of our 
last General Convention. * * * Among the subjects to 
which their attention was called was that of accommodating the ser 
vice of the Church to the varying circumstances of our country, so as 
to make it more effective for the great object sought to be obtained 
by its adoption. The impression has for many years been generally 
strengthening throughout our Church, that its morning service, consist 
ing of the three parts, morning prayer, litany and ante-communion 
service, especially when the offices for the communion, or for baptism, 
confirmation, ordination, or the consecration of a church were added, 
was too l-ong to be generally edifying. The ministers have often felt it 
to be too heavy a tax on their physical powers, and the young, the 
aged and infirm, have complained of weariness, while those who, 
unhappily, are devoid of a relish for the worship of God, have been 
rather injured than benefited by this length of service. This impres 
sion has been confirmed in many minds by the well established fact 
that the services thus combined, so as to extend divine worship to an 
inexpedient length, were originally and for a long time distinct, and 
used at different times of the day, showing that our forefathers did not 
think it proper to have so prolonged a religious exercise on any one 
occasion of worship. This will further appear from an examination 
and comparison of the different and once separately used services, 
after the example of the cathedrals and Jewish temple, in which vari- 

258 CONVENTION OP 1857. 

ous hours of prayer were observed each day. It will be admitted by 
all, that as to the devotional parts of worship, the Scripture being our 
rule and guide, there are four things which should enter into a complete 
and acceptable service, viz : confession of sin, supplication for grace and 
mercy, intercession for others, and thanksgiving or praise. 

" Now, if we examine the different services, which are sometimes com 
bined into one, we shall find that all these constituents of acceptable 
worship are found in each of them. If we take the morning prayer 
proper, to the exclusion of the litany, ante-communion and communion 
services, we find most distinctly set forth, confession, supplication, 
intercession and thanksgiving, in those prayers which our fathers 
thought sufficient for one occasion of public morning worship. If we 
examine the litany, (with the thanksgiving prayer united to it,) which 
was sometimes used alone, and at others perhaps in combination, we 
again find all these parts of worship most emphatically presented, so 
that those who use them aright, have not failed in any one of the con 
stituents of an acceptable devotion. 

"Again, if we use only the ante-communion service, we have the three 
parts, confession, supplication and intercession, and sometimes a collect 
of thanksgiving. If to this we add the communion service, we have for 
the fourth time confession, prayer, praise and intercession, on the same 
occasion of public worship, while the Lord s Prayer is always used 
twice, and may be repeated from three to five times, if baptism, and 
confirmation and consecration of a church be added. It cannot for a 
moment be supposed, that if the framers of our services had been 
directed simply to prepare a morning service for the Sabbath, they 
would have made it consist of so many distinct parts, with so many 
repetitions, sometimes of the same words, and always of the same con 
stituents of worship. The history of such repetition is to be found in 
the universally admitted fact, that the morning prayer was intended for 
the first and earlier occasion of worship, while the litany and communion 
services were reserved for subsequent occasions and times. 

" The same remark may be made as to the use of the Scriptures in the 
different services. In the morning prayer proper, there are not less 
than ten portions of the Bible used, if we include the introductory 
sentences, the metre psalm, and benediction. If we add to this, that a 
number of the reading psalms are used at the same time, there will be 
from ten to fifteen portions of Scripture in this first service. If we 
enumerate the portions of Scripture in the communion service, including 
the ante-communion, there will be not less than eleven or twelve choice 
selections, and if the sermon be a Scriptural one, we may surely reckon, 
besides its text, that there will be many other of God s words faithfully 

CONVENTION OF 185*7. 259 

applied. * * * It was in view of the historical fact, that our 
service consisted of three different parts, and that in practice they were 
once thus used, and of the widespread and increasing conviction, both 
in our own and Mother Church, that there were occasions when it was 
most inexpedient to combine them, that the Bishops have expressed the 
opinion, that they were not only originally distinct in their framing and 
use, but might now be separated, as circumstances and exigencies 
required or commanded, although they did not undertake to specify in 
what manner or to what extent it should be done, leaving that to the 
discretion of the minister, under the advice of his Bishop. 

" The Bishops, as a body, did not, nor does he who addresses you, 
attempt to settle the question how far certain Rubrics of a disputed and 
doubtful character, might interfere with the exercise of the discretion 
which they believe to be allowable. They confine themselves to undis 
puted facts. Some things there are which may be sanctioned by a 
rubric, or by custom, and yet be neither forbidden nor commanded. 
Certain it is that there are Rubrics connected with these separate ser 
vices, which not only show that they must have been distinct in their 
origin and use, but the Church has forborne to use language which can 
only be understood as forbidding former usage, and requiring that it 
be abolished, and that henceforth they must be used in combination. 
The unanimous opinion of the seven Bishops, who carefully searched 
into the history of such rubrics and usage, testifies to this fact. It is 

believed that such also was the general opinion of the other Bishops. 


" It may now perhaps be inferred from what has been said, that I 
might, if asked for advice by any of the brethren, recommend some 
very serious diminution of those services to which we have hitherto 
been accustomed in this Diocese. Such is far from being the case. 
Ever since my entrance on the ministry, it has been the practice of far 
the larger part of our clergy, on ordinary occasions of Sabbath morning 
worship, to use two out of three of these services, which are evidently 
so distinct in their frame-work, viz : the morning prayer and litany, with 
the addition on communion days of the whole communion service. 
Although there must be some repetitions, even where two of the ser 
vices only are used, yet they are not on ordinary occasions to be ob 
jected to, especially since but few can assemble on the Lord s day, so as 
to have all of our prayers, though at different times. We, therefore, 
think that, except on particular occasions, the combination of two of 
these services is proper. One suggestion I would make on this point, 
viz : that there might be occasional, if not regular, alternations between 
the litany and ante-communion service, so that the latter might be used 
more frequently than if reserved altogether for communion Sundays. 

260 CONVENTION OF 1857. 

" In relation to those days, when the Lord s Supper is administered in 
the towns, where there are very large communions, and much time must 
necessarily be spent in the services, if, according to the original design 
and practice, and, indeed, the practice of some in modern times, the 
morning service could be used at an early hour, none surely could 
object, and even if that were not practicable, it would be a justifiable 
discretion to omit its public use altogether, and proceed at once to the 
litany or ante-communion. As a substitute for the public performance 
of the morning service, it might be used by individuals and families in 
private on communion days. If there be three services on the Sabbath, 
as is sometimes the case in towns, then the litany or ante-communion, 
or both, might be used on one of those occasions, and thus all the parts 
be performed on the same day. There are also occasions, as when 
public or private baptism, or confirmation is administered, or the health 
of the minister requires it, when it might be expedient to use only the 
morning prayer. The litany might then be an excellent private or 
social exercise for individuals or families. 

"The foregoing is the advice which I have given to such of the 
brethren as have asked for it on the subject now treated of, but which 
they are at perfect liberty to accept, reject or modify, as their judgment 
or conscience may direct. I would further state, that before the final 
question was put, I rose in the House of Bishops and said, that as it 
was desirable we should fully understand each other concerning the 
advice to be given when asked for, I would declare before hand what 
mine should be, and requested the favor of my brethren, one and all, 
to correct me if I misinterpreted the report of the committee and the 
meaning of the resolutions about to be adopted by justifying a discre 
tion which was not contemplated. After stating the advice which I 
should give, I again requested, in the most emphatic manner, that I 
might be corrected if in error, so that there might be no criminations or 
recriminations afterwards. But one of my brethren made objection, 
and that one only by saying, that if such was the understanding he 
could not vote for the resolutions. Others there were who voted 
against them, but none objected to the interpretation given should they 
be adopted." 

A committee was appointed to make out a form of paro 
chial report. They reported the form which, with slight 
amendment in 1869, was used until 1880. 

A committee was appointed to consider the subjects re 
ferred to the various Diocesan Conventions by the General 

CONVENTION OP 1858. 261 

The Disabled Clergy Fund reported investments to the 
amount of $2,234.86, and cash $293.86. 

The Committee on the State of the Church urged the im 
portance of encouraging lay cooperation in the work of the 
Oospel, especially in Sunday Schools and amongst the col 
ored population. 

A committee was appointed to ascertain the expenses 
of the trial of the Kev. T. T. Castleman, who had been 
tried in September, 1856. The amount was, for all pur 
poses, $892.36, which was ordered to be paid out of the 
Contingent Fund. 


Convention met in Christ church, Winchester, May 19th. 

Mr. John Stewart was elected Treasurer. 

The committee appointed to consider and report upon the 
subjects referred to the various Diocesan Conventions by the 
General Convention, viz: an amendment to Article III of 
the Constitution, making it necessary for the House of 
Bishops to concur by positive vote before any canon or act 
passed by the other House can become law ; and an amend 
ment to Article VI, looking to the establishment of a Court 
of Appeals, reported in favor of disapproving both amend 
ments. The subject was postponed to the next Convention. 

In his address the Bishop said: 

" The very generous donations which, during the few last years, have 
been made to our Seminary, by friends in Virginia and elsewhere, have 
produced an impression that all our wants are amply supplied. The 
following statement will present a just view of our condition : Our funded 
capital is, I believe, about ninety thousand dollars, whose interest is 

262 CONVENTION OF 1858. 

expended on the support of three professors, with families, in a place 
where living is very costly, and on the taxes, insurances, repairs and 
improvements which are annually called for in an establishment having 
so many buildings to be kept in order. It is evident that this amount 
of capital is not sufficient for all these purposes. The donations so 
liberally made within the last few years, have not been given for the 
purpose of increasing this fund, but for the special objects of en 
larging and improving the chapel, providing a fire-proof library, 
and putting up new buildings for the accommodation of students. 
The donation of twenty thousand dollars by the Messrs. Aspin- 
walls, of New York, for the purpose of substituting a new and bet 
ter house for the old and decaying one, being found insufficient for 
the erection of one answering our needs, has been applied to a central 
building to which two wings may be added, thus completing the whole, 
as soon as means are obtained. This central building is placed imme 
diately in front of the old one, and presents one of the most imposing 
spectacles of its kind. The old Seminary building still remains for 
use until the new one is completed. No more expense will be incurred 
for repairs; but its materials will furnish no little help towards the 
erection of wings to the main building. It is supposed that the sum of 
ten or fifteen thousand dollars will suffice for the erection of the wings. 
These being added, every convenience which could be desired will be 
found in our Seminary." 

A revised canon on the trial of a clergyman was pro 
posed, and postponed to the next Convention. 
On motion, it was 

Resolved, That a Special Committee be appointed to ascertain from 
the parishes, and report to the next Convention, whether any, and if 
any, what provision is made for the instruction of the colored popula 
tion of their limits. 

The Disabled Clergy Fund reported $4,207.13. 

The Society for the Belief of the Widows and Orphans of 
Deceased Clergymen presented a paper to the Convention 
containing among others the following : 

Resolved, That, in the view of the members present, this Society 
ought, under certain principles and arrangements, to be dissolved. 

Resolved, That the contributions made by any member now sur 
viving be refunded to him with legal interest thereupon. 

CONVENTION OF 1858. 263 

Resolved, That the amount then remaining be tendered to the Con 
vention of this Diocese as a fund to be most sacredly kept by that 
body, under such regulations as it may deem wise, for the exclusive 
benefit of all the widows and orphans of the clergy of this Diocese, 
including the present annuitants of this Society, so long as their claims 
under its Constitution may extend. 

Resolved, That on the assent of two-thirds of the members of the 
Society, including those now present, on the one side, and the assent of 
the Convention on the other, this arrangement shall be considered as 

Resolved, That the President, Secretary and Treasurer, together with 
the Rev. J. Peterkin, be appointed a committee to make all needful 
calculations and adjustments towards the end in view, and when this 
committee shall have ascertained that two-thirds of all the members 
concur, they shall be empowered to distribute the fund to the members, 
and to transfer the remainder to the officers who may be appointed by 
the Convention to receive it. 

All were agreed to by the Convention. 

The Committee on the State of the Church said : 

Looking at the internal wants and arrangements of our parishes, it 
has been thought expedient by your committee to notice a particular or 
two. One is what has been elsewhere more formally set forth before 
the Convention, the vital importance of providing comfortable rectories 
for the clergy and their families. Everywhere desirable, it is specially 
important in our smaller towns and our rural districts. This topic is 
mentioned the more unhesitatingly, because few things make so great 
a demand on the liberality of our people, or are taken in hand more 
cheerfully by them. The want of a comfortable home is something 
understood and felt by all persons. The female members of our con 
gregations especially have a just appreciation of this need, and of the 
importance of supplying it ; and are ever ready, when vestries go for 
ward in such matters, to lend their utmost aid. The want of such rec 
tories has been, in many cases, a serious impediment to the prosperity 
of our parishes. 

Your committee would add, what may seem a small matter in one 
view, but in its consequences is often really important ; that is, the dis 
position made of the office of treasurer of the vestry. No officer has 
more to do with the comfort and efficiency of the minister and the prac 
tical justice and punctuality of the people towards him than the parish 
treasurer. If he is slack, they are apt to be so ; if he is energetic, he 

264 CONVENTION OF 1859. 

infuses life and regularity into all their financial concerns, to the great 
comfort of their minister, and to the discharge of the parochial con 
science. The office your committee would suggest should always be in 
the most efficient hands ; and in few ways can a genuine self-denial for 
the good of the Church be better exhibited than by the acceptance of 
this office by the right man. 

Grace church, Richmond, and Emmanuel church, Camden 
parish, Pittsylvania, were admitted into union with the 


Convention met in Christ church, Norfolk, May 18th. 

A proposition to amend Canon X so as to provide for 
vestrymen in colored congregations, was referred to a Spe 
cial Committee. 

A proposition to amend Canon IX, so as to allow only 
" males" to vote at vestry elections, was laid upon the table. 

Resolutions were offered and referred, looking to the 
maintenance of missionary services with the slaves, and 
building houses of worship for them. 

The following report was made : 

" I would respectfully represent to the Convention that, in adjusting 
and paying the contributions of the members of this Society, simple in 
terest only was returned them whereas, their funds were invested 
semi-annually, and yielded interest and dividends accordingly. It 
seems to me that it would be only a simple act of justice that the Con 
vention order the correction of this oversight by authorizing the treas 
urer to pay the members out of any moneys in his hands, the difference 
between the simple interest and the semi-annual compound interest. 

"J. L. BACON." 

The suggestion therein made was approved. 
The Disabled Clergy Fund reported $5,894.63. 

CONVENTION OF 1859. 265 

A committee was appointed to consider and report upon 
"the expediency of consolidating the Widows and Orphans 
Fund with the Fund for Disabled Clergy. 

The report upon proposed amendments to the Constitu 
tion of the General Church, made at the last Convention, 
was concurred in. 

During several Conventions there was an effort by Bruton 
parish church, Williamsburg, to get possession of a piece 
of plate in the library at the Seminary. This Convention 
granted their request. 

Emmanuel church, Henrico county, and St. Paul s church, 
Culpeper, were admitted into union with the Convention. 

Privilege was granted to certain members of the Church, 
in Lynchburg, to organize a new parish also to friends 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Montgomery county, 
to organize a new parish. 

The revised canon on the trial of a clergyman, which was 
referred to this Convention by the last, was recommitted, 
with additions, to the committee. 

The Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society in their report urged the appointment of an evan 
gelist, which was approved. .They said : 

It is lamentable to look over our Diocese and see how many parishes 
are vacant, how many posts unoccupied, whilst the cry is coming up 
from all sides with increasing earnestness for more ministers and their 
labors. The needy state of the Diocese, especially in some portions, has 
directed the attention of the committee to the proposition, which has 
been made repeatedly, and which was sanctioned and emphatically 
recommended at the Convention at Fredericksburg (in 1856) of ap 
pointing an Evangelist, whose duty it shall be to visit the different 
parishes of the Diocese, and hold such services as are calculated to 
promote religious interest, and especially to preach in its destitute 
portions, and supply as much as possible the wants of the many friends 
of our Church, who, scattered all over the State, are entirely deprived 
of those services and ordinances which they so much value; and many 
of whom are deprived of religious services altogether. The committee 

266 CONVENTION OF 1860. 

are prepared to carry out this resolution of the Convention by the ap 
pointment of a suitable Evangelist ; and they engage to do so without 
an undue draft upon the ordinary means of the Society, the necessary 
funds being supplied by especial efforts and appropriations. The com 
mittee pledge themselves to supply at least three-fourths of the expense 
necessitated by this new enterprise from new and extraneous sources. 


Convention met in Christ church Charlottesville, May 

Present seventy-four clergy and seventy-nine lay dele 
gates, besides the Bishop and assistant Bishop. 

[The attendance is reported as it was the last Convention 
before the troubles which resulted in war between the 
Northern and Southern sections of our country.] 

St. Paul s parish, Culpeper was admitted into union with 
the Convention. (A similar action was taken in 1859.) 

Kev. H. S. Kepler resigned as Secretary, and Mr. J. 
Wilder Atkinson was elected. 

The Disabled Clergy Fund reported cash $299.84, and 
investments amounting to $7,387.50. 

The Episcopal Fund reported investments amounting to 

The Convention refused to consolidate the Widows and 
Orphans Fund with that for the Relief of Disabled Clergy. 

A resolution was offered to amend Article II of the Con 
stitution so as to admit the Rector of the Virginia Female 
Institute to a seat in the Convention. 

A carefully prepared report was made, turning over to the 

CONVENTION OF 1860. 267" 

Convention the funds of the late Widows and Orphans So 
ciety. The following is quoted from it : 

No appropriation from the proceeds of this fund shall be made to 
the family of any deceased clergymen who shall not have been for three 
full years, immediately preceding his death, canonically resident and 
officiating in this Diocese, in subjection to the ecclesiastical authority 
thereof, unless he shall have become disabled, by age or infirmity, while 
residing and officiating in the Diocese ; nor shall any appropriation be 
made to the family of any clergyman who died previously to July, 1858, 
the period at which the greater part of this fund was transferred to this 
Convention, except in the case of those who were at that period 
annuitants upon this fund. 

No appropriation, or order for the payment of any money, shall be 
made except at a duly convened meeting, at which a majority of the 
members of the Board shall be present; nor shall any appropriation 
be made in any case to any family of a deceased clergyman, except 
by the votes of a majority of all the members of the Board. 

An elaborate report was made upon the subject of the 
religious instruction of the colored people. It closed with 
the following outlines of a plan for their benefit : 

1. The formation of the people of color into a separate and distinct 

2. The provision of a suitable place for their worship. The property 
to be held by trustees chosen by the contributors and appointed by the 
court, as the law provides. 

3. A certain number to be taken from the communicants, to assist 
the minister in the affairs of the congregation, with a special reference 
to the admission, supervision and discipline of Church members.. 
These assistants to be, in the first instance, appointed by the minister, 
and in case of vacancies, to be chosen by the communicants, subject ta 
the approval of the minister. 

4. The minister always to be a clergyman of the Diocese of Virginia, 
and either rector of the church, or one of the churches within the 
bounds of which the congregation has been formed, or otherwise to be 
appointed by the Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society, with the approval of the Bishop. 

A committee was appointed to consider the importance of 

268 CONVENTION OF 1861. 

more generally procuring baptism for the children of slaves 
of members of this Church. 

Our present canon was adopted on the trial of a clergyman. 

There were reported 688 confirmations, 7,876 commu 
nicants, and contributions, exclusive of current expenses, 
$113,510.57, the largest amount reported to any Convention 
up to this time. 


The Convention that met in 1860, moved that the next 
session be held in Alexandria, in May, 1861. Meantime 
the unsettled condition of the country, upon the eve of war, 
induced the Bishop to change the place of meeting to Kich- 
mond. Pursuant to this action of the Bishop the Con 
vention met in St. Paul s church, Richmond, May 16th. 
Present Bishop Meade and Bishop Johns, fifty-six clergy 
and thirty-nine laity. 

The Episcopal Fund reported $23,400 invested. 

In his address Bishop Meade gave expression to his views 
upon the subject of the war just beginning between the 
Northern and Southern sections of our country. He said : 

" Having thus presented a statement of those things pertaining to our 
Diocese which the canon requires of me, I now ask your attention to 
a few remarks concerning the present unhappy condition of our State 
and country, 

" My brethren and friends will bear me witness how carefully I have 
ver avoided, in all my communications, the least reference to anything 
partaking of a political character, and how I have earnestly warned my 
younger brethren against the danger of injuring the effect of their 
sacred ministry, by engaging in discussions which are so apt to disturb 
the peace of society. But in the present circumstances of our country 

CONVENTION OP 1861. 269 

the cause of religion is so deeply involved, that I feel not only justified, 
but constrained to offer a few remarks for your consideration. 

" It has pleased God to permit a great calamity to come upon us. 
Our whole country is preparing for war. Our own State, after failing in 
her earnest effort for the promotion of peace, is, perhaps, more actively 
engaged in all needful measures for maintaining the position which she 
has, after much consideration, deliberately assumed, than any portion 
of the land. 

" A deeper and more honest conviction that if war should actually 
come upon us, it will be on our part one of self-defence, and, therefore, 
justifiable before God, seldom, if ever, animated the breasts of those 
who appealed to arms. From this consideration, and from my knowl 
edge of the character of our people, I believe that the object sought for 
will be most perseveringly pursued, whatever sacrifice of life and com 
fort and treasure may be required. Nor do I entertain any doubt as to 
the final result, though I shudder at the thought of what may intervene 
before that result is secured. May God, in great mercy and with His 
mighty power, interpose and grant us speedy peace, instead of pro 
tracted war ! But can it be, that at this period of the world, when so 
many prayers are offered up for the establishment of Christ s kingdom 
in all the earth, and such high hopes are entertained that the zealous 
efforts put forth will be successful, and our country be one of the most 
effective and honored instruments for producing the same, that the great 
work shall be arrested by such a fratricidal war as that which is now so 
seriously threatened ? Is there not room enough for us all to dwell to 
gether in peace in this widely extended country, so large a portion of 
which is yet unsettled, and may not be until the world that now is shall 
be no more ? The families or nations which sprung from two venerable 
patriarchs of old, could find room enough in the little pent-up land of 
Judea to live in peace, by going the one to one hand and the other to the 
opposite. At a later period, when Israel and Judah separated, and the 
latter having the city and temple in possession, and the supremacy, ac 
cording to prophecy, was preparing to go up against the former and 
reduce the people to submission, and bring them back to union, the 
Lord himself came down and forbade it, saying : Thou shalt not go up, 
nor fight against your brethren, the children of Israel. Return every 
man to his house, for this thing is of me. And they hearkened unto 
the Lord, and ever after the history of the two kingdoms is written in 
the same sacred volume, in which are also recorded the evidences of 
God s favor to both, and though sometimes at controversy, yet how 
often were they found side by side defending the ancient boundaries of 
Judea against surrounding nations. God grant that our country may 

270 CONVENTION OP 1861. 

learn a lesson from this sacred narrative. Let none think that I am 
unmindful of law and order, and of the blessings of Union. I was 
trained in a different school. I have clung with tenacity to the hope of 
preserving the Union to the last moment. If I know my own heart, 
could the sacrifice of the poor remnant of my life have contributed in 
any degree to its maintenance, such sacrifice would have been cheer 
fully made. But the developments of public feeling and the course of 
our rulers have brought me slowly, reluctantly, sorrowfully, yet most 
decidedly, to the painful conviction, that notwithstanding attendant 
dangers and evils, we shall consult the welfare and happiness of the 
whole land by separation. And who can desire to retain a Union which 
has now become so hateful, and by the application of armed force, 
which, if successful, would make it ten times more hateful, and soon 
lead to the repetition of the same bloody contests? 

" I trust, therefore, that the present actual separation of so many and 
such important portions of our country may take place without further 
collision, which might greatly hinder the establishment of the most 
friendly and intimate relations which can consist with separate estab 
lishments. I trust that our friends at a distance, and now in opposition 
to us, will most seriously review their judgment, and inquire whether 
the evils resulting from a war to sustain their wishes and opinions as to 
a single Confederacy, will not far exceed those apprehended from the 
establishment of a second an event far more certain than the result of 
the American Revolution at the time of its occurrence. 

"In connection with this civil and geographical separation in our 
country, and almost necessarily resulting from it, the subject of some 
change of the ecclesiastical relations of our Diocese must come under 
consideration. There is a general and strong desire, I believe, to re 
tain as much as possible of our past and present happy intercourse 
with those from whom we shall be in other matters more divided. A 
meeting is already proposed for this purpose in one of the seceded 
States, whose plans, so far as developed, I will submit to the consider 
ation of this body at its present session. 

" I cannot conclude without expressing the earnest desire that the 
ministers and members of our Church, and all the citizens of our State, 
who are so deeply interested in the present contest, may conduct it in 
the most elevated and Christian spirit, rising above uncharitable and 
indiscriminate imputations on all who are opposed. Many there are 
equally sincere on both sides, as there ever have been in all the wars 
and controversies that have been waged upon earth, though it does not 
follow that all have the same grounds of justice and truth on which to 
base their warfare. 

CONVENTION OF 1861. 271 

" It was the maxim of an ancient sage, that we should always treat 
our friends as those who might one day be our enemies, and to treat 
our enemies as those who may one day be our friends. While abhor 
ring, as I am sure we all do, the former part of this cold-hearted 
maxim, let us cherish and adopt the latter, so congenial with the spirit 
of our holy religion. The thought of even a partial separation from 
those who have long been so dear to me is anguish to my soul. But 
there is a union of heart in our common faith and hope which can never 
be broken. The Church in Virginia has more dear friends and gener 
ous patrons amongst those who are on the opposite side of this painful 
controversy than any other, and feels most deeply the unhappy position 
in which we are placed. 

" As our State has, to its high praise, endeavored to avert the evils 
now threatened, so may our Church, and all the others in Virginia, by 
prayer and the exercise of true charity, endeavor to diminish that large 
amount of prejudice and ill-will which so unhappily abounds in our land. 

" Let me, in conclusion, commend to your special prayers all those 
who have now devoted themselves to the defence of our State. From 
personal knowledge of many of them, and from the information of 
others, there is already, I believe, a large portion of religious principle 
and genuine piety to be found among them. I rejoice to learn that in 
many companies not only are the services of chaplains and other minis 
ters earnestly sought for, but social prayer meetings held among them 
selves. Our own Church has a very large proportion of communicants 
among the officers of our army, and not a few among the soldiers. Let 
us pray that grace may be given them to be faithful soldiers of the 
Cross, as well as valiant and successful defenders of the State. 

" If all of us do our part faithfully, and according to the principles of 
our holy religion, we may confidently leave the issue to God, who will 
overrule all for good." 

The Right Reverend the assistant Bishop read to the Con 
vention that portion of the proceedings of the Diocesan Con 
vention of Texas which had reference to the ecclesiastical 
and political condition of the country, which, on motion of 
Rev. Dr. Wilmer, was referred to a Special Committee upon 
the Bishop s address. 

Bishop Meade s views were formally approved by the Con 
vention in adopting the following : 


The Special Committee to whom so much of the Bishop s address as 
relates "to the present political and ecclesiastical condition of our 
affairs" was referred, unanimously report the following resolutions for 
adoption by the Convention : 

1. Resolved, That this Convention, having heard with deep interest 
the true and timely statements of our venerable Diocesan, in reference 
to the present political and ecclesiastical condition of our affairs, cor 
dially concur in the views presented, and sympathize fully in the kind 
and Christian spirit in which they are so wisely declared. 

2. Resolved, That a committee, consisting of the two Bishops, three 
other clergymen and three laymen, be appointed as a Provisional Com 
mittee, to act during the recess of the Convention in all matters con 
nected with our relations to other Dioceses, and that the clerical and 
lay members of the committee shall serve as delegates in any Conven 
tion which may be agreed upon by other similarly situated Dioceses. 
All the proceedings of this committee to be reported for the approval 
of the Convention of the Diocese of Virginia. 

On motion of the Kev. John Grranimer, the following reso 
lution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Convention now proceed to elect three clerical 
and three lay members, who, together with the two Bishops, shall con 
stitute the above committee. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected : Rev. Dr. R. 
H. Wilmer, Rev. Dr. Sparrow, Rev. Dr. Peterkin, Judge 
Thomas S. Gholson, Mr. Philip Williams, Mr. Richard H. 

The report of the Committee on the Baptism of Colored 
Children was recommitted until next Convention. 

Article II of the Constitution was amended so as to 
entitle the Rector of the Virginia Female Institute to a seat 
in the Convention. 

The Convention adjourned on Thursday, the second day 
of its session. 

CONVENTION OF 1862. 273 


Convention met in St. Paul s church, Richmond, May 21st. 

Present Bishop Johns, 25 clergy and 15 laity. 

Mr. E. S. Pegram was elected Secretary pro tern. 

Bishop Johns, in his address, referred to the circum 
stances of Bishop Meade s decease, which occurred on Fri 
day, March 9th, 1862, in Richmond. We quote as follows : 

"March 6th.-^-l preached in St. Paul s church, Richmond, at the con 
secration of the Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, as Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Alabama. The evidence of his 
election by the Convention of that Diocese the testimony from its mem 
bers recommending him for consecration the evidence of the consent 
to his consecration by a majority of the standing committees and 
Bishops in the Confederate States, having been produced and read 
the consecration was performed by the Right Rev. Wm. Meade, D. D., 
who presided, and the Right Rev. Stephen Elliot, D. D., and myself, 
who united in the imposition of hands. 

" We parted with our beloved brother with sorrow of heart that his 
stated services with us were to cease, yet with thankfulness that he 
was entering upon a field of usefulness so important and interesting 
and with many prayers that God would preserve and prosper him in 
his ministrations, and give him grace to fulfil his course with fidelity 
and success, that when the Chief Shepherd shall appear, he may 
receive the never-fading crown of glory. 

"March gth. I preached in St. John s, Richmond. This, dear breth 
ren, was the week of our bereavement. On Friday, the i4th, at 7 A. M., 
it pleased Almighty God to remove from us our venerable and beloved 
Bishop, whom He had chosen to cherish our Church in Virginia during 
its infancy to aid in bringing it up in the nurture and admonition of 
the Lord and long honored and blessed as its chief pastor. The habit 
which forms by duration, and the love which excellence and usefulness 
inspire and invigorate, had so bound and endeared him to us all, that 
the thought of being without him was not seriously entertained, and we 
were ill prepared for the afflictive separation. Perhaps we ought to 
have been more discerning, and gathered premonitions from the sig- 

274 CONVENTION OF 1862. 

nificant service with which our last Convention was opened. When the 
Bishop, under a solemn sense of appropriateness and duty, officiating 
as the preacher, delivered his semi-centinary discourse, spake of the 
experience of his long and eventful life, with the deep humility of a 
sage that the benefit of his carefully acquired knowledge might accrue 
to us there was impressively evident a ripeness and perfectness of 
age in Christ, which might have advised us that his maturity for Heaven 
was attained, and the time of his departure at hand. For many years 
his bodily infirmities, though they did not abate his intellectual labors 
or suspend the use of his pen, but only rendered them more abundant 
and beneficial, yet they did deprive us of his impressive services in the 
pulpit. His capability for these, however, was recently restored, and in 
that memorable discourse there was an unction of piety and a rich 
melody of religious thought in which our ears have recognized the 
dying notes of our aged Apostle. He has since finished his course in 
peace and hope, and adding to his wholesome example and salutary 
instructions of his self-denying and laborious life the solemn seal of a 
fearless death. It was my privilege to minister to him during his sick 
ness receive his dying testimony watch his waning strength catch 
his expiring breath, and then close those eyes, which, in an intimate 
association of twenty years, had never been turned on mine and me but 
in true friendship and tender love. 

"The particulars of his illness, and his dying testimony to his breth 
ren and country, I have communicated in the address delivered at the 
funeral. That testimony will be long and religiously preserved as a 
precious legacy of a Christian patriot to the Church and people, whose 
prosperity were so dear to his breast both in life and in death. May 
our devoted love for our departed father in God, and our sympathy in 
sorrow under our sore bereavement, be so sanctified as to unite us in 
closer Christian affection, and animate us to greater zeal and diligence 
in the cause of our Lord and Master, that we lose not those things 
which have been wrought, but may behold his pleasure still prospering 
in our hands." . 

The following resolution was offered by the Rev. D. F. 
Sprigg, and unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the Treasurer of this Convention be required to pay 
the funeral expenses of the Right Rev. William Meade, D. D., out of 
any money in his hands not otherwise appropriated. 

The committee appointed at the last Annual Convention 

CONVENTION OF 1862. 275 

to act in connection with representatives of other Southern 
Dioceses in any Convention that might be held, reported 
that they had attended a Convention at Columbia, S. C., on 
October 16, 1861, and that with great unanimity the said 
Convention had agreed upon a proposed Constitution for 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States 
of America. 

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Woodbridge, the Convention 
proceeded to the consideration of the " Constitution proposed 
for the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate 
States of America," which, after being read by the Secre 
tary, and some discussion, 

On motion of the Eev. Mr. Dashiell, the vote was taken 
on its adoption, and it was unanimously carried. 

The Constitution and canons of the Diocese were changed 
by striking out the word "Convention," wherever it oc 
curred, and substituting the word " Council." 

The following delegates were elected to a General Council 
of the Dioceses in the Confederate States, to be held at 
Augusta, Georgia, on the second Wednesday in November, 
1862 : Of the clergy Kev. Dr. Sparrow, Rev. Dr. Peterkin, 
Rev. George H. Norton; alternates: Rev. Dr. Woodbridge, 
Rev. Dr. Andrews, Rev. Dr. Pendleton. Of the laity Mr. 
Philip Williams, Mr. N. H. Massie, Mr. Richard Cunning 
ham ; alternates : Judge Gholson, Mr. J. L. Bacon, Colonel 
E. T. Tayloe. 

The delegates to the General Council were instructed to 
urge that the Constitution adopted by the Dioceses be 
amended so as to bring the article in reference to the sub 
division of Dioceses into conformity with the Constitution 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. 

The following preamble and resolutions were presented by 
the committee appointed for the purpose : 

The committee charged to inquire into the mode of testifying the re- 

276 CONVENTION OF 1862. 

spect and affection of the Convention for the memory of the late Right 
Rev. Wm. Meade, D. D., report That the death of our venerable Dio 
cesan, the revered President of this Convention, who, in that relation, as 
in all others which brought him into communication with his fellow- 
men, inspired all those who approached him with affection and rev 
erence, deserves an enduring memorial of the veneration and esteem in 
which he was held. Most fit is it, that we, his clergy and the representa 
tives of the people for whom he lived and labored, and who, for so 
many years enjoyed his instructive services and parental care, should 
bear witness to the graces which adorned his life, and the strength of 
character, which secured him his extraordinary influence and eminent 
usefulness. Conscientious, intrepid, learned; clear in the perceptions 
of truth and duty ; opposed to every form of compliance or compromise 
at variance with the strictest sincerity and plainness, and alive to the 
dignity and elevation of his sacred office, he fulfilled, by example and 
by precept, the mission of an evangelist. Any degree of labor or re 
sponsibility to which duty summoned him served only to strengthen his 
determination to be faithful ; nor cared he for his own repose or safety, 
if by toil or self-denial he might advance the cause of truth and holiness. 
Yet, inexorable as he was on questions involving principle, in matters 
which permitted sympathy or friendship, the indulgence of home affec 
tions or the charities which subdue by kindness, he was invariably in 
dulgent, persuasive and benignant. Such was his prominence and 
weight, so fitted to lead by his energy, wisdom and grace, that the 
growth and development of his own Diocese, the history of the Church 
at large, and the progress of religion in his day constitute his best and 
only faithful eulogy ; and upon that we must rely, when it shall be writ 
ten, to honor him as he deserves. The committee recommend the 
adoption of the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That we will cherish with affectionate reverence the 
memory of our beloved Bishop, the Right Rev. Wm. Meade, D. D., and 
we tender our unfeigned sympathy, in their bereavement, to his family. 

2. That his personal worth and abundant services entitle him to a 
permanent memorial, and that this Convention will cause to be erected 
over his remains an appropriate monument. 

3. That the Rectors and Vestries of our churches in Richmond be, 
and are hereby commissioned to execute the preceding resolutions. 

It was also, on motion, 

Resolved unanimously, That there is cause for devout thankfulness, 
and for His goodness therein we humbly praise God, that the sue- 

CONVENTION OF 1862. 277 

cessor of our lamented and beloved Bishop the Right Rev. John 
Johns, D. D., is the tried and revered friend, who, as the faithful and 
valued assistant of our late venerated Diocesan through twenty years 
of harmonious labor, has proved himself eminently worthy of the con 
fidence and affection of the Diocese and of the Church. 

Resolved, That the sympathy of the Diocese is extended to him in 
his deep affliction at the loss of his revered friend and senior ; and at 
his accession to the undivided duties of his sacred office at this time of 
peculiar trials and dangers, he is welcomed, with the assurance of our 
unfeigned attachment, deference and reverence for him. 

There were reported 132 confirmations, 2,355 communi- 
cants, and contributions amounting in all to $21,143.35. 
The Committee on the State of the Church said : 

We are in the midst of a Revolution, ecclesiastical as well as civil, 
and therefore in the experience of all the concomitants of such a state 
of things. The first movement of the Federal army, in the invasion of 
Virginia, placed in their hands the Seminary and High School build 
ings, dispersing from their homes the families of the Bishop and of 
the Professors, and breaking up the four or five congregations in the 
neighborhood. Subsequent movements have greatly increased our 
calamities; in some cases confining our clergy and laity within the 
enemy s lines, so as to prevent them from being with us in our present 
meeting ; in others, again to the driving of pastors from their charges 
and homes ; in others, to the appropriation of churches as barracks and 
hospitals ; in others, to their shameful abuse and desecration, and to 
the dispersion and exile of those who worshipped in them. The simple 
facts that we have reports from only twenty-five parishes ; that the Pro 
fessors of our Seminary, after resuming their duties in October, have 
been again compelled to suspend ; that the High School, during the 
whole of the past year, has been, and is now, in a state of like suspen 
sion ; that our Diocesan paper has been changed as to its place of pub 
lication, and is now issued to the extent of little over one-third of its 
former circulation; these simple facts of themselves make manifest 
some of the painful peculiarities in the state of the Church at the 
present moment. * * * * 

To one or two points, however, of especial interest, involved in these 
general statements, your committee would now desire to call attention. 

One of these is the fact, unexampled in our day in Protestant coun 
tries, in conflict alike with the organic law of the Federal as of our 
own government ; the fact of interference with the rights of conscience, 

278 CONVENTION OP 1862. 

both of ministers and congregations, in the attempt made to compel 
them in public worship to acknowledge the authority, and take sides 
with one of the parties in the conflict now going on, that of the Federal 
government. Church after church has been shut up, and in some cases 
abused and desecrated; minister after minister has been compelled to 
leave his home and charge, sometimes to flee for his life ; congregation 
after congregation has been broken up and dispersed, denied the privi 
leges of public worship and the ordinances of religion, not for any pos 
itive act, but because they would not He to God, and in public worship 
pray for the success of those whom they regarded as the murderers of 
their kinsmen and countrymen, and in so doing express approval of 
their course. In most of the cases the parties were willing as non- 
combatants, and as prisoners within the Federal lines to omit all allu 
sion to the existing conflict. But this was not allowed them, and they 
have been compelled to elect between the public utterance of a false 
hood, and one which does violence alike to their most sacred affections 
and strongest convictions ; or dispersion or exile. Of course, in times 
like these, of excitement and bitterness, there will be cases of individ 
ual violence, against which no official influence can altogether provide ;. 
and were the cases in question of this character, they would not, as 
they do now, demand such special notice. That which constitutes their 
peculiar enormity, and which makes it our duty to call attention to 
them, is the fact that they have taken place under official sanction. The 
very worst case of flagrant outrage in this respect, occurred within ten 
miles of Washington, was brought in a formal manner to the notice of 
the highest civil and military officials there ; and, so far as any public 
intimation has been given, was allowed to pass unrebuked and un 
punished was virtually sanctioned, and the church in which the 
outrage was perpetrated, was, within the next few weeks, still further 
desecrated, and then appropriated to military purposes. And since 
then the same course has been pursued by the commanding officers of 
the Federal forces in our sister Dioceses of Tennessee and North Caro 
lina. * ****** 

Intimately connected with these illegalities of a civil, may be men 
tioned others of an ecclesiastical character, no less remarkable. Some 
of the churches, the owners and pastors of which have been forcibly 
dispossessed, are now occupied by Federal chaplains, clergymen of the 
Episcopal Church, and therefore in disregard and violation of their own 
as of our canonical regulations. 

Turning from these topics to others of a more grateful character, your 
committee would direct your notice to some of the modes in which, 
during even these troublous times, effort may be made for the welfare 

COUNCIL OF 1863. 2T9 

of souls and the extension of Christ s kingdom. A new field of 
labor in this respect, both for the souls and the bodies of our soldiers, 
has been opened to us in the army. The report of the committee of 
the Diocesan Missionary Society brings before us a matter of special 
and pressing importance. There is need of missionary effort among 
our soldiers, particularly in cities and large towns, where many of the 
sick and wounded are located. Our whole missionary fund, of ordi 
nary times, might be employed in this one form of effort, and would not 
meet the existing demand. 

The Convention adjourned on Thursday evening, after a 
session of two days. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Richmond, May 20th. 
Present Bishop Johns, forty-nine clergy and thirty-five 

There was, as will he seen, a larger representation than 
last year. It was due in part to the number of clergy and 
laity who were refugees in and near to Richmond. 

Rev. T. Gr. Dashiell was elected Secretary. 

The Diocesan Missionary Society said in its report: 

The condition of the country has materially affected the operations 
of the Society. On one hand, by the temporary occupation of the 
enemy, our area has been curtailed, and the number of parishes, here 
tofore dependent for aid upon the Society, diminished. But on the 
other hand, the hospitals which have filled the land, and especially the 
city of Richmond, and the large armies which the Confederate States 
were obliged to call into the field, and occupy on the soil of Virginia, 
have opened to the missionary activity of the Church, a new, a vast, 

and most interesting field of usefulness. 


To meet the demands for ministerial services in our hospitals, two 

missionaries have been appointed and supported during the last year, 

280 COUNCIL OF 1863. 

and their monthly reports laid before the committee at their stated 
meetings. The missionaries thus employed are the Rev. Messrs. 
Withers and Perkins, of whom the first has recently been transferred 
to the hospitals in Petersburg, in consequence of the increased demand 
for such services in that city, and in conformity with the wishes of its 

During the time that the hospitals in Richmond were filled with from 
10,000 to 14,000 sick and wounded, Rev. Messrs. Kepler and Sprigg 
were also assigned to this work. Whenever and wherever such need 
exists, the committee are prepared to co-operate with the local pastors, 

and ready to receive their communications. 

# * ** **** 

In connection with these labors the committee have felt the impor 
tance of providing a suitable literature for our soldiers Bibles, Testa 
ments, Tracts and Prayer-Books. The publication and distribution of 
Tracts has been continued, and a brief liturgy for the use of the camps, 
has been prepared and printed. It is hoped, that a new and better 
edition may soon be brought out. This whole department has been 
newly organized, so as to concentrate the efforts of the Diocese upon 
this interesting work. 

Measures were adopted looking to an increase of publish 
ing work by the Society. 

The Convention approved the following amendment to 
Article II of the Constitution: "And no person shall be 
entitled to a seat until he has been canonically connected 
with the Diocese for six calendar months." 

In his address the Bishop said : 

"November loth. Accompanied by the clerical and lay deputies from 
this Diocese to the first General Council, I left Richmond for Augusta, 
Ga. The Council continued in session ten days. Its chief business 
consisted in the ratification of our Book of Common Prayer, with only 
the substitution of Confederate for United, and of Council for 
Convention, where such alteration was required to adopt the Liturgy 
to our use ; reserving, for future consideration, any other changes or 
amendments not affecting any essential point of doctrine, discipline or 
worship, which might be deemed expedient ; and in addition to this, in 
the adoption of a Digest of revised canons for the government of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America. 
This will be found to differ but little from our old Code the only varia- 

COUNCIL OF 1863. 281 

tions being such as experience had suggested, and perspicuousness and 
consistency required. The whole business of the Council was conducted 
in a spirit of fraternal confidence and with a Christian courtesy which 
made the association most agreeable in itself and afforded a good hope 
of continued unity of spirit and generous cooperation. 

"The last Convention entrusted to a committee consisting of the 
Rectors and Vestries of the churches in Richmond and its vicinity, the 
arrangement for the permanent interment of our late Rt. Rev. Father in 
God. The wish of the sons of the deceased having been ascertained, a 
lot was selected in Hollywood Cemetery. 

"On the 4th of March, at 2 P. M., the Rev. R. K. Meade and children, 
accompanied by clergy and laity of the city and its vicinity, repaired to 
the cemetery and reverently removed the venerated remains from the 
vault in which they had been temporarily laid, to the spot chosen for 
permanent interment, where, with appropriate religious services, we 
committed the body to the ground looking for the general resurrection 
and the life of the world to come, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

"The proposed monument and enclosure are postponed till they can 
be more satisfactorily accomplished than under existing circumstances. 
Meanwile, as no member of the Church in Virginia should be deprived 
of the privilege of participating in this memorial, it may be proper for 
this Council to appoint a receiver of contributions, with such directions 
as will afford the opportunity to all who desire to aid in its erection. 
* * * * * * * 

" During a brief visit to Charles Bruce, Esq., of Charlotte county, in 
July last, he requested me to receive and use for the Diocese the muni 
ficent legacy of his excellent mother, for the benefit of our destitute 
churches in Virginia, to which, during her life, she had been in the 
habit of contributing most liberally. The bequest of the testator was 
also an honorable boon from the heirs at law, who though under no 
legal obligation to comply with this provision of the will, promptly, and 
of their own accord, executed it as really valid. At my suggestion Mr. 
Bruce associated Mr. John L. Bacon with me in the trust, and we received 
and hold the amount paid by the executor under a written agreement 
carefully prepared by Wm. H. Macfarland, Esq., so as to secure the 
fund, as far as possible from loss or perversion. On the gth of August, 
1862, 1 received Mr. C. Bruce s check on the Farmer s Bank of Virginia, 
for $13,031, which I forwarded to Mr. John L. Bacon, by whom it was 
invested in railroad bonds, of the value of $14,000, which with some 
further payment, the amount of which is not yet ascertained, will form 
the permanent fund for which the Church is indebted to its deceased 

282 COUNCIL OF 1864. 

benefactress. I speak of the fund as permanent, because, with the 
approval of Mr. C. Bruce, the principal is to be preserved intact, the 
annual interest only to be distributed as specified in the will." 

During the business session on Thursday (21st), the 
Council resolved itself into a meeting for prayer and sup 
plication to Almighty Grod for his blessing upon the South 
ern Confederacy and our armies in the field. 

It was resolved to meet for prayer for the same objects 
next morning at 6^ o clock. 

Emmanuel church, Washington county, was admitted 
into union with the Council. 

It was resolved that until our army should be fully sup 
plied with chaplains, that the Bishop be requested to call 
upon clergy without parochial cures to render such services, 
in such way and for such time as he might designate ; and 
the clerical members of the Council tendered him their 
services for the work. 

Messages of love and greeting were sent to those clergy 
and laity who were cut off from the Council by the move 
ments of the hostile armies. 

Council adjourned Friday evening. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Richmond, May 18th. 
Present the Bishop, twenty-six clergy and fourteen laity. 

It is worth while to record here, whilst it is not men 
tioned in the minutes, that on the first day of the session, 
after the roll-call of the clergy, there was not a quorum of 
lay delegates present. The organization of the Council 

COUNCIL OF 1864. 283 

was delayed about an hour, until several lay delegates 
known to Be in the city, could be summoned. 

The amendment to Article II, proposed and approved at 
the last Council, was adopted. 

Emmanuel church, Greenwood parish, was admitted into 
the Council. 

The Bishop s salary was increased to $10,000. 

In his address the Bishop introduced the following cor 
respondence : 

" WASHINGTON CITY, January 27, 1864. 
" Rt. REV. J. JOHNS, D. D. : 

" My Dear Bishop, It is very important to the interest of St. Mat 
thew s parish, (Wheeling,; that we should have an Episcopal visitation, 
and inasmuch as you, our own beloved Bishop are kept from us, and 
may be kept from us for years by the war, we are constrained to beg 
that you will give your consent to our inviting a Bishop to officiate in 
your stead. Will you not give to us a discretionary power as to the 
selection of a Bishop ? We shall conform as nearly as practicable to 
your know wishes on the subject. 

" Affectionately your humble servant, 


"RICHMOND, February 13, 1864. 

"Rev. and Dear Brother, Your letter by flag of truce has just 
reached me, and I hasten to assure you that I fully reciprocate the kind 
ness which it expresses, and that I retain an unabated interest for the 
good people of your charge. It is truly gratifying to know that the un 
happy disturbances of the times have left unimpaired our higher rela 
tions and the Christian feeling which they involve, ft is now nearly 
three years since I visited Wheeling. It may be long before the country 
will be sufficiently settled to enable me to officiate there again. Whilst 
I trust I shall ever be unwilling to obtrude myself where I have no right 
to appear, or where my services are not desired, I am ready to discharge 
my duty as far as possible to the whole Diocese. If, therefore, those 
who have the power with you, will, on my parole of honor, furnish me 
with a safe conduct, you will soon receive such official services as you 
may require. I say this on the presumption, that those in authority 
here will not object to the arrangement, and with the distinct under- 

284 COUNCIL OF 1864. 

standing, that whilst its conditions will be sacredly observed by me, 
they are not to conflict with my obligations to the government under 
which I live. 

" I make this overture in good faith, and leave the result to His dis 
posal, who orders all things well. If it is regarded favorably, you will, 
of course, apprise me. If otherwise, I shall at least have the satisfaction 
of knowing that it is from no remissness on my part that a portion of 
my cure is deprived of Episcopal services. 

" Yours truly, 

"J. JOHNS, &c. 
"Rev. Thos. G. Addison" 

" I know that the answer reached its destination, and was well re 
ceived by my correspondent and others. It has, however, so far as I 
am informed, led to no further action on their part. We must wait 
patiently and hopefully till the good Providence of God opens the way 
for the renewal of services, which I am ready to render." 

At the close of his address the Bishop said : 

" In closing this statement of the affairs of the Diocese, since the 
meeting of the last Council, it behooves me to remark what the report 
itself discloses that though we are under discipline, our God has not 
forsaken us. His chastisements have been mingled with many mer 
cies, both temporal and spiritual. Whilst he has marvellously re 
strained the raging violence of our enemies, who proclaim their pur 
pose of exterminating our people, and possessing themselves of our 
country, he has graciously visited our parishes with his salvation, and 
our camps with the regenerating influences of his gospel, and I therein 
do rejoice yea, and will rejoice. But let us not so be engrossed by 
the accompanying mercies as to fail to hear the rod, and who hath 
appointed it. And let not the injustice and inhumanity of our foes lead 
us to indulge the malevolence and execration and revenge to which 
such deeds so powerfully excite. Rather let us remember how it is 
written, Vengeance is mine I will repay saith the Lord. -Let us not 
be overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good, and God will in 
vigorate and guide us in the conflict, and give us victory with his 
"blessing. " 

It was 

Resolved, That when this Council adjourns it will adjourn to meet at 
such place as the Bishop may designate, and that in case the state of 
public affairs should render a meeting at the usual time inexpedient, 
the Bishop shall, at his discretion, appoint the time of meeting. 

COUNCIL OF 1865. 285 

Only twenty-eight parochial reports were received. They 
reported 2,322 communicants, 442 confirmations, and con 
tributions amounting to $61,153.45, in Confederate cur 

Nothing else was done except routine business, and the 
Council adjourned on Thursday evening. 


The war between the Northern and Southern sections of 
the country terminated in April of this year. The lack of 
transportation facilities, the destruction of all kinds of pro 
perty and the consequent poverty and confusion throughout 
Virginia, prevented a meeting of the Council in May. 

Pursuant to the call of the Bishop, the Council met in 
St. Paul s church, Kichmond, September 20th. Present 
Bishop Johns, sixty-six clergy and forty-seven laity. 

In his address the Bishop referred at length to the rela 
tions of the Southern Dioceses, and more especially of our 
own, to the General Convention of the United States. He 
gave a history of the course pursued by such Dioceses as 
had taken action in the premises, and urged that the Coun 
cil should resume its connection with the General Con 
vention. He said : 

"On the 2d of August I received a circular letter, dated July izth, 
signed John Henry Hopkins, presiding Bishop. A similar letter was 
sent to each of the Southern Bishops. It testifies to those to whom it 
is addressed the affectionate attachment of the writer, and assures 
them of the cordial welcome which awaits them at the approaching 
General Convention. It states that he was authorized to say that his 
Episcopal brethren generally sympathized with him in the desire to 

286 COUNCIL OF 1865. 

see the fullest representation of the churches from the South, and to 
greet their brethren in the Episcopate with the kindliest feeling, and 
adds: I trust, therefore, that I shall enjoy the precious gratification of 
seeing you and your delegates in proper place at the regular triennial 
meeting, &c. In acknowledging this letter, I reciprocated the kind 
feeling expressed, assured the esteemed writer of my readiness to co 
operate in any measures calculated to promote peace and good will. 

" It appears that the prevailing voice of the Church in the South is in 
favor of a return to our former ecclesiastical relations ; and that as far 
as their action is concerned, the result seems inevitable. What influence 
this should have on our cause it is for this Council to determine. If the 
Council concludes, as it has the right to do, that the interests of the 
Church require the maintenance of our organization, then it will be for 
you so to instruct your delegates to the General Council, with special 
directions to advocate proper measures for recognizing and promoting 
fraternal communion between the two branches of the Church in the 
United States. If, however, this Council shall judge that, all things 
considered, the peace and prosperity of the Church require that our 
separate organization should cease, and former relations be resumed, 
then the mode and the time for effecting this will demand your careful 
deliberation. In conducting this there are certain pertinent questions 
which we may very properly propose to ourselves. 

" If, as a people, we are solicitous for a speedy civil reunion, why 
should we not, as a Church, be equally desirous of a speedy reestablish- 
ment of our ecclesiastical relations ? 

"Are there any sensibilities which may be disregarded in the one 
adjustment, but which require to be consulted and indulged in the 

" May we be more implacable as churchmen than as citizens ? 

" If time is necessary to compose our feelings, how much must be 
taken ? Whose experience is to determine the measure ? Is there any 
other scriptural limit than the going down of the sun? 

"Are not such feelings better disciplined by immediate, resolute 
mortification than by indulgent allowance ? 

" Does not the policy of formally postponing reconciliation involve a 
grave question of Christian morals, not to be overlooked in seeking to 
ascertain our duty ? 

" Again, whilst it would be very agreeable to receive from those from 
whom we have been separated certain satisfactory assurances, in refer 
ence both to the past and the future, and whilst the voluntary tender of 
such assurances on their part would be conciliating and grateful, would 

COUNCIL OF 1865. 287 

not such a requisition by us be regarded as dictation and indicate a very 
offensive want of confidence in their rectitude of purpose? 

" Would it not be more becoming in us to assume that those with 
whom we are willing to be reunited will do what is right without being 
held to it by a pledge, especially as the doing what we desire would be 
compatible with their principles; but a pledge to that effect would 
involve a recognition irreconcilable with their known convictions of 
ecclesiastical order, and which, therefore, as they cannot consistently 
give, we ought not to propose ? 

" If such a proposal would, as it certainly will, prevent that which 
without any pledge may be readily conceded, shall we forego the benefit 
of the action rather than waive the pledge as a prerequisite ? 

" If, indeed, the waiver were to be understood as a surrender of the 
principles which have governed us in our organization and subsequent 
proceedings, and an adoption of those known to be maintained by many 
with whom reunion is now proposed, it would be both dishonorable 
and dishonest, and could not for a moment admit of a question. 

"But if no such change is professed or supposed if it is understood 
that, without reference to theories or antecedent actions on either part, 
former relations are to be resumed in good faith and with fraternal pur 
poses, may not such an arrangement be mutually acceptable? 

" Is not resumption of former relations, without concessions or 
promises, the only way in which reunion is practicable, and would it not 
furnish surer hope of a peaceful and profitable future than any formal 
concordat attained by diplomatic negotiation ? " 

A committee consisting of Rev. Drs. Andrews, Gibson, 
Kinckle, Peterkin, and Messrs. Macfarland, Massie and Lee, 
was appointed to consider and report upon this part of his 
address. They reported as follows : 

1. That the Christian and conciliatory course of our respected Dio 
cesan in his correspondence with the presiding Bishop and other mem 
bers of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States touching 
a reunion with the General Convention of said Church meets our cor 
dial approbation. 

2. That this Council appreciates and affectionately responds to every 
sentiment of fraternal regard which has been manifested in the corres 
pondence referred to. 

3. That this Council is of opinion that the objects which all the par- 

288 COUNCIL OF 1865. 

ties interested may be presumed most to desire will be best accom 
plished by referring this subject to the next General Council. 

Which resolutions were adopted. 

The Bishop also in his address mentioned the offer made 
by the Domestic Missionary Committee, located in New 
York, to aid this Diocese in its time of impoverishment. 
The matter was referred to a committee who reported as 
follows : 

Resolved, That while we do not feel at liberty to accept their offer 
(tender of funds), we acknowledge it with gratification, and return our 
thanks to the Domestic Committee for the fraternal spirit and liberal 
disposition manifested in their action. 


A resolution was adopted urging the formation of Convo 

The Council adopted a paper looking to the religious in 
struction of the colored people, and called upon the clergy 
and laity to engage with renewed effort in every available 
means that would contribute to their well-being. 

-No report of contributions was made by the Committee on 
Parocial Reports. 

The amount handed in to the Council for the Contingent 
Fund was about $3,100; it was subsequently increased to 

The following delegates, Revs. C. W. Andrews, D. D., 
Philip Slaughter and G. H. Norton, and Messrs. Philip 
Williams, N. H. Massie and N. B. Meade, were elected to 
the General Council of the Southern Dioceses, to be held in 
November, 1865. 

The Council adjourned Thursday evening. 

COUNCIL OF 1866. 289 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Alexandria, May 16th. 
Present the Bishop, sixty-five clergy and forty-eight laity. 

Mr. Tazewell Taylor laid before the Council a paper 
adopted by the pew holders and pew owners of Christ 
church, Norfolk, amending their Constitution so that their 
church should be governed by a vestry chosen according to 
the mode prevailing in the Diocese. 

Mr. Taylor gave notice of a proposed amendment to 
Canon X, to correspond with the action of Christ church,. 
Norfolk. The amendment was introduced next day and 
adopted by the Council, striking out all allusion in the 
canon to Christ church, Norfolk. 

The amendment was, at a subsequent stage of the session,, 
approved by the Council. 

Mr. Cassius F. Lee offered the following : 

Whereas the causes which rendered necessary a separate organization 
of the Southern Dioceses no longer exist, and that organization has 
ceased by the consent and action of the several Dioceses concerned ; 

Resolved, That the Diocese of Virginia now resumes its former eccle 
siastical relations as a Diocese in connection with the General Conven 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, and that 
the Bishop is requested to send a certified copy of this preamble and 
resolution to the Presiding Bishop and to the Secretary of the House 
of Clerical and Lay Deputies. 

This paper, with several substitutes, were referred to a 
committee, who proposed to change the preamble by the 
addition of the following words: 

And whereas the Diocese of Virginia, unchanged as are her princi- 


290 COUNCIL OP 1866. 

pies, deem it most proper, under existing circumstances, to. resume 
her interrupted relations to the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States ; therefore, Resolved, &c. 

As thus reported it was adopted. 

Clergy ayes, 57 Noes, 9 

Laity ayes, 36 Noes, n 

St. Mark s church, Richmond, St. James the Less, Ash 
land, and Wilmer parish, Prince Edward, were admitted 
into union with the Council. 

A committee was appointed to inquire into the expedi 
ency of changing the time of the meeting of the Council. 

A committee was appointed to inquire whether it was 
expedient to make any change in the places of meeting of 
the Council. 

A paper was placed upon record stating the facts con 
cerning the possession of Christ church, Alexandria, by the 
Federal military and the continued displacement of the 
regular vestry by them. 

The following was adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of ten, consisting equally of clergymen 
and of laymen be appointed to inquire whether a division of this Dio 
cese is desirable; and, if so, what? and that they report to the next 
regular meeting of the Council. 

This committee was further enlarged by the addition of 
three clergymen and three laymen, and they were instructed 
further to inquire " whether it may not be best for the Dio 
cese to have an assistant Bishop." 

The name of Frederick parish, Clarke county, was changed 
to " Cunningham chapel" parish. 

A committee was appointed to revise the Constitution and 
canons with a draft of such amendments as would be neces- 

COUNCIL OF 1867. 291 

sary to conform them to the reiinion with the General Con 

The following was adopted: 

Whereas, it is essential to the prosperity of the Diocese that its clergy 
be supported, its missionaries taken care of, and its candidates for 
orders educated ; and, whereas, the small sum of three cents a week 
from each of its eight thousand communicants, would raise a sum of 
f 12,000 a year; therefore, 

Resolved, That the Bishop of the Diocese be requested to publish a 
pastoral letter, urging upon the clergy and lay members the importance 
of prompt, systematic and untiring exertion to raise funds for these 

The changed condition of many of the colored people, 
formerly slaves, led to anxious consideration as to the best 
plan of organizing their congregations. It was resolved to 
have a Standing Committee on Colored Congregations 
elected annually, with the Bishop as Chairman; also, it 

Resolved, That whenever the colored members of the Church in any 
parish desire to form a new and separate congregation, such action shall 
have the sanction of this Diocese. They may elect their own vestry, 
wardens and ministers. They shall be considered as under the care of 
this Council, and their interests cared for by the Standing Committee 
on Colored Congregations. 

Payments to the Contingent Fund amounted to $5,259.93. 


The Council met in Trinity church, Staunton, May 15th. 
Present the Bishop, eighty clergy and fifty-six laity. 
Mr. H. E. C. Baskervill was elected Treasurer. 

292 COUNCIL OF 1867. 

The invested Fund for Disabled Clergy reported asseta 
amounting to $8,037.50, merely nominal value, being mostly 
in Confederate securities. 

It was recommended that no change be made in the 
places of meeting, except perhaps to add Danville to the 

It was recommended that the meeting of the Council be 
held hereafter on the first Wednesday in June. 

A salary of $300 annually was voted to the Secretary. 

A committee appointed at the last Council to ascertain 
necessary alterations to the Constitution and canons, re 
ported the only needed change was to strike out "Confed 
erate" where ever it occurs, and insert "United." 

A committee of ten laymen was appointed to consider the 
subject of ministers salaries and the means of securing 
their punctual payment. 

In his address the Bishop said (referring to the questions 
of the division of the Diocese and of an assistant Bishop) : 

" In closing this protracted address, I may, without impropriety, allude 
to the very important subject referred by the last Council to a large and 
able committee of inquiry. 

" My personal interest in the issue must, in the course of nature, be of 
so short a duration, that it sinks into insignificance in comparison with 
the welfare of the Diocese, and my earnest request is to be left out of 
view in any discussion of the subject which may arise. 

" The division of the Diocese is a matter in which the judgment and 
preference of the laity, after careful examination are entitled to great 
weight. They are peculiarly the Church in Virginia. The clergy may 
move to-morrow, and sojourn where they please. The laity as a body 
are permanently identified with the Diocese, are responsible for the 
means of its maintenance, and must share in its weal or woe. They 
ought to have full opportunity to ponder well a policy in which they 
and their descendants have so deep an interest. I notice this, not that 
I have any apprehension that on this or any other matter of vital im 
portance, the two orders are expected to differ their mutual love and 
confidence have always, after due deliberation, secured a happily har 
monious result, but to engage their special attention, that a matter in 

COUNCIL OF 1867. 293 

which they are so seriously concerned may have the benefit of their 
careful and practical judgment. 

" And now that I may, as far as I can, disembarrass the other branch 
of the subject, I wish it to be understood that if it is the pleasure of the 
Council, and of other ecclesiastical authorities whose canonical consent 
is necessary, to allow me an assistant, the arrangement will be alto 
gether acceptable to myself. 

" I am now in the good providence of God near the close of the 
forty-eighth year of my ministry the twenty-fifth of my Episcopate, 
and the seventy-first of my age. After nearly half a century of official 
duty, which has scarcely known intermission, I have been permitted to 
attain and pass the Scriptural measure of three-score years and ten, 
and so have entered on the decade, when the strength of the days of 
our years is labor and sorrow. However it may be appointed in my 
own experience, I have no other purpose or desire than to spend it in the 
service, in which, if youth could be renewed, I would more than ever love 
to live and labor. If, therefore, you see your way clear, without embar 
rassing our good people, to provide an assistant, the arrangement will, 
I doubt not, with God s favor, be a great relief and comfort to myself, 
and I trust happy as heretofore in the relation of the Bishops, and in its 
influence on the prosperity of the Diocese." 

The committee appointed at the last Council on the sub 
jects of division of the Diocese, and an assistant Bishop, 
made a report stating that the committee was "nearly 
balanced" upon different opinions. All agreed as to the 
need of more frequent Episcopal services, but that they 
could not agree as to the best mode of supplying them 
part of the committee urging a division of the Diocese, 
part urging the election of an assistant. They therefore 

1. That to meet the present need of the Diocese, and to accord with 
the views of the Bishop, an assistant be elected. 

2. Should any portion of the Diocese desire separate organization, 
and apply accordingly to be set apart under existing provisions of the 
Constitution and Canons of the Church as a new Diocese, such appli 
cation be granted, should there then be found no special difficulty 

294 COUNCIL OF 1867. 

A division of the propositions was called for, and the 
report was recommitted. 

The committee again reported 

That, in their judgment, a division may hereafter be required by the 
wants of the Church ; but that since such division must originate with 
some part of the Diocese desiring a separate organization, and under 
any circumstances involve considerable delay, they therefore, believing 
it would be agreeable to their venerated Diocesan, recommend the 
election of an assistant Bishop to supply the immediate demand for 
additional Episcopal services. 

The report was adopted Thursday afternoon. 

The Council resolved to proceed next morning at nine 
o clock to elect an assistant Bishop. 

It was also agreed that after the clergy had made a 
choice, the laity should be allowed to retire to consider the 
same apart from the clergy. 

The Bishop of Africa, Eight Reverend John Payne, and 
the Bishop of China, Right Reverend Channing M. Wil 
liams, who were present, were invited to seats with the 
Bishop, and to make addresses in the afternoon. 

At 9 A. M. Friday, May 1*7 th, the Council proceeded to 
elect an assistant Bishop. 

On the seventh ballot the Rev. C. W. Andrews, D. D., 
Rector of Trinity church, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 
was nominated to the laity as the choice of the clergy. 

The laity retired, conferred upon the same, and upon the 
reassembling of the Council refused to ratify the election of 
Dr. Andrews. 

Two more ballots were cast by the clergy. On the ninth 
ballot the Rev. Francis M. Whittle, of St. Paul s church, 
Louisville, Kentucky, was nominated to the laity as the 
choice of the clergy. The laity ratified the same. 

An amendment was offered to Canon IX, making three 
the minimum number of a vestry. 

COUNCIL OF 1868. 295 

The committee on ministers salaries recommend that the 
treasurers of the various parishes be required to report to 
each Council the amount promised and the amount paid to 
the ministers. The salary of the Bishop and assistant was 
fixed each at $3,000, annually. 

The following was adopted: 

Resolved, That in the sense of this Council it is not expedient that an 
adjournment should take place before Saturday evening, or that the 
members should separate before Monday morning. 

A motion was introduced and laid over to amend Article 
V of the Constitution, so that it should read as follows : 

The election of a Bishop of this Diocese shall be made in Council, in 
nominations to be made by clergy or laity, the vote to be by ballot, 
taken first of the clergy, and then of the laity, and a majority of both 
orders shall be necessary for an election. 

The Committee on Colored Congregations made a lengthy 
report of work in various cities and counties. 

The Council was asked to construe the language in the 
nineteenth canon as to qualification of voters, so that all who 
contribute to the Contingent Fund shall be considered as 
voters. The Council decided that such was not the meaning 
of the canon. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Lynchburg, May 20th. 
Present Bishops Johns and Whittle. 
In his address Bishop Johns said: 

" I cannot refrain from expressing my gratitude to God for the re 
markable prosperity with which he has blessed our Theological Semi- 

296 COUNCIL OF 1868. 

nary. If, two years since, any one had predicted that, this session, there 
would be fifty students in attendance, and that all would be supported 
without debt, I would have esteemed him no prophet. Yet, so it is 
through the kind Providence of God, the considerate aid of many 
friends, and the judicious economy of those to whom its management 

is committed. 

* * * * * * *** 

" I place in the keeping of the Registrar of the Diocese a copy of 
the epistle from the assemblage of Bishops at Lambeth in September 
last, and a printed statement connected with their proceedings. It 
would have been my pleasure to accept the invitation to attend that 
meeting; and I would have highly valued the privilege of becoming 
personally acquainted with the distinguished prelates there convened 
for worship and for conference. The pressing demands of the Diocese 
rendered it necessary that I should deny myself the gratification, and I 
replied accordingly. If any have been disappointed by the results of 
that Assembly, it can only be because they did not duly consider its 
nature, and the distinctly avowed purpose for which it was called. That 
they were able to do and say as little as appears, and in so commend 
able a spirit, affords evidence of wisdom and grace which we may well 
admire, and be thankful. 

" The serious evils which threaten the Church of England, and in the 
United States, are not to be driven away by decrees of Councils, or 
Episcopal addresses, or Conventional resolutions, judicious as they 
may be ; but by the diligent diffusion and clear and earnest exhibition 
of evangelical truth, in sincerity and love. This is the divinely ap 
pointed instrument by which the Spirit of God accomplishes in men the 
great purposes of redemption. It is our responsible privilege to pre 
serve the Word of Life from adulteration and misuse, and to provide 
for its being distinctly held forth in the Church and before the world. 
Its Divine Author then becomes responsible for its salutary power in 
driving away erroneous and strange doctrines, and extending the knowl 
edge and experience of pure and undefiled religion among men." 

The Dean of the Seminary was requested to make report 
annually to the Council concerning the chapel at the Semi 
nary, in the form of a parochial report. 

A committee was appointed to attend to the erection of a 
monument to the memory of Bishop Meade. 

A motion to open the daily sessions of the Council with 
full service and sermon at 9 A. M., was lost. 

COUNCIL OF 1868. 297 

Canon IX was amended, making three the minimum 
number of a vestry. 

The assets of the Disabled Clergy Fund were ascertained 
to be about $3,000. 

The assets of the Bruce legacy, for repairing and build 
ing churches, were reported to be $17,035.80. 

Papers were laid before the Council from the vestry and 
the rector of Fredericksville parish, touching a contro 
versy between them. The Council was asked to give a 
decision in the case. The papers were referred to a commit 
tee, who reported that in parochial controversies the Council 
had no authority to interfere, as they were matters belong 
ing to the judiciary, not to the legislature of the Church. 

The reports from Treasurers in regard to ministers 
salaries were referred to a committee of ten laymen, who 
recommended that 

1. Delinquent parishes be published in the Journal; 
which was approved. 

2. That parishes failing to report be denied lay represen 
tation till the report is made. Lost. 

Parishes failing to report were ordered to be published in 
the delinquent list. 

The Bishops reported more than one thousand confirma 

The change proposed to Article V of the Constitution at 
the last Council (mode of electing a Bishop) was called up 
and indefinitely postponed. 

The amendment to Article I (changing day of meeting to 
the last Wednesday in May) was adopted. 

The proposed change from "Confederate States" to 
"United States," wherever occurring in the Constitution 
and Canons, was adopted. 

Point Pleasant parish, Mason county, West Virginia, 

298 COUNCIL OF 1868. 

and Green way Court parish, Clarke county, were admitted 
into union with the Council. 

The Trustees of the Seminary said : 

The Board of Trustees of the Theological Seminary and High School 
would respectfully place before the Council certain facts, connected 
with these institutions, in view of which their present condition may be 
understood. ****** 

At the time of reopening (in the autumn of 1865) considerable expense 
was necessary to make the buildings habitable. The furniture of the 
students rooms in the Seminary, and in the residences of the Professors 
had been worn out or destroyed. Out-houses and fencings had disap 
peared ; and in many respects the prospect was exceedingly discourag 
ing. By means of a legacy to the Seminary, providentially at the dis 
posal of the Bishop of the Diocese at the time, and special contributions 
from friends abroad, the worst of these inconveniences were remedied, 
the rooms and buildings furnished as they were absolutely needed, and 
the studies of the session were pursued to a successful termination. 

In the fall of 1866 the session was opened with three Professors the 
vacancy of the previous year having been filled and eighteen students, 
of whom three were in the Preparatory Department. During the session 
these were increased to twenty-five, of whom four were in the Prepara 
tory Department. The process of repairs, refitting rooms, enclosing, 
&c., went on, as during the previous session, as the necessity demanded- 
The deficiency in funds to meet these special calls, as also the current 
expenses of the year, were met by special contributions obtained from 
abroad and mainly through the exertions of Dr. Sparrow, the good hand 
of God bringing the duties and studies of another session to a happy 

At the opening of the present session, the number of students was 
considerably larger than that of the year preceding running up at 
present date to fifty, of whom twenty are in the Preparatory Depart 
ment. The increase of numbers in this department has rendered it 
necessary to employ an instructor, Mr. Charles D. Lee, A. M., of the 
University of Virginia, who is efficiently performing the duties of his 

Canon IX was amended so as to provide for the election 
of a Standing Committee of three clergymen and three lay 
men to take charge of the property of dishanded congre 

COUNCIL OF 1869. 299 


Council met in St. George s church, Fredericksburg, May 

In his address Bishop Johns spoke at length concern 
ing the extravagant and complicated externalism in ritual 
which was being practiced in some parts of the Church in 
this country. He regarded it as "designed symbolically to 
favor and facilitate the re introduction of great error in doc 
trine and worship repudiated by the distinguished divines 
of the English Reformation, and condemned by our stand 
ards, and which tend to unprotestantize the Church and 
assimilate it to the corrupt Church of Rome." 

The subject was referred to the following committee of 
seven clergy and six laymen, for consideration : 

Rev. C. W. Andrews, D. D., Rev. J. Packard, D. D., Rev. W. N. Pen- 
dleton, D. D., Rev. C. J. Gibson, Rev. Wm. Friend, Rev. J. A. Latand, 
Rev. H. Suter, Judge ShefTey, Judge Moncure, Judge Parker, A. L. 
Carter, Rich d H. Cunningham and Dr. P. H. Foster. 

The committee was directed to consider also the follow 

Resolved, That in view of the trouble caused in some portions of the 
Church by the introduction of novelties in worship, we have cause for 
devout thankfulness to God that we have, in our Book of Common 
Prayer, a safe and sufficient directory of worship beyond which no man 
can go, through his own private judgment, without violating the com 
mon order of the Church. 

A committee of three clergymen was appointed to revise 
the list of parishes. 

A list of places for meetings of the Council was adopted. 

The name of St. James church, in St. Mark s parish, Cul- 
peper, was changed to " Christ church." 

300 COUNCIL OF 1869. 

The bounds of St. Thomas parish, Frederick county, were 
extended to those of Leeds parish, Fauquier county. 

Piedmont parish, Fauquier, was divided, and the new 
parish called "Whittle" parish. 

A petition was received from St. Stephen s colored church, 
Petersburg, asking for admission into union with the Council. 

The Committee on New Parishes reported there was not 
in this case a compliance with all canonical requirements. 
The petition was declined, and the Council adopted the 
following : 

Whereas, This Council, at its annual session in 1866, did pledge itself 
to encourage the formation of colored Episcopal congregations, and to 
that end did promise to take under its care any such congregations as 
might he organized, and for the protection of the interests of such con 
gregations and for their representation in the Council of the Diocese, 
did and does still, annually, elect a Standing Committee, 

And whereas, A petition has been presented from the congregation 
of St. Stephen s church, Bristol parish, stating that they are duly organ 
ized, and have their own vestry and officers ; therefore, 

Resolved, That the Council hereby expresses its pleasure at the es 
tablishment of this congregation, and we assure them of the hearty de 
sire of all our members, clerical and lay, for their continued growth and 

Resolved, That the congregation of St. Stephen s church, Bristol 
parish, be and it is hereby taken under the care of this Council, and its 
interests with this body are hereby entrusted to the aforesaid Standing 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society be requested to have regard to the congregation of St. Stephen s 
and to similar churches, and to grant such needed assistance as they 
may have it in their power to afford. 

A committee was appointed to devise some plan better 
than any yet considered, that would be more promotive of 
the ecclesiastical and spiritual well being of the colored 
people in our Church. 

[This committee never reported any plan.-] 

COUNCIL OF 1869. 301 

The parishes in the Diocese were requested to pay to the 
Diocesan Missionary Society not less than fifty cents annu 
ally for each communicant, in addition to the collections 
made at invitations of the Bishop. 

The Committee of laymen on Clerical Support made a 
report recommending stringent measures towards delin 
quent parishes, and containing the following : 

Resolved, That the Secretary prepare a column in his printed forms 
for a report from each parish upon the subject of a rectory whether one 
is connected with the parish, and, if so, how many acres are attached,, 
and, if there be no rectory, what the prospect is of providing one. 

The entire report was approved. 

It was recommended that there be stated missionary visi 
tations by ministers of settled parishes under the direction 
of the Bishop. 

Some slight changes in the form of parochial reports were 

Sundry amendments to Canon IX were offered and all 
referred to a committee, to report at the next Council. 

The Committee on Kitualism presented a lengthy report, 
in which they say, amongst other things : 

It is manifestly proper that any expression of opinion or protest on 
the part of the Council should be accompanied by a plain statement of 
the false doctrines or unlawful practices brought into the Church, 
against which such opinion may be expressed or protest entered. This 
may be summarily made as follows : 

I. In doctrine. It is being extensively taught : 

1. That the term priest (which in our standards is but a contraction 
of presbyter) is equivalent to the Greek iereus, which in no place in the 
New Testament is applied to any Christian minister ; and that his is a 
sacrificial office, and available for the forgiveness of sin after baptism,, 
which is contrary to the plain words of Scripture and of the communion 
service, and a fearful invasion of the office of our Lord, who made one 
sacrifice of sins forever on the cross. 

2. Baptism has been substituted in the place of faith, as the instru- 

302 COUNCIL OF 1869. 

mental cause of justification, contrary to the Word of God and the 
teaching of the eleventh Article. 

3. Under the term " real presence," a doctrine of the communion is 
taught, which differs in no material respect from transubstantiation. 

II. In worship. A multitude of unauthorized and superstitious cere 
monies, which were cast off or prohibited at the Reformation, have 
been introduced some of them intended to symbolize doctrines sub 
versive of the Protestant faith ; others, in connection with the com 
munion, have assimilated it to the Romish mass, which is idolatry, and 
so are not merely of evil tendency, but directly and positively sinful. 

The committee therefore submit, for the consideration of the Coun 
cil, three resolutions two of them touching sanitary regulations recom 
mended for observance within the Diocese, and one of them touching 
its relations to the Church at large. 

First. That in view of the doctrinal declension from the standards of 
the Church, as distinctively Protestant, which has occurred elsewhere 
within the past thirty years, it is the duty of the clergy of this Diocese 
to guard against being lulled into security by the assumption that our 
people are sufficiently well established in the truth, and are free from 
danger, and to give more earnest heed to the inculcation in the pulpit, 
the Sunday schools and Bible classes, of the doctrines of those stand 
ards of our Protestant Church. 

Second. That in view of these "novelties which disturb" the peace 
of the Church and wound the consciences of so many of both clergy 
and laity, and of the difficulty of arresting innovations originating from 
small beginnings in ornaments, decorations or otherwise, and of return 
ing to the simplicity of worship after the same has been departed from, 
it be earnestly recommended to the clergy, church-wardens and ves 
tries, strenuously to resist the introduction of any changes in the forms 
and modes of conducting public worship and administering the sacra 
ments as the same were used in the Church of England and our own 
before the rise of tractarianism and ritualism. 

Third. That the Diocese of Virginia, represented by this Council as 
a constituent part of the Protestant Episcopal Chnrch in the United 
States, is animated by heart-felt love for the Reformed Protestant 
Church of our Fathers, by a sincere desire for its purity and integrity, 
and by a just sense of the injury which it suffers in common with others, 
when in view of the doctrines preached, and changes introduced in 
those churches, commonly called ritualistic, of the systematic omission 
or rejection of its constitutional name by some whose aim seems to be 
to unprotestantize the Church, and of the disastrous effects of these and 

COUNCIL OF 1870. 303 

other novel practices and teachings upon the peace and progress of the 
Church, it does here record its protest against the further toleration of 
such practices and teachings as being unlawful, perilous to the unity of 
the Church, and hostile to the Christian interest ; and this Council 
reverently invokes the power of the Holy Ghost to continue with and 
preserve the Church as one Catholic and Apostolic Church. 

These resolutions were adopted unanimously. 

Kesolutions were offered and postponed expressing regret 
at the action of the General Convention favoring the use of 
"Hymns, Ancient and Modern," and "Hymns for Church 
&nd Home," and expressing it as the judgment and wish of 
this Council that the action be revoked. 

A committee reported in favor of purchasing an Episco 
pal residence, and the matter was confided to a committee 
of seven laymen from different parts of the Diocese. 

It was announced that in the afternoon the Rev. Elliot H. 
Thompson, a missionary from China, would deliver an ad 
dress in St. George s church. 


Council met in St. Matthew s church, Wheeling, West 
Virginia, May 25th. 

The Bishop, in his address, said : 

"There is a painful and delicate subject very seriously affecting the 
prosperity of the Diocese, to which I am constrained to allude ; I refer 
to the frequent recurrence of resignation of their parishes by the clergy. 
I speak not of this to censure them, for with them, as I well know, the 
change is in most instances, not a matter of choice, but of necessity; 
generally they are unwilling to remove, and continue to suffer till it 
becomes a question of starvation, or of debt, without the prospect of pay 
ing, or of resignation. They must either make the vain attempt to live 

304 COUNCIL OF 1870. 

upon what every intelligent parishioner knows will not support them, 
and so become seriously embarrassed, or accept some situation where 
a maintenance may be expected ; and who would presume to reflect 
upon them for adopting the last ? 

" It is sometimes said the clergy ought to be willing to make some 
sacrifices for the privilege of preaching the gospel, and they both admit 
this, and do it not unfrequently to an extent which their congregations 
do not suspect. But are the clergy alone to make sacrifices? Are the 
laity to make no sacrifices that they may secure the ministrations of the 
gospel for themselves and their families? If they would, in any propor 
tion to the magnitude of the interest at stake, and in some degree 
approaching what the clergy habitually practice, there need not be a 
parish in the Diocese without a pastor. It is high time for our brethren 
of the laity to awake to a consciousness of their lamentable delinquency 
in this matter ; a long stride is needed to attain the position they ought 
to occupy, and resolute purpose, on principle, to secure the action which 
is requisite to meet their Christian responsibility, that so this clerical 
exodus may be arrested, and the annual addition to the ranks of the 
ministry retained, till every parish is blessed with an acceptable pastor, 
and the missionary fields are being brought under hopeful cultivation. 
Then will they plentifully yield their increase, and God, even our own 
God, shall give us His blessing." 

The matter was referred to a committee, whose report was 
recommitted to them and laid over to the next Council. 

The Committee appointed to revise Canon IX made a 
report, which was laid over to the next Council. 

Grace Memorial church, Lynchburg, Christ church, Gooch- 
land county, and Trinity church, Huntington, West Vir 
ginia, were admitted into union with the Council. 

A committee was appointed to inquire into the expedi 
ency of establishing Church schools throughout the Diocese. 

An amendment was proposed to Canon XIX, requiring a 
minister to designate publicly to the congregations the per 
son suspended or expelled from communion ; also requiring 
that before restoration the person so expelled or suspended 
should through the minister, or in person confess his 
sin and declare his penitence openly before the Church. 

COUNCIL OF 1870. 305 

As it did not receive the requisite majority the amendment 
went over, according to rule, to the next Council. 

A committee was appointed to inquire into and report 
upon a plan of mutual insurance of Church property. 
Allowed until next year to report. 

The Committee on the Episcopal Residence reported that 
a suitable residence had been purchased in the city of Rich 
mond. The Council sanctioned their action. 

A committee was appointed to report upon a plan of 
mutual life insurance for the benefit of the clergy of the 
Diocese of Virginia. 

The committee, appointed for the purpose, reported that a 
monument costing $2,000 had been erected over the grave 
of Bishop Meade. 

The Committee on Life Insurance reported a plan for a 
Society to be called "The Brotherhood of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Virginia." 

The subject was recommitted, and after the Council ad 
journed the work was resumed by the clergy and laity, and 
a plan in great part matured. The result of the move 
ment was the institution now recognized as the VIRGINIA 

A committee was appointed "to consider the State of the 
Church in West Virginia, and to report to the next Council 
a plan for the extension of the Church in that part of the 

The terms of this resolution were general, but it was 
understood to have reference to a division of the Diocese by 
the line separating Virginia from West Virginia. The 
committee never reported. 

The Bishop and the Committee on the State of the 
Church, made emphatic allusion to the wrong and the 
danger of sending Protestant children to Romish schools. 

306 COUNCIL OF 1870. 

The Bishop s remarks were extempore. In referring to 
them the committee said : 

The reports of the Bishops from which, in great part, these state 
ments have been collected, suggest one further topic, which the com 
mittee feel bound to mention, especially as that part of our Diocesan s 
report which referred to it was given orally to the Council; but we 
deem it our duty to spread it before the Diocese. 

We refer to the habit of some members of our communion not 
many, we would hope, but more than is generally known of sending 
their children, especially their daughters, to institutions of learning 
which are under the control of the Church of Rome. It seems almost 
incredible that such a course could be pursued by any. It must excite 
pity for the delusion which selects schools in an intellectual, literary 
or scientific aspect, inferior to our own; and it cannot but rouse just 
indignation and censure for the disloyalty involved in this practice. 
The committee know that ignorance is, in part, at the bottom of it, and 
therefore feel it their duty to warn the members of our Church most 
affectionately and earnestly. 

The pretension to superior excellency as scholastic institutions, as 
schools of instruction and sound education, is simply absurd. There 
are and there have been great minds and great scholars in the Church 
of Rome, but they would be much greater under the light of an open 
Bible and in the freedom of thought. It is so with their schools. We 
do not deny that they may have some good schools, and some which 
may be commended for some special excellencies. But, in the nature 
f>f things, the light of intellect and thought shines more dimly in their 
cloistered schools than in the institutions of the Protestant Church. 
The statistics of the last three centuries in England and the continent 
of Europe confirm by facts what reason would anticipate from their 
premises. From the highest grades of schools, the most learned uni 
versities to the humblest training schools among the poor, the contrast 
between the institutions presided over by the Church of Rome or the 
Churches of Protestantism is glaring as the light of day. Generally 
speaking, the education given in Romish schools is superficial ; it can 
not be thorough, as free investigation is fettered. Convent schools for 
girls, in particular, often rest their claims upon glittering accomplish 
ments, and may send out their pupils with a pitiful attempt at painting, 
making wax flowers, or warbling some Italian airs ; but in the training 
of the mind and the acquirement of solid attainments, all must agree 
they fall far below the schools which admit the light of truth, and edu 
cate the mind to understand the grounds and apprehend the facts of 

COUNCIL OF 18*70. 307 

real and valuable knowledge. True education rests less on so-called 
accomplishments, or even special acquirements, than on the training of 
the mind, on the logical, the severe and chastened development of in 

But this presents only the surface view of the question. The disci 
pline, for the sake of which some pretend to select these convent 
schools, is the very opposite needed for an ingenuous and truthful 
character. We speak of the system, not of this or that particular 
.school; there may be, there no doubt are, exceptions exceptions 
praiseworthy and lovely in spite of the system. But this does not altar 
the aspect of the question. The system of surveillance under the in 
spection of the priest, or teachers subject to the control of the priest, is 
calculated to deaden the sense of truth and honesty; and the fear of 
man, and the authority of the priest or the Church, to which he pro 
fesses to have the exclusive power of admission, preside over the 
development of character, rather than the fear of God, and that obe 
dience which must be lodged in the heart, and given to God in its secret 
emotions and in its open acts alike. 

But the wrong done, and the sin involved in trusting our children to 
such influences, is still greater when we think of the eternal interests of 
the souls which we are bound, by every obligation of nature and 
natural affection, of common sense and fairness, and of the highest 
claims of loyalty to our Saviour and his Church, to train up in the truth, 
and save from the ruinous influences of error and superstition, that 
militate alike against the Word of God and the true ends of life. We 
do not blame Romanists, who hope to earn heaven by proselyting, and 
thus exert themselves to gain the ear and pliant affections of the young, 
for gladly receiving our children under their charge, and moulding them 
to the views of their Church ; but we have no words to express our hor 
ror at the recklessness and defiance with which members of our com 
munion have been found willing to expose their children to such in 
fluences. Apart from occasional revival practices, skillfully adapted for 
their purposes from others, there are three ways in which that proselyt- 
ism is carried on by gaining the ear of the dying sinner, and promis 
ing him salvation for his adherence to their Church, often at the price 
of costly donations by the force of earthly passion, when a poor girl 
becomes unequally yoked, and, married to a Romanist, follows him at 
first, perhaps, only for the sake of peace on earth, into his idolatrous 
communion ; but chiefly and most frequently by charging themselves 
with the education of the young, and instilling in the untutored minds 
their own principles, and thus leading them captive at their will, never 

308 COUNCIL OF 1870. 

giving them up in later life, but continuing their efforts until they gain 
their end, and drag them beyond the boundaries of truth and Christian 

We know well enough that the fears of anxious parents are quieted 
by the most solemn assurances that no religious influence shall be ex 
erted over them. That is in itself an impossibility, and known to be 
such on the part of those who commence their rule over the child by 
wilfully giving this false assurance ; and the insidiousness and disin- 
genuousness with which, covertly, that influence is created and fostered 
so universally that it becomes almost characteristic of them is found 
out by the deluded parent when too late when the work is done. And 
thus discord is sown in families ; and thus children are estranged from 
the affection for their parents, and often made missionaries for their 
perversion ; husband and wife are separated and made unhappy, and 
souls, whose birthright was the truth, and at whose cradle the Gospel 
had stood sponsor, carried hopelessly, irretrievably into the vortex of 
error and superstition. Suppose the learning furnished was real what 
of it, if it keeps the soul from " coming to the knowledge of the truth ? * 
And suppose it was true which is alleged by some, and used by that 
designing Church as its bait that they will give their education on 
lower terms or even gratuitously, when in this supposed saving of money 
the loss of the soul may be involved? 

But we say there is more real sympathy and more unselfish charity 
in our own schools than in theirs ; and no parent need fear that our 
Church will not extend the hand of help. Or is it more painful and 
mortifying to human pride to receive or even ask such help from our 
own friend and brethren in the Church, than to beg of another, and that 
a Church which lords it over her people, and upon which they do not 
pretend to have any claims ? The disloyalty which is involved in such 
a cause to the Church and to the truth ; the inconsistency and denial of 
every principle of prudence and uprightness ; the denial of the faith in 
which they profess to live and on which rest their hopes, mark such con 
duct with a depth of perversion which calls for the loudest warning on 
the part of the Church, and which, we would say, should place the 
guilty under the severest censure that the Church can administer, were 
it not that the effect of such discipline seems hopeless where peo 
ple are willing to run the risk of bringing upon their heads the guilt of 
their children s blood. 

The committee can say to the Church at large, that within our own 
communion, directly or indirectly under the control of the Church, and 
always under the control of Christian principle, there are the best 

COUNCIL OF 1871. 309 

schools to which our children can be sent ; and that it is the bounden 
duty of all to honor God by accepting the offer he makes them in the 
Church of their confession and affection. 

The Christian home, the influence of pious parents, the study of 
God s Word, the training powers of our own Church, are the appointed 
ways of bringing up our children as Christian men and women, with 
the " promise of the life that now is and of that which is to come ; " and 
this leaves such as pursue the opposite course without excuse. The 
.greatest crime mentioned of parents in the Old Testament was to pass 
their children through the fire and sacrifice them in the burning arms 
of Moloch. Is this sin against their children s bodies worse than that 
which may consign their souls to hopeless superstition, and perhaps 
eternal ruin ? 

The canons of the Diocese were referred to a committee 
for examination and revision. 


The Council met May 31st in Grace church, Petersburg. 

Christ church, Spotsylvania, and All Saints parish, Mon 
roe county, West Virginia, were received into union with 
the Council. 

Petitions were granted fixing the metes and bounds of 
Dale and Chesterfield parishes, for the division of Hamilton 
parish, Fauquier, and for the division of Trinity parish, 
Wood county. 

A proposed amendment to Article V, of the Constitution 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, 
was not concurred in by the Council. 

The following paper was offered : 

Whereas, for years past, it has been evident that in portions of our 
branch of the Church of Christ practices are introduced and doctrines 

310 COUNCIL OF 1871. 

symbolically (and otherwise) taught subversive of the faith as set forth- 
in God s Holy Word, and as received from the fathers of the Reforma 
tion, especially in our Prayer Book ; therefore, 

Resolved, i. That the delegates from this Diocese to the General 
Convention are hereby requested to use their best endeavors to procure 
by canon or otherwise some effectual remedy for so great and growing 
an evil. 

2. In case no such remedial action can be obtained, the Diocese of 
Virginia deems it due to its character, as part of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church, that a solemn protest be in its behalf entered by said 
delegates against the toleration of the unscriptural practices and teach 
ings referred to. 

It was adopted by a vote of 82 ayes to 13 noes. 

The report from the Committee on the Insurance of Church 
Property was received and ordered to be printed in the 

Judge Lay, from the Committee to whom was referred 
the subject of the "Brotherhood," (vide Journal 1870, page 
*72,) presented the following report and resolutions : 

To the committee to whom, at the last session of the Council, was 
recommitted the report in relation to life insurance of the clergy, re 
spectfully report 

That after the adoption of the resolution recommitting said report, a 
meeting was held in the lecture room of St. Matthew s church, Wheeling, 
at which an Association was organized by the name of " the Brother 
hood of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Virginia,"" 
and a Constitution adopted, a printed copy of which is herewith re 
turned as a part of this report. Subsequently certain by-laws were 
adopted for the government of the Association, a printed copy of which 
is also herewith returned. 

The committee, deeming the plan of organization set forth in the 
constitution and by-laws referred to, subject to such modifications as 
experience may suggest, to be preferable to that of the recommitted 
report, will forbear making any other suggestion than that the Council 
gives its sanction to the objects of the existing Association. 

The report and certain resolutions accompanying it were 
The Special Committee appointed at the last Council on. 

COUNCIL OF 1872. 311 

the support of the clergy reported, closing with a resolution, 
which was adopted, affirming that in the matter of contri 
butions to religious objects, that if the clergy fail in dili 
gently instructing and exhorting their people they do not 
preach the whole counsel of God. 

A resolution was adopted looking to the establishment of 
a Sustentation Fund. 

The committee of ten laymen, on the subject of rectors 
salaries, was made a Standing Committee. 

The committee charged with the duty of having a monu 
ment erected to Bishop Meade, reported in full, showing 
that the work had been completed and paid for. 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Peterkin, it was 

Resolved, That the report of the committee on the monument to 
Bishop Meade be spread upon the Journal, and that the thanks of this 
Council be tendered to the committee for their attention to the impor 
tant duty with which they were charged. 

The Committee on Church Schools was continued, not 
being ready to report. 

The Council amended the Constitution, so as to fix the 
day of meeting on the third Wednesday in May. 


Council met in Christ church, Norfolk, May 15th. 

A committee was appointed to examine the title of the 
Diocese to the Virginia Female Institute at Staunton ; also 
the relations which the Southern Churchman sustains to 
the Diocese. 

312 COUNCIL OF 1872. 

A committee was appointed to revise the Constitution and 
canons of the Diocese, with a view to publication. 

The Virginia Bible Society was commended to the sup 
port of the Diocese. 

The proposed amendment to Canon XIX, making the 
administration of discipline public, was considered and laid 
upon the table. 

A committee was appointed to examine and make report 
concerning the Hymnal submitted by the General Conven 
tion of 187L 

The metes and bounds of Heber parish were fixed ac 
cording to petition. 

Luray parish, Page county, was admitted into union with 
the Council. 

Trinity parish, Wood county, West Virginia, was divided, 
and the new parish called "Emmanuel" 

A parish list was reported and approved. 

The Bishop s Address and the Keport of the Committee 
on the State of the Church (which was to that extent ap 
proved by the Council) pronounced against "altars" being 
used in place of communion tables, and against "round 
dancing." He said : 

" I trust the evil will be abated by the piety and good sense of our 
clergy and people, and that our venerable Church will be saved from 
those unauthorized innovations some very puerile, by which her so 
briety has been compromised some very insidious, and connected with 
fearful apostacies, by which in some sections her fair fame has been 
sadly obscured, and her strength partially paralyzed. 

"Sometimes, the departure commences without design or observa 
tion on the part of those concerned. Some country church sends to a 
city for chancel furniture, and among other pieces which may be unex 
ceptionable, an altar is received instead of a table, and thus the symbol 
of the whole sacramental and sacerdotal system is fixed before the eye 
of the congregation, and then in conversation the language of the com 
munion office is relinquished, and almost unconsciously other phrase 
ology is adopted in accordance with what is constantly beheld, and so 



the way is prepared for the entrance of what the thirty-first article de 
nounces as blasphemous fables and dangerous deceits. It is to be 
hoped that the altar-form which the English Reformers, for good and 
sufficient reasons, banished from the churches, will not now, through 
inconsideration, be allowed to displace the honest table. This is the 
scriptural and Prayer Book name for that on which, not a sacrifice is to 
be offered, but the Lord s Supper administered. Names and forms may 
seem inconsiderable matters. It is not so. Their sure tendency is 
gradually to conform the service with which they are connected to the 
ideas which they represent. If we are determined to adhere to the 
truth, let us vigilantly avoid these subtle instrumentalities of error, and 
let us hold fast to the honest table in name and form. 

"There is another subject of a different character which I would 
gladly avoid if I could do so without disappointing, and perhaps dis 
couraging some of my faithful brethren of the clergy, who are grieved 
because certain of their communicants do not avoid things contrary to 
their profession. Thp mn^ pffVmsivp inconsistency specified^ consists 
in indulging in * h ?t 1f^riv 1 "" g - ir>r * <:> f prnmisniQijs dancing- styled the 

round dance a demoralizing dissipation, disgusting to the delicacy of 
a refined taste. and~shocking_laJhe sensibility of a jguawed mind. 
This scandal is not to be tolerated in the Church of Christ. Let every 
appeal be made in the way of affectionate remonstrance, judicious teach 
ing, and earnest prayer for the reformation of those led astray, if God 
peradventure will give them repentance. If all such efforts prove un 
availing, and to remove the scandal and at the same time employ the 
last expedient for awakening the offender to a sense of his sin and 
danger, it becomes necessary to resort to the exercise of decided dis 
cipline, it must be so. It may cause the ministers many tears, but the 
painful duty may not be declined." 

A recommendation to employ two evangelists, at a salary 
of $2,500 each, was sent over to the next Council. 

A report on a Sustentation Fund was received, but led to 
no action. 

A paper was offered expressing gratitude to God for the 
recovery of the Bishop from a severe illness, and renewing 
expressions of affection for him, with prayers that he may 
long he spared to the congregations that for so many years 
had enjoyed his paternal care ; also urging him for a time 
to rest from laborious visitations. 

314 COUNCIL OF 1872. 

It was unanimously adopted by a rising vote, and affec 
tionately responded to in writing by the Bishop. 

Canon IX, as reported by the committee, was adopted. 

Kesolution to repeal Canon X was laid over to the next 

A lengthy series of resolutions, adopted by the House of 
Bishops in 1859, upon the subject of Church music, was 
referred to the committee on the Hymnal. 

It was resolved that a Standing Committee on Church 
Schools be appointed annually by the Bishop. 

In their report the Committee on the State of the Church 
said : 

Your committee have considered with anxious interest the growing- 
indulgence (in the hitherto simple and circumspect society of our Dio 
cese) in the practice of the " round dance," as it is called. This and 
similar dances have been already frequently condemned by other 
churches, and even reprobated by the secular journals. While your 
committee do not intend to reflect on the purity and innocence of any 
individual who engages in them, they cannot forbear the decided opinion 
that the practice is in its tendency fraught with evil to religion and to 

Your committee are persuaded that the ministers and members of the 
Church in the Diocese of Virginia are firmly attached to Scriptural 
doctrine and discipline as taught by our liturgy and articles, and opposed 
to the sacramental and sacerdotal system known as ritualism. Yet they 
are impressed with the reality of the incipient danger to sound doc 
trine, arising from the introduction (unwillingly it may be) into some 
churches of altars instead of tables, upon which to celebrate the com 
munion service. 

An altar logically involves a sacrifice, and a sacrifice a sacrificing 
priest; and we cannot but deem it of importance, if we would be free 
from the corruptions of false doctrine, that at this period, when error is 
rife, and many arestriving to extend it, our people should not be habit 
uated to the use of the language in which that error appropriately 
clothes itself. . 

Your committee recommend therefore to rectors and vestries to 
remove altars from the churches where they have been introduced, 
and to guard against everything of the kind in future. 

COUNCIL OF 1873. 315 

A committee was appointed to report upon the subject of 
" Woman s Work in the Church." 

Sundry alterations were proposed to the Canons and Con 
stitution and ordered to be printed amongst them the fol 

Rev. W. L. Hyland offered the following as an amend 
ment to Canon XIX to insert after the words "public 
worship" the following: "Habitual neglect of the holy 
communion." It was received and referred to a committee, 
with instructions to report to the next Council. 

Rev. C. J. Gibson, D. D., moved that $200 from the 
Widows and Orphans Fund be appropriated to the relief 
of the family of the late Rev. George Adie. Carried. 

Rectors were called on to report a mortuary list of com 
municants to be published in the Journal. This was re 
scinded at the Council of 18*73. 


Council met in Christ church, Winchester, May 21st. 

The Secretary communicated to the Council the following 
amendments to the Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States, adopted at the last General 
Convention : 

Resolved, That Article IV be amended so as to read as follows : 

ARTICLE IV. The Bishop or Bishops in every Diocese shall be chosen 
agreeably to such rules as shall be fixed by the Convention of that Dio 
cese ; and every Bishop of this Church shall confine the exercise of his 
Episcopal office to his proper Diocese, unless requested to ordain or 

316 COUNCIL OF 1873. 

confirm, or perform any other act of the Episcopal office in another 
Diocese by the Ecclesiastical authority thereof. 

Resolved, That the following be inserted at the end of Article V : 

" The General Convention may, upon the application of the Bishop 
and Convention of an organized Diocese, setting forth that the territory 
of the Diocese is too large for due Episcopal supervision by the Bishop 
of such Diocese, set off a portion of such Diocesan territory, which shall 
thereupon be placed within, or constitute, a Missionary jurisdiction, as 
the House of Bishops may determine." 

They were ordered to be printed in the Journal. 

A motion to have the parochial reports printed in tabu 
lated form was carried, and afterwards reconsidered and lost. 

The committee appointed at the last Council to examine 
the Hymnal set forth by the General Convention, made a 
lengthy report, which was ordered to be printed in the 

They also introduced a report and a minority report upon 
the subject of Church music. 

The committee s report concluded thus : 

In view of the importance of the subject, and in the hope of upholding 
the Pastors of the churches in their efforts to control the music in ac 
cordance with that law, the committee recommend that this Council 
affirm most emphatically the resolutions proposed at the Council at 
Norfolk in 1872, and enter its solemn protest against any style of music 
which may justly be considered unchurchly and demoralizing ; and also 
to enjoin on all the duty of encouraging and helping on the introduction 
of congregational singing. 

The Bishop delivered an address to the Council upon the 
subject of the Holy Communion. 

Two thousand copies of the same were ordered to be 

The Committee on "Woman s Work" presented a report. 

A committee was appointed to have the entire property 
of the Virginia Female Institute transferred to Trustees, for 
the use and benefit of the Diocese. 

COUNCIL OF 1874. 31 T 

A paper was adopted, unanimously expressing approval 
of, and sympathy with, the missionary work of Miss Mary 
B. Baldwin at Joppa. 

Lee parish, a new parish formed out of Heber parish, Bed 
ford county, was received into union with the Council. 

The committee on the subject of Evangelists reported, 
approving the measure, and making recommendations for 
the support of the same, which were in the main approved 
by the Council. 

Canon XIX was amended, so as to make as cause of dis 
cipline "habitual neglect of the Holy Communion." 

It was resolved that at every meeting of the Council there 
shall be a service and sermon devoted to the cause of Foreign 

The following was proposed to, but not approved by the 
Council : 

" No clergyman shall absent himself from his field of labor for a longer 

period than , without obtaining leave of absence from the Bishop 

or ecclesiastical authority of the Diocese." 

The Committee on the Relations of the Southern Church 
man to the Diocese was renewed. 

The report of the committee appointed to examine into 
the title, &c., of the Virginia Female Institute, was pre 
sented, and ordered to be filed. 


Council met in Christ church, Charlottes ville, May 20th. 

The Bishop s address contained allusions to ritualistic 

innovations, which were referred to a Special Committee. 

318 COUNCIL OF 1874. 

The same committee was instructed to report upon the best 
measures for removing from the Prayer Book any office or 
service now bound up therewith without compliance with 
the provisions of the Constitution that apply to the case. 
In other words, to endeavor to have the service called an 
office of Institution, &c., removed from the Prayer Book. 

The committee reported at length, and recommended that 
the deputies from this Diocese to the General Convention be 
instructed to use their earnest endeavors to obtain efficient 
legislation for the removal of Romish errors and practices 
from the Protestant Episcopal Church, and the enforcement 
of such legislation by proper discipline. 

The report concluded as follows: 

Resolved, That our delegates to the next General Convention be 
instructed to use their earnest endeavors to obtain efficient legislation 
for the removal of Romish errors and practices from the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and the enforcement of such legislation by proper 

Resolved, That this Council does not believe any legislation would 
be effective for removing the doctrines and practices referred to, which 
shall not expressly forbid, in the administration of the Holy Communion, 
and on other occasions of public worship, the acts hereinafter enumer 
ated, to wit : 

1. The use of incense. 

2. Placing or retaining a crucifix in any part of the church. 

3. Carrying a cross in procession in the church. 

4. The use of lights on or about the Holy Table, except when 

5. The elevation of the elements in the Holy Communion in such 
manner as to expose them to the view of the people as objects toward 
which adoration is to be made, in or after the prayer of consecration, 
or in the act of administering them, or in conveying them to or from 
the communicants. 

6. The mixing of water with the wine as part of the service, or in the 
presence of the congregation. 

7. The washing of the priest s hands, or the ablution of the vessels, 
in the presence of the congregation. 

8. Bowings, crossings, genuflections, prostrations, reverences, bowing 

COUNCIL OF 18*74. 319 

down upon or kissing the Holy Table, and kneeling, except as allowed, 
provided for, or directed, by Rubric or Canon ; it being provided that 
reverence at the mention of the name of the Lord Jesus is not intended 
to be disallowed ; and it being further provided that private personal 
devotion before or after official ministration, is not to be understood to 
include or justify any of the acts prohibited. 

9. The celebration or receiving of the Holy Communion by any 
Bishop or priest when no person receives with him. 

10. Employing or permitting any person or persons not in Holy Orders 
to assist the minister in any part of the Order for the administration of 
the Holy Communion. 

11. Using, at any administration of the Holy Communion, any prayers, 
collects, gospels or epistles, other than those provided in the Book of 
Common Prayer, or under \ 14, of Canon XIII, of Title I, of the Digest. 

12. The use of wafer bread in the Holy Communion. 

The practice of auricular confession and private absolution should 
likewise be forbidden, and all other practices and usages not sanctioned 
by the Book of Common Prayer. 

No clerical vestments should be used except the present Episcopal 
robes, a white surplice, a black or white stole, a black cassock, a black 
gown and bands. 

The committee also offered the following : 

Resolved, That the deputies from this Diocese to the General Con 
vention be requested to bring to the consideration of that body the po 
sition which the office of Institution occupies in the Prayer Book, with 
the view that it may be ascertained whether the same be properly and 
legally incorporated in the Book of Common Prayer, or not, and if not, 
to request that it be omitted in future editions thereof. 

Both papers were adopted. 

A paper was offered earnestly petitioning the General 
Convention to remove from the "office of Institution," &c., 
the words "altar," "sacerdotal function" and "sacerdotal 
relation," wherever they occur in that office. 

In view of the action already taken the Council declared 
it inexpedient to adopt the paper. 

The Council passed a resolution declaring that "any par- 

320 COUNCIL OF 18Y4. 

ticipation in lotteries, gift enterprises, gift concerts and 
raffling, to be inconsistent with the profession of a Chris 
tian, and that it is improper for any church or church insti 
tution to be aided by money made by such means." 

The committee appointed for the purpose, reported that 
the Diocese has no connection with the " Southern Church 
man," except through the Trustees of the Seminary, who 
own the good will, and have the power to appoint or dis 
place an editor. The press, type, &c., belong to the present 

A report in addition to that to the last Council was made 
by the committee on the Hymnal. 

Grace church, Pocahontas county, West Virginia, and St. 
John s church, Petersburg,, were received into union with 
the Council. 

Report was made of .an act incorporating the Trustees of 
the Virginia Female Institute. 

So much of the Bishop s address as relates to worldliness 
and intemperance was referred to a committee, who reported 
in strong and solemn terms upon those subjects. Their re 
port was recommitted. 

On motion, a committee was appointed to ascertain what 
legislation, if any, is necessary to bring the Theological 
Seminary and High School under the control of the Coun 
cil. The motion was subsequently reconsidered and laid 
upon the table. 

The work of the Rev. Giles B. Cooke, in Petersburg, with 
the colored people, was endorsed and commended to the 
support and prayers of the Diocese. 

COUNCIL OF 1875. 321 


The Council met in St. Paul s church, Kichmond, May 

It was moved that the Council meet at 9 A. M. for Di 
vine service, then to proceed to business without recess at 11 
A. M. for service. Adopted, but reconsidered and rejected 
by a large majority. 

A paper was offered recommending the appointment of a 
committee to inquire into the establishment of schools for 
the gratuitous education of the children of the clergy. 

The brotherhood made a report, recommending annual 
reports to the Council. 

Christ church parish, Smythe county, and Christ church, 
Gordons ville, were received into union with the Council. 

The Virginia Bible Society was commended to the sym 
pathy and cordial cooperation of the Diocese. 

A resolution was adopted approving the appointment of 
a secretary and general agent of the Diocesan Missionary 
Society, and giving him a seat in the Council. 

A revised Constitution for the Diocesan Missionary Society 
was proposed, but only partially considered, and, as a mat 
ter of consequence, it was all indefinitely postponed. 

An amendment was made to Canon IX, with reference to 
parishes having a plurality of congregations. 

The Secretary s salary was increased to $400 annually. 

It was recommended that at each Council at least one sit 
ting be devoted to the consideration of Diocesan Missions, 
and hearing of reports from missionaries. 

It was proposed to amend Article X of the Constitution 
by increasing the Standing Committee to five of each order. 
This was rejected at the Council of 18*76. 

322 COUNCIL OF 1876. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Alexandria, May 17th. 
Rt. Rev. F. M. Whittle, D. D., Bishop and President, in the 

In his address the Bishop made appropriate allusion to 
the death of Revs. C. W. Andrews, D. D., Mark L. Chevers, 
William C. Meredith, D. D., Charles E. Amhler and John 
W. Magill, and followed up his remarks concerning them 
with the following : 

" But the greatest sorrow for the whole Diocese was yet to come. 
Our beloved Bishop, the Rt. Rev. John Johns, was stricken with sick 
ness on i3th March, and after lingering with us amidst our hopes and 
fears until midnight of 4th April, he finished his course with joy, and the 
ministry which he had received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel 
of the grace of God. His end was not only peaceful, but triumphant. 
God had given Him for long and important service in his Church. His 
ministry extended through a period of within one month of fifty-seven 
years ; the record of his abundant labors as Bishop and assistant Bishop 
during nearly thirty-three of those years being spread on the pages of 
your journals. I can add nothing to what has been published by indi 
viduals, vestries, and other bodies in regard to the character and life 
and work of the dear departed. I will merely testify that he ever treated 
me with the kindness and confidence of a father. The better I came to 
know him, during my intimate association with him for nearly eight 
years, the more I admired him for his great and varied abilities, and 
loved him for his Christian virtues. But he has gone ! The place 
amongst us which so long knew him shall know him no more forever. 
Surely his loss to me can never be repaired. May a double portion of 
his spirit rest on his unworthy successor, and may God s strength be 
made perfect in my weakness. May we, my dear clerical brethren, be 
enabled by the Holy Spirit to preach Christ as uniformly, as simply 
and as earnestly as he preached Him, and may we all, ministers and 
laymen, receive grace to follow Christ as he followed Him. So and 
what more can we desire ? shall we die the death of this eminent ser 
vant of God, and our last end shall be like his." 

COUNCIL OF 1876. 323 

The Bishop laid before the Council the following resolu 
tions unanimously adopted by the Convention of West Vir_ 
ginia : 

1. Resolved, That in the judgment of this convocation the interests of 
the Church in our State clearly demand a division of the Diocese of Vir 

2. Resolved, That while we would all prefer a Diocesan organization, 
yet rather than the division should fail, we ask that West Virginia, or 
such part thereof as may be designated by the Council of Virginia, be 
set apart as a missionary jurisdiction. 

3. Resolved, That we respectfully petition the Bishop and the ensuing 
Council to take the necessary action in the premises. 

The fourth resolution was one of confidence in Bishop 
Whittle, and affectionate remembrance for Bishop Johns. 
The Bishop said : 

" It does not appear from the above who were represented in the 
Convention. I should be sorry to see any of our brethren cut off from 
us against their will. But if it shall be made to appear that the minis 
ters and people of Trans- Alleghany West Virginia desire their territory 
to be erected into a separate diocese or missionary district, I trust the 
Council will do whatever may be necessary to accomplish their wishes." 

The subject was referred to a committee of five clergymen 
and five laymen. 

A committee was appointed to attend to the erection of a 
suitable monument over the grave of Bishop Johns. This 
paper was referred to a Special Committee, who were in 
structed to secure for the purpose $3,000 besides $500 appro 
priated by the Council. 

A petition was presented from a meeting of the clerical 
and lay delegates living in that portion of the Diocese of 
Virginia lying south of James river. The petition asked 
the consent of the Bishop and the Council to the erection of 
a new Diocese within their territorial limits, to be composed 
of the parishes and congregations within the counties 
named in said petition. 

324 COUNCIL OF 1876. 

The petition was referred to a committee of eight clergy 
men and seven laymen. They were instructed to report 
upon the expediency of any division, and if so what ; also 
to consider and report whether it would not he better for 
the Diocese to elect an assistant Bishop. 

The Trustees of the Episcopal residence were authorized 
to sell the present house and to buy another. 

The following was offered, and laid upon the table : 

Resolved, That the Diocese of Virginia prizes Episcopacy and a true 
Apostolical succession as a venerable historical form of Church Govern 
ment, or Ecclesiastical polity ; but does not maintain and does not find 
in the Prayer Book the exclusive validity of Episcopal orders. 

Kesolutions of thanks to the American Church Missionary 
Society and the Evangelical Education Society were adopted. 

The Council adopted a series of resolutions upon the sub 
ject of Diocesan independence concluding with the follow 

Resolved, ist, That a committee be appointed to give the whole sub 
ject a thorough examination, the committee to consist of two clerical 
and two lay delegates, to enquire into the origin and limitations of the 
Federal power, as they effect this Diocese ; to enquire to what extent 
and in what way (if at all) the Church in this Diocese has parted with 
her original right of self-government, and how far she is to be governed 
by the acts and opinions of other ecclesiastical bodies, whether Anglican 
or American, whether of modern or of former times. 

2. Resolved, That the said committee report at the next regular meet 
ing of the Council. 

A committee was appointed to consider the increased en 
dowment of the Theological Seminary as a memorial of 
Bishop Johns. They reported in favor of raising, at once, 
$25,000 to endow, with $5,000 each, four scholarships to 
be known as the Johns scholarships. The report was ap 

Sundry resolutions having reference to the immediate 
election of an assistant Bishop were referred to a committee 

COUNCIL OP 1876. 325 

appointed to consult with the Bishop. They recommended 

Resolved, i. That the consideration of the proposition to elect an as 
sistant Bishop be for the present postponed, in accordance with the 
suggestions of the Bishop. 

Resolved, 2. That with affectionate sympathy with our beloved Bishop, 
now that "the care of all the churches" of this large Diocese rests upon 
him, and with fervent prayers to the Great Head of the Church, that 
abundant health may be vouchsafed to him, and that, with the increase 
of his duties, increase of grace and strength may be granted unto him, 
this Council doth declare, that it stands ready, whenever the necessity 
may arise, to elect an assistant to share with him the burdens and re 
sponsibilities of the Episcopal office in this Diocese. 

Resolved, 3. That the Council earnestly requests the clergy to exer 
cise considerate forbearance in their calls upon the Bishop for special 
visitations ; and that they render him all needful assistance in executing 
such plan of systematic services as he may devise. 

Unanimously adopted. 

Ridley parish, Culpeper county; Trinity parish, Monon- 
galia, West Virginia ; Amherst parish, Amherst county, and 
Emmanuel parish, Hardy county, West Virginia, were ad 
mitted into union with the Council. 

Resolutions were passed deploring the increase of intem 
perance asking the Bishop to issue a pastoral upon the 
subject, and calling upon the clergy and laity for continued 
eifort to suppress the same. 

The committee on the subject of the formation of a new 
Diocese in West Virginia recommended that the Bishop call 
a Conference of the clergy and laity of West Virginia, with 
the request that the Conference furnish to the next Council 
such information as will enahle it to act understandingly. 
This was approved and the whole subject was then referred 
to the next Council. 

The proposition to amend Article X of the Constitution, 
so as to increase the number of the standing committee, was 
indefinitely postponed. 



Council met in Trinity church, Staunton, May 16th. 
The Trustees of the Episcopal residence reported the pur 
chase of another and more commodious house. 
In his address the Bishop said : 

" My predecessor faithfully warned you, my brethren, against the in 
troduction of flowers into our churches, and his warning was reiterated 
in perhaps fnore than one report of the Committee on the State of the 
Church. The warning, however, I grieve to say, has, in a number of 
instances, been disregarded ; and this evil, from a small beginning, has 
in a few years grown to such proportions as on some occasions to in 
volve wasteful and sinful expense, and to make of our Father s house a 
place for a floral exhibition, to please the eye and gratify a sensuous 
taste, causing some minds, it is to be feared, to change the truth of 
God into a lie, and worship and serve the creature more than the Crea 
tor, who is blessed forever." One of our prominent Bishops, who claims 
to have been the first to bring in this strange custom, seeing, when too 
late, whereunto it has grown, has issued a pastoral against the lamenta 
ble fruits of his own doings. And now, in addition to flowers, we begin 
to see what are called altar cloths, and cloths of different colors for the 
different Church seasons, on some of our reading-desks and pulpits. 
These things, unimportant in themselves, are parts of a system a system 
of doctrine and practice not sanctioned by the Word of God, which was 
utterly repudiated by our Church at the Reformation, and which is held 
in abhorrence by a large majority of the ministers and people of this 
Diocese. These things are a novelty in Virginia, not having been known 
at a time within the memory of the youngest of us, and are seriously 
disturbing the peace and unity of some of our congregations. I earn 
estly and lovingly implore my dear brethren, the ministers and vestries 
of this Diocese, and, if I have any authority in the premises, I do more 
than implore them, for the sake of truth and peace, not to introduce 
themselves, nor to allow others to introduce, into our churches the 
things which I have mentioned, or any like things. Ritualism and 
Romanism have grown up little by little, and if we would preserve the 
worship and doctrine of our beloved Church unchanged, we must re 
sist every innovation. 

COUNCIL OP 187T. 327 

The committee appointed to report upon the questions of 
a division of the Diocese and the election of an assistant 
Bishop, reported 

1. That the proposition referring to the election of an assistant Bishop 
had been deemed by them inexpedient. 

2. That they unanimously favored setting apart the State of West 
Virginia as a separate Diocese, either in whole or in part, as West Vir 
ginia might ask in petition. 

3. That a new Diocese be established on the south side of James 
river provided: the Council is satisfied that such is the wish of that 
portion of the clergy and laity residing in such territory. 

From this last proposition a minority of the committee 
dissented believing there had not been any full expression 
of opinion on the part of the church members of that 
part of the Diocese which it was proposed to set apart. 

So much of the report as related to West Virginia was 
referred to a committee appointed by the Conference of 
the clergy and laity of West Virginia. That committee 
forthwith made report, concluding with the following re 
solution : 

Resolved, That the prayer contained in the resolutions, tendered by 
the Conference of the clergy and laity of West Virginia be granted, and 
that the Council doth hereby give its consent to the erection of a new 
Diocese, to be formed out of so much of the territory of the Diocese of 
Virginia as is contained within the limits of West Virginia. 

This was adopted by a vote of 185 to 14. 

The Bishop signified his consent to the action. 

The President and Secretary of the Council were re 
quested to certify the same to the General Convention. 

On the question of division by the line of James river, 
after discussion the Council decided not to approve the 
recommendation of the committee. 

The Committee on Church Schools, to secure to children 
of the Church, and especially of the clergy, education at 

328 COUNCIL OF 1877. 

prices within their control, presented a report, which was 

The Committee on Federal Kelations was continued. 

The sum of $1,000 was placed in the Bishop s hands to 
aid such clergymen as in his judgment were in need of 
assistance because of inadequate support. No report to be 
made by him to the Council. 

The sum of $2,000 was placed in the Bishop s hands to 
be employed in procuring Evangelistic services for such 
parts of the Diocese as he might deem to be in need of the 

A committee was appointed to devise, if possible, some 
better plan of assessment for the Contingent Fund. 

The following was offered : 

Resolved, That the Diocese of Virginia prizes Episcopacy as a ven 
erable historic form of Church government or ecclesiastical polity, but 
does not maintain and does not find in the Prayer Book the exclusive 
validity of Episcopal orders. 

The following was offered as an amendment: 

Resolved, That it is uncalled for and inexpedient for this Council to 
express any opinion concerning the validity or invalidity of the orders 
of ministers in any other Church than our own. 

Both were laid upon the table. 

The Council declined to approve the following proposed 
amendment to Article V of the Constitution of the Protes 
tant Episcopal Church in the United States : 

Resolved, That it be recommended and proposed that the following 
alteration be made in article V of the Constitution, to-wit : insert at the 
end of the article the words : 

"The General Convention may, upon the application of the Bishop 
and Convention of an organized Diocese, setting forth that the territory 
of the Diocese is too large for due Episcopal supervision by the Bishop 
of such Diocese, set off a portion of such Diocesan territory, which shall 
thereupon be placed within, or constitute a missionary jurisdiction, as 
the House of Bishops may determine." 

COUNCIL OF 1878. 329 

The Bishop s address referred pointedly to intemperance 
and worldliness and the introduction of new customs, 
decorations, &c., into the Church. The Council endorsed 
his condemnation of the same, and ordered five thousand 
copies of that part of his address to be published. 

The work of Rev. Giles B. Cooke, of Petersburg, with the 
colored people, was commended to the kind regard and 
liberal support of our people. 

A committee was appointed to consider the canonical 
and constitutional aspects of the question of the division. 
They reported that a majority vote of the Council would 
give validity to such an act, and that the Council had the 
power so to act. Their report was approved. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Lynchburg, May 15th. 

The committee on Federal Relations made a lengthy re 
port, which was ordered to be printed in the Journal, and 
five hundred extra copies printed for distribution. 

From that report only the following can be here quoted : 

That the object thus announced, and so earnestly desired by the 
fathers of the American Church, was finally accomplished by the adop 
tion of the Constitution of 1789, by which the same Catholic and Apos 
tolic Church in this country was recognized to be, and designated as, 
" The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America ; " 
and, thereupon, it became in form a National Church; and so long as 
the said Constitution remains in force, the doctrine, discipline and 
worship, ordained and established in pursuance thereof, must be uni 
form in all the Dioceses must be beyond the control of the Dioceses, 
and subject to alteration only in the mode prescribed by the Constitu 
tion itself. 

330 COUNCIL OF 1878. 

That notwithstanding this compact by the Church, in its parts 
made to secure uniformity in doctrine, discipline and worship to the 
Church in its entirety, the Dioceses are not lost or merged into one 
consolidated organization, but are recognized in the compact itself as 
the true sources of its own powers, and as entitled to all the rights, 
powers and privileges pertaining to primitive Dioceses, except so far as 
the same may be inconsistent with the aforesaid purpose of ecclesias 
tical union, or are denied to them, either expressly or by necessary im 
plication by the Constitution itself. 

That the body thus organized under said Constitution having, by 
the concurrent action and consent of the Dioceses, become the true, 
legal and constitutional "Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States of America," adherence to the doctrine, discipline and worship 
of which constitutes the sole test of the membership and ministry 
thereof, it follows that no Diocese can, without first withdrawing from 
this ecclesiastical union, rightfully exercise any of the powers pertain 
ing to this Church, which are conferred upon the General Convention 
by express grant, or by plain implication, or which are denied to the 
Dioceses, or to the Bishops and Councils thereof by the Constitution 

That in view of the sacred obligations upon the Dioceses, arising 
out of their concurrent action in forming it, and implied in the compact 
itself, and of the peril to the Church, and the cause of religion involved, 
nothing could justify withdrawal from said ecclesiastical union, or the 
taking of any steps to that end, but the ultima ratio, which underlies 
all supreme necessities in Church and State ; and which as an inalien 
able, reserved right, should be appealed to ONLY for the preservation of 
vital principles, put in grave and imminent peril by the power, to which 
allegiance is due under the compact of government. 

Kesolutions concerning the appointment of a Histori 
ographer were offered and referred to a Special Committee, 
and by their recommendation postponed to the next Council. 

A committee was appointed to revise the form of Paro 
chial report. 

Resolutions were adopted condemning and deploring in 

The Bishop called attention to the property question as it 
related to West Virginia, and proposed that a committee be 
appointed to report upon the same. Delegates from West 

COUNCIL OF 1878. 331 

Virginia present were invited to take seats in the Council 
and to participate in the discussion. 

The Council agreed to pay $5,000 $2,000 as soon as 
West Virginia should appoint some one to receive it, and 
the balance in annual instalments of $1,000 each. The 
acceptance of the same to operate as a release of all pro 
perty claims by the Diocese of West Virginia against the 
Diocese of Virginia. 

A communication was received from the Petersburg Con 
vocation recommending that the Diocese be divided by 
canon into Convocations. The subject was referred to a 
committee, which brought in a majority report opposing, 
and a minority report favoring the proposed canon. The 
subject was recommitted to a large committee and sent over 
to the next Council. 

The Council established the office of Legal Adviser of the 
Diocese to be filled by appointment of the Bishop. The 
Bishop appointed Mr. Samuel D. Davies, of Richmond. 

A communication was received from the Council of the 
Diocese of West Virginia, expressing its feelings on the sep 
aration now formally completed between the Diocese of West 
Virginia and the Bishop and Diocese of Virginia. It con 
cluded as follows : 

Resolved, That a copy of the above minute be transmitted to the 
Right Reverend F. M. Whittle, D. D., LL. D., soliciting his blessing, 
and to the Secretary of the Council of the Diocese of Virginia, to be 
laid before the Council at its next session, asking the prayers of the 
clergy and laity of the Diocese of Virginia for ourselves and our breth 
ren of this Diocese. 

A committee, by appointment of the Council, made a reply 
in the same spirit of fraternal affection. 

A committee was appointed to revise the Constitution and 
Canons of the Diocese, to report to the next Council. The 
Bishop was appointed chairman of the same. 

332 COUNCIL OF 1878. 

The Bishop, in his address, referred to the subjects of an 
assistant Bishop and the division of the Diocese as follows : 

" I owe it to you, my dear brethren, and to myself, to say that I have 
been enabled by the help of God to accomplish an amount of visitation 
work during the past year, greater than ought to be expected of any 
man, and greater than I can promise to perform in the future. I feel 
able to do all that is necessary, in my judgment, for the interest of re 
ligion and the growth and prosperity of the Church, and more than all 
that is required of me by the canons. I do not, therefore, ask for any 
relief or assistance. But whether what I have done has been, or what 
I may be able to do hereafter will be, satisfactory to the Diocese, it is 
for you to decide. If a more frequent visitation of the churches is 
demanded, there is but one of two ways, as you are aware, by which it 
can be secured viz: either by another division of the Diocese, or by 
the election of an assistant Bishop. As to the first, I am convinced 
that a large majority of the people on the south side of James river are 
utterly opposed to the cutting off of that part of the State as a separate 
Diocese ; and my opinion is, that a large majority of the people of Vir 
ginia are opposed to any division whatever. From the measure of 
division, therefore, with my convictions, I should feel obliged in con 
science to withhold my consent. As to the other method of relief, I 
will merely say, without at all discussing the question, that so far from 
being able to see any objection to an assistant Bishop, it is just what in 
my judgment this Diocese and many other Dioceses ought always to 
have. With this candid, and I trust plain statement of my views on 
this subject, I leave it to you to do something or nothing as you may 
think best." 

This part of his address was referred to a committee, who 
recommended that the question of an assistant Bishop be 
postponed for consideration to the next Council. 

A committee was appointed to consider the subject of Dio 
cesan Missions. They reported the following suggestions, 
which were adopted: 

ist. That the Executive Committee of the Diocesan Missionary So 
ciety be, and they are, hereby instructed to strictly observe the regula 
tions established by said committee in regard to the granting of aid to 
feeble parishes, except so far as they are modified by this report. 

and. That such stipends, except in cases when, in the opinion of the 

COUNCIL OF 1878. 333 

Executive Committee, the rule would work manifest injury, shall be re 
duced at the rate of ten per cent, a year on the original amount. 

3rd. That they be further instructed to lend aid only on condition that 
the parish or church receiving it pledge itself to increase its subscription 
to the minister s salary as fast as the stipend allowed by the Society is 

4th. That all ministers, whose parishes or churches receive aid from 
this Society, be informed by its secretary that, in the opinion of this 
Council, it is their bounden duty to bring this subject before their con 
gregations and faithfully to urge upon them the necessity of supporting 
themselves, that so the Society, relieved from the burden under which 
it now groans, may enter upon its appropriate work. 

The Council recommended a schedule of collections for the 

The Presidents of the several Convocations were elected 
honorary members of the Executive Committee of the Dio 
cesan Missionary Society. 

The Bishop and the Committee on the State of the Church 
made solemn and emphatic allusion to the practice of round 

A canon was recommended to prohibit the same. The 
canon failing to obtain the required majority of two-thirds, 
went over to the next Council. 

The following resolutions upon the same subject were 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, the Bishop in his address to this Council has called atten 
tion to the great and dangerous evil of round dancing, 

Resolved, first, That this Council hereby declares that this social 
amusement is one of a character in which Christian people ought not 
to engage. 

Resolved, secondly, That this Council earnestly and emphatically 
urges this subject upon the attention of the clergy, and recommends 
that they strenuously use every endeavor to abate the same by admo 
nition and discipline. 

Trinity church, Fredericksburg, and Emmanuel church, 
Pulaski county, were admitted into union with the Council. 

334 COUNCIL OP 1879. 


Council met in St. George s church, Fredericksburg, May 

The Committee on the Constitution and Canons presented 
their report ; and, at their request, it was laid over for con 
sideration until the next day. It was not reached then, and 
on the last day of the session it was postponed to the next 

The new form of parochial report was adopted requiring 
salaries and current expenses to he reported. 

A committee was appointed to inquire whether the $5,000 
voted to West Virginia was a fair equivalent of the rights 
of that Diocese in the property of the Diocese of Virginia 
before division. The Committee reported in favor of giving 
West Virginia representation in the Board of Trustees of 
the Virginia Female Institute. The report was laid upon 
the table. 

The Bishop called attention to the movement by a religious 
body of colored people in Southern Virginia, called the Zion 
Union Apostolic Church. They were receiving instruction 
at the hands of people in our Church, especially of a devoted 
lady, and measures should be taken to supply them still fur 
ther with our ministrations. A committee reported to the 
same effect, and the Council cordially endorsed all their re 
commendations. The Bishop said : 

" I commend Mrs. Buford and her interesting and important work to 
the sympathy and prayers of the Diocese, and I unite with her in 
thanking the many kind friends at the North who have aided her by 
contributions of money, books, clothing and other things. As the com 
mittee say in their report just read, this is a crisis with our Church. May 
God give us wisdom to see and realize our responsibility, and grace to 
enable us to discharge it." 

COUNCIL OF 18*79. 335 

The Bishop, in his address, made very emphatic allusion 
to innovations in ritual. He stated that the following letter 
of godly admonition upon the subject had been sent to all 
the churches of the Diocese: 

" RICHMOND, VA., i8th February, 1879. 
" To the Rector and Vestry of Church, Parish, Va. : 

" DEAR BRETHREN : Circumstances have forced me to the conviction, 
that duty requires me respectfully to declare to every minister and 
vestry of the Diocese, my godly admonition and my godly judgment* 
in regard to certain matters, as follows : 

" The services of the Church should be conducted as prescribed by 
the Rubrics in the Book of Common Prayer, without adding thereto 
or subtracting therefrom. 

" The decoration of the church building at Christmas, being a custom 
as old as the Church itself in Virginia, may lawfully and properly be 

"The introduction into the church of evergreens and flowers at 
Easter ; or of flowers, fruits or vegetables on Thanksgiving Day, or on 
any other occasion, is a novelty and an innovation in Virginia, and 
ought not to be done or allowed. The decoration of the Lord s Table, 
pulpit and desk with cloths, of one color for some occasions and of 
another color for other occasions, the different colored cloths being 
changed according to times and seasons, is a new and strange thing in 
the Church in Virginia, and ought not to be done or allowed. 

" These views of the duty of our ministers and vestries were, as I 
understand, endorsed and approved by resolution of the Council of 
the Diocese, at its session in 1877, as may be seen on pages 45 and 88 
of its Journal. 

"The Lambeth Conference of 1878, consisting of one hundred 
Bishops, nineteen of whom were of our own communion, unanimously 
adopted the following report : Considering unhappy disputes on ques 
tions of Ritual, whereby divers congregations in the Church of England, 
and elsewhere, have been seriously disquieted, your committee desire to 
affirm the principle, that no alteration from long accustomed ritual 
should be made contrary to the admonition of the Bishop of the 

"Faithfully and affectionately yours, 

" Bishop of the P. E. Church in Virginia." 

336 COUNCIL OF 1879. 

With few exceptions, all so addressed had promised com 
pliance with the same. As an issue had thus been raised 
in what he thought a matter of very serious consequence to- 
the Church in this Diocese, he laid the matter at length be 
fore the Council, with the correspondence with the churches 
that objected to his pastoral, and asked the action of the 
Council thereupon. His address closed as follows: 

" I had no alternative, my dear brethren painful as the duty is to my 
self and humiliating as the performance of it is to our beloved Church 
but to lay before you the documents which I have read. I add not a 
word of comment in regard to their spirit or contents. They speak for 
themselves, and they show that a great crisis has arisen in our Diocese, 
and that an issue has been joined, the result of which must determine 
the spiritual and Protestant or the worldly and Romish character of our 
Virginia Church for all time. They fully justify me at the bar of my own 
judgment and my own conscience for doing what I have done, and con 
vince me that the need for my action was ten times more pressing and 
important than I had supposed. 

"And now I desire, in the first place, clearly to define the position 
which I occupy. I do not claim, but utterly disclaim and repudiate the 
possession of any undefined or undefinable rights and powers as in 
herent in my office, and as belonging to me in virtue of that office. I 
do not claim any authority to make or to break laws, but acknowledge 
myself preeminently bound to be governed by laws divine and human 
of the Church and of the State, that, as in other respects, so in the 
matter of submission to the rightly constituted authorities, I may be a 
wholesome example and pattern for the flock to follow, over which, in 
the providence of God, I have been placed as the overseer. I claim no 
right to introduce any novelties of doctrine or ritual into the Church of 
this Diocese to disturb the peace of its members, and I deny any such 
right to every minister and vestry, and especially to every private mem 
ber of the same. 

"On the other hand, I trust I am ready with all faithful diligence, to 
banish and drive away from the Church all erroneous and strange doc 
trine contrary to God s Word, and both privately and openly to call upon 
and encourage others to the same, whether the erroneous and strange 
doctrine be taught from the pulpit or the chancel, by word or by vest 
ments, decorations, signs or symbols, and in so doing I but exercise 
such discipline, as by the authority of God s Word, and by the order of 
this Church is committed to me. In a word, if there is any duty im- 

COUNCIL OF 18^9. 33T 

posed upon me by my consecration vows, and which may be demanded 
of me by the ministers and people of this Diocese, it is my duty to keep 
out all innovations on our doctrine and worship, and to leave the Pro 
testant Episcopal Church in Virginia, the same glorious Church which 
I found it, unchanged in its teaching, services, practices and ceremonies. 
This being the duty which I understand my office lays upon me, then I 
distinctly claim that the Church has entrusted to me the power and 
authority to perform that duty. 

" In the second place, having been, under God, placed by you in a 
fearful position of difficulty and anxiety and responsibility, which none 
can understand but those who have tried it, and in view of which the 
greatest of the inspired apostles might well exclaim, who is sufficient 
for these things? I think I have the right to look to you, my dear 
brethren, for sympathy and counsel and assistance. If, in your judg 
ment, I have done wrong, or made a mistake, by wittingly or unwit 
tingly usurping authority in what I have done, I earnestly beg that you 
will say so. Then I shall understand, that so far as this Council is 
concerned, I am not expected to be the Bishop or overseer of the 
churches of this Diocese ; that on my visitations I am a mere automaton 
to confirm, ordain, and consecrate buildings ; that every minister, 
vestry, or individual, according to their various views of what is pretty 
or appropriate, or edifying, may introduce into our worship whatever 
services, or ceremonies, or objects they please, converting our houses of 
prayer into concert halls, exhibition rooms Romish churches, or heath 
enish temples ; and that is not my duty, and I have no authority to in 
terpose my godly admonition and my godly judgment to prevent 
such innovations. But if, on the other hand, as I do not doubt for one 
moment is the case, you hold that I have simply performed a plain and 
imperative duty to God and to you (notwithstanding my action has 
been protested against, and I myself have been ridiculed and scorned 
and denounced), then, my dear brethren, I think I have a right most re 
spectfully to demand, that you encourage and help me by such legisla 
tion as the case may seem to you to require. 

" I conclude with the prayer, that in all your doings you may be di 
rected with God s most gracious favor, and furthered with his continual 
help ; that in all your works begun, continued and ended in Him, you 
may glorify his holy name ; and finally, by his mercy, obtain everlasting 
life, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The whole subject was referred to a large committee 
Kevs. G-. H. Norton, D. D., W. N. Pendleton, D. D., C. Min- 
nigerode, D. D., J. S. Hanckel, D. D. 3 J. R Hubard, D. D., 

338 COUNCIL OF 1879. 

R. T. Davis, D. D., J. G. Armstrong, H. M. Jackson, Judges 
R. C. L. Moncure, H. W. Sheifey, W. H. Boiling, and Messrs. 
Wm. Lamb, S. S. Bradford, John Stewart, Sam l D. Davies 
who brought in a report concurred in by 11 out of 15. The 
report said : 

* * * According to the law of this Church neither wardens 
nor vestries have rightful power to prescribe or to regulate Ritual ; to 
change rites or ceremonies, or to prescribe or introduce into the Church 
ornaments or decorations in connection with worship, the manner of 
conducting which pertains to the minister in charge, who is amenable 
to his Bishop, and whom he has promised to obey. And thereupon the 
committee have adopted the following resolutions, in which they ask 
the concurrence of the Council : 

1. That in the judgment of this Council the Bishop had the rightful 
power to give to the ministers under his charge the godly admonition 
contained in his circular-letter of the i8th day of February, 1879, an d 
that irrespective of reasons therefor, it became the duty of those minis 
ters to give heed to and obey such admonitions with a glad mind and 
will ; and 

2. That it is the earnest wish and prayer of this Council that cheerful 
and willing obedience be yielded by clergy and laity to the Bishop s 
views and admonition, so that no occasion may arise for legislation to 
give effect thereto ; that peace and harmony may abound throughout 
the Diocese, and that clergy and laity, having the mind that is in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, may with one heart desire those things which make for 
peace, and our beloved Diocese, in its unity of faith and its ancient 
loving concord, may go forward to fulfil its holy mission, in establish 
ing and building up the Church within its borders, upon the true foun 
dation, which is Christ ! 

This was signed by eleven of the committee. Two de 
clined to sign any report, and two signed a minority report, 
which in its statement of the law of Ritual and in its spirit 
"was in accord with the majority. They said : 

The undersigned are constrained to differ from the report of the 
majority so far as the resolutions appended to the preamble are con 
cerned. While acknowledging that in matters of Ritual, where there is 
no specific direction by Rubric or Canon, we are subject to the control 
of the Ordinary of the Diocese, we are not prepared to say that the 

COUNCIL OF 1879. 339 

use of flowers is a part of such ritual, nor that it is a part of a system 
of false doctrine. At the same time we would express the earnest hope 
that throughout the Diocese ready obedience may be given to the 
Bishop s views in regard to these matters, and that there will be faithful 
cooperation with him in promoting the peace and harmony of the 
Diocese, and maintaining the Protestant character of this Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

The preamble of the majority report was adopted unani 
mously. The first resolution was adopted by a vote as fol 

Clergy ayes, 73 Noes, 13 

Laity ayes, 75 Noes, 13 

The second resolution was adopted unanimously. 

Pending the discussion a substitute was offered for the 
majority report, proposing to refer the matter to the next 
General Convention. It was rejected. 

The subject of an assistant Bishop, referred to this Coun 
cil by the last, was introduced by a resolution "that the 
Bishops and Standing Committee be applied to for permis 
sion to elect an assistant Bishop on the ground of extent of 

The resolution failed for want of concurrence of orders. 
It was reconsidered and failed again, as on the former vote, 
for want of a concurrence of orders. The vote stood 

Clergy ayes 46 Noes, 49 

Laity ayes, 60 Noes, 37 

A resolution was offered proposing a plan to ascertain the 
views of the Diocese at large upon the subject of division, 
and was laid upon the table. 

Eev. Philip Slaughter was elected Historiographer of the 
Diocese, with a salary of $500 per annum. 

A proposed amendment to Canon IV, of the report by the 
Committee on Constitution and Canons, was referred to that 

340 COUNCIL OF 1880. 

committee. The amendment proposed the establishment of 
a judiciary system. 

Slaughter parish, Culpeper county, and Bishop Moore 
Memorial church, Richmond, were admitted into union with 
the Council. 

The Committee on the State of the Church said : 

The interest manifested by the colored people themselves, in the 
instruction and care that they now receive at our hands, are favorable 
signs that they are beginning to realize that our Church not only wel 
comes them gladly, but is eminently fitted to meet their religious wants. 
The remarkable work in Burnswick and adjoining counties, under Mrs. 
F. E. Buford, has awakened great hope as to our being able to reach on 
a large scale, and to influence for good this class of our population. 
Through the efforts of this modest and refined church-woman, under 
God, we call attention to the fact that, an entire congregation, called 
the Zion Union Apostolic Church, consisting of their Bishop, more than 
twenty (20) preachers, and about 2,000 communicants, is seeking to be 
placed under the care of our Church. When it is considered what an 
amazing work (unaided and alone except by her Heavenly Father s 
help) among these people, has been done by this devoted servant of 
God, can we not take courage and hope, that at last an open door and 
effectual has been opened to us in the direction of a people whom we 
have too much neglected. 

A committee was appointed to suggest some effectual and 
practical plan for the arrest of the evils of intemperance, 
to report to the next Council. 


Council met in St. Paul s church, Petersburg, May 19th. 

Mr. H. E. C. Baskervill resigned the office of Treasurer 
of the Council, and Mr. P. H. Baskervill was unanimously 
elected to the office. 

COUNCIL OF 1880. 341 

The Constitution reported at the last Council was acted 
upon and approved, as published in the Journal, pp. 43-46. 

The report on the Canons was postponed to next Council, 
^fter being recommitted to the committee enlarged by the 
addition of five clergymen and five laymen. 

The Bishop deprecated the groundless agitation of the 
question of more frequent Episcopal visitations. He said : 

" Beginning with the Council which sat in Alexandria in 1876, the 
question of more frequent Episcopal visitations has ever since been 
agitated. This agitation, for which, in my judgment, there is no ground 
whatever, is not likely to cease until something is done to quiet it. The 
only thing which can be done is, either to divide the Diocese, or to elect 
an assistant Bishop. In my address to the Council in Lynchburg, in 
1878, I declared my views in regard to these two measures. Those 
views remain unchanged, except that subsequent reading, reflection, 
observation and experience have deepened my conviction that I ought 
not, and have strengthened my resolution that I will not, at this time, 
consent to a division of the Diocese. I therefore respectfully suggest 
that you adopt whatever measures may be necessary to obtain the con 
sent of the General Convention, which is to meet in October next, to 
the election of an assistant Bishop for the reason of extent of Diocese, 
as provided by \ 5, of Canon XV, of Title I, of the Digest. 

"And now may the Holy Spirit grant us a right judgment in all 
things, that our sayings, as well as our doings, may tend to the promo 
tion of God s glory, and the best interests of our beloved Church." 

This subject was referred to a committee the majority of 
which reported in favor of asking consent the minority in 
favor of taking no action. 

The majority report was adopted. 

The Bible Society was cordially endorsed in a paper which 
was recommended to be read in the churches. 

A committee was appointed to inquire what relations the 
Diocese sustains to the General Theological Seminary, and 
to report to the next Council. 

The form of parochial report was amended so as to place 
first on list of contributions 

1st. Salary promised, $ . 2d. Salary paid, $ . 

342 COUNCIL OF 1880. 

The committee to propose some plan for the suppression 
of the evils of intemperance, made a report, which was ap 
proved, together with earnest resolutions of the same spirit. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church Home in Richmond, for 
ladies, in reduced circumstances, was commended to the re 
gard of the Diocese. 

The Virginia Female Institute was commended to the 
confidence and the patronage of the Diocese. 

The committee on the subject of work with the Zion Union 
Apostolic Church made a report, which was approved and 
the Council authorized the continuance of an Evangelist to 
labor amongst them at a salary of $1,000. 

The Historiographer presented a report, which was re 

It was proposed that in the event of the General Con 
vention giving its consent to our electing an assistant Bishop, 
our deputies be instructed to urge an amendment to section 
11 of Canon XV, so that Episcopal visitations should be re 
quired once every two years. It was indefinitely postponed. 

The Bishop was requested to appoint, for one year, one or 
two evangelists, at a salary of not more than $600 each, and 
their traveling expenses. 

The Brotherhood report stated that 

The only death (that of the Rev. Dr. Wade) in the last twelve months 
is the twentieth since the organization of the Brotherhood in 1870. In 
ten years an aggregate of $24,040.66 has been paid to the heirs of bene 
ficiaries, being an average to each of $1,265, exclusive of the last. Thus 
it appears that at an average annual cost to each member of $4.20 this 

handsome sum has been secured to the families of a score of clergymen. 

* * * * * * *** 

Your committee, in conclusion, cannot too strongly recommend to 
the clergy and laity of the Diocese continued and increased support of 
the Brotherhood. We urge on the clergy to select and name for ap 
pointment, to the Secretary in Richmond, a suitable person as agent in 
every parish, and we urge all lay persons not already connected with 
the organization to become members. 

A committee was appointed to consider the methods of 

COUNCIL OF 1881. 343 

raising the amount of assessment and the disposition of the 
Contingent Fund, and to report to the next Council. 

The Council refused to concur in a proposed amendment 
to Article VIII of the Constitution of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church in the United States. 


Council met in Epiphany church, Danville, May 18th. 

The opening services consisted of the consecration of the 
new church erected under the auspices of the Rev. George 
W. Dame, who began the organization of an Episcopal con 
gregation in Danville in the year 1840, the communicants 
then consisting of four ladies. 

The report of the Committee on Canons was presented 
and made the order of the day for Thursday, after the 
reading of the Bishop s address. The report was discussed 
on Thursday and Friday, and then recommitted to be con 
sidered at the next Council. 

The Committee on the Contingent Fund made a report, 
which was at their request laid over to the next Council. It 
ably discussed all the questions proposed, and offered the 
following : 

Resolved, That five per cent, of the total contributions of a parish 
for one year shall be its assessment for the year next ensuing for the 
stated and contingent expenses of the Diocese : provided, that in no 
case shall the assessment upon any parish be greater than a sum equal 
to one dollar for each communicant. 

2. That whatever surplus annually remains, after the payment of 
these expenses, shall be converted into a Permanent Fund, under the 
direction of the Trustees of the Episcopal Fund. 

344 COUNCIL OF 1881. 

3. That it is inadvisable to pay the salaries of evangelists from the 
Contingent Fund of the Diocese. 

4. That the Parochial Reports published in the Journal shall be tabu 
lated and not published seriatim. 

Communications were received from the General Conven 
tion and referred to the Standing Committee of the Diocese. 
The communications were upon the following subjects An 
amendment to the ratification of the Book of Common 
Prayer The report of the committee on increasing the 
fund for disabled clergy and their families, and upon The 
expediency of so increasing the assessment upon the Dio 
ceses as to enable the General Convention to pay the ex 
penses incurred by the clerical members in attending its 

Thursday afternoon the Council took recess to hear an 
address by the Kev. Dr. McKim, of New York, and to or 
ganize upon the subject of Temperance Keform. A Society 
was formed, with the Bishop as President, for the suppres 
sion of intemperance, and when the Council reassembled 
the measure was formally approved. 

The Constitution approved at the last Council was adopted. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church Home, in the city of 
Kichmond, was endorsed, and congregations requested to 
have an annual offering for the same in November, if prac 

A resolution was adopted most earnestly commending the 
Virginia Female Institute to the liberal patronage of the 
clergy and laity of the Diocese. 

The Committee on the Kelations of the General Theolo 
gical Seminary made a report, which was recommitted to 
an enlarged committee. 

The Standing Committee on Church Property were author 
ized to sell lots in Hollywood cemetery, and to devote the 
proceeds to the Protestant Episcopal Church Home. 

COUNCIL OF 1881. 345 

The deputies to the last General Convention reported that 
the request of this Diocese for consent to elect an assistant 
Bishop had not been granted. 

The Special Committee on Diocesan Missions made a re 
port, which was referred to the Executive Committee of the 
Diocesan Missionary Society, together with five other mem 
bers of the Council. 

The Historiographer presented a report, which was re 

The Committee on Work with the Zion Union Apostolic 
Church made a report which was approved. It offered the 
following : 

1. Resolved, That the Bishop be requested to appoint, with the con 
sent of the ecclesiastical authorities thereof, assistant ministers for the 
parishes in Mecklenburg and Brunswick for special work among the 
colored people in those parishes. 

2. Resolved, That the salaries of these assistant ministers be paid by 
the Diocesan Missionary Committee. 

3. Resolved, That in consequence of this extra draft upon the trea 
sury, the Diocesan Missionary Committee be instructed to issue an ap 
peal to the Diocese for special contributions to colored missions. 

It introduced the following action of the Zion Union at 
their annual conference: 

Resolved i, That holding firmly to our Church organization, as now 
constituted, and with no present desire to change the same, we feel the 
deepest gratitude to the Protestant Episcopal Church for the Christian 
love and charity which has been extended to us by the same in teaching 
and disciplining our people, aiding them to embrace a pure Christian 
faith, and to lead godly and Christian lives. 

Resolved 2, That we earnestly desire that the work controlled by the 
same principle may be continued. * 

Resolved 3, That the Book of Common Prayer of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church contains sound doctrine for the edification of all 
Christian people, and we recommend its use in our churches as the 
ministers shall find it practicable. 

346 COUNCIL OF 1881. 

The name of Leeds parish in Prince William county, was 
changed to "Hay market" parish, and the metes and bounds- 
between it and Dettingen Parish were fixed. 

The Brotherhood Committee made a report recommend 
ing the employment of a general agent, and also to reduce 
mortuary assessments from $2.10 to $1. 

The Historiographer was requested to prepare for the next 
Council a list of all the parishes in the Diocese from the 
date of its organization, and of the separate congregations 
within those parishes that have been admitted to lay repre 
sentation in the Council. 



Rt. Rev. James Madison, D. D 1791 

Rt. Rev. Richard Channing Moore, D. D 1815 

Rt. Rev. William Meade, D. D., (Elected assistant Bishop 1829) 1842 

Rt. Rev. John Johns, D. D., (Elected assistant Bishop 1842) 1862 

Rt. Rev. F. M. Whittle, D. D., (Elected assistant Bishop 1867) 1876 


Rev. James Madison, D. D 1785, 1786 and 1790 

Rev. David Griffith, D. D 1787 

Rev. John Bracken, D. D 1789, 1812 and 1813 

Rev. William H. Wilmer 1814 


Rev. Robert Andrews 1785 

Rev. John Bracken, D. D 1786 to 1788 

Rev. Robert Andrews 1789 

Rev. Thomas Davis 1790 

Rev. Robert Andrews 1791 to 1796 

Rev. John Bracken, D. D 1797 to 1804 

Mr. Charles Marshall 1805 to 1811 

Mr. George Deneale 1812 

Mr. Anthony Crease 1813 

Mr. Samuel Greenhow 1814 

Mr. William Munford 1815 to 1823 

Mr. John G. Williams 1824 to 1833 

Mr. Hillary Baker 1834 to 1844 

348 OFFICERS SINCE 1*785. 

Mr. William M. Blackford 1845 to 1850 

Mr. Cassius F. Lee 1851 and 1852 

Rev. George D. Cummins 1853 an d 1854 

Rev. George Woodbridge 1855 and 1856 

Rev. Henry S. Kepler 1857 to 1859 

Mr. J. W. Atkinson 1860 to 1862 

Rev. T. G. Dashiell 1863 


Rev. Robert Andrews 1799 

Mr. Edward Colston 1822 

Rev. William F. Lee 1832 

Rev. Zachariah Mead 1840 

Rev. Benjamin M. Miller 1841 

Mr. Tazewell Taylor 1850 


Rev. John Buchanan 1785 to 1814 

Mr. Samuel Greenhow , 1815 

Mr. William Munford 1816 to 1823 

Mr. Robert Greenhow 182410 1837 

Mr. William H. Hubbard 183810 1857 

Mr. John Stewart 1858 to 1865 

Mr. Samuel P. Mitchell 1866 

Mr. H. E. C. Baskervill 186710 1880 

Mr. P. H. Baskervill... ,. 1880 


[This is intended to be a list of the clerical and lay deputies in the 
Conventions and Councils since the year 1785, the date of the organi 
zation of the Diocese. Some of the clerical names will have been seen 
before in the list that comes down to the year 1785. The dates do not 
give the time of ordination, nor of first parochial charge, but the year 
when first reported as present in the Conventions or Councils.] 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date* 

Adams, Ephraim Alexandria 1831 

Adie, George Shelburne Loudoun 1833 

Addison, Thomas G Grace Caroline 1856 

Alberger, John (deacon) 1837 

Allanson, Edward, (ass t)... Grace Petersburg 1881 

Allen, Thomas G Dettengen Prince William 1818 

Allen, Benjamin St. Andrew s Jefferson 1818 

Alrich, W. A Truro Fairfax 1867 

Ambler, John Luray Shenandoah 1872 

Ambler, Charles E St. Ann s Albemarle 1849 

Ambler, Thomas M Bath Dinwiddie 1855 

Andrews, Joseph R St. Paul s King William...... 1818 

Andrews, Robert York-Hampton York 1785 

Andrews, C. W Frederick Frederick 1834 

Armstrong, William St. Matthew s Wheeling 1837 

Armstrong, John Wheeling Ohio county 1823 

Armstrong, J. G St. Matthews Wheeling 1875 

Atkinson, Thomas St. Paul s Norfolk 1837 

Atkinson, John St. George s Accomac 1867 

Atwell, J. H St. Stephen s Petersburg 1869 

Avirett, J. B.(chaplain) 1862 

Baker, F. M Botetourt Botetourt 1852 

Baker, R. M Piedmont Fauquier 1862 

Ball, David Christ Church Lancaster 1789 

Balmain, Alex Frederick Frederick 1785 

Banister, J. M Bath Dinwiddie 1847 

Barnes, Richard H St. Martin s Hanover...... 1822 

Barr, David Meherrin Greenville 1871 

350 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Barrett, Robert St. Martin s Hanover 1785 

Barrett, Roberts Christ Church Richmond 1877 

Barten, O. S Hamilton Fauquier 1859 

Bartlett, Hobart M.(ass t)... Bristol Petersburg 1835 

Bausman, John St. John s Hampton 1844 

Bausman, John P .Frederickville Albemarle 1818 

Beall, Upton Christ Church Norfolk 1841 

Benton, M. M St. John Wheeling 1870 

Berger, A Bath Dinwiddie.. 1845 

Berkeley, A. S Moore Campbell 1872 

Berkeley, Parke F Missionary in King William 1833 

BlackJ. H 1780 

Blagrove, Benjamin Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1785 

Bland, William Warwick Warwick 1785 

Boggs, HughC Berkeley Spotsylvania 1789 

Bolton, James (M. D.) St. Luke s Chapel Richmond city 1846 

Bowers, William V St. Martin s Hanover 1835 

Boyden, Ebenezer Augusta Staunton 1829 

Boyden, D. H Truro Fairfax 1871 

Boyden, P. M Officiating in Goochland 1878 

Boyd, Melville St. Paul s King George 1875 

Bracken, John Bruton James City 1785 

Braddock, W. L All Saints Monroe 1873 

Broadnax, W. A Christ Church Harrison 1858 

Brooke, John T Norborne Berkeley 1826 

Brooke, R. D St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1850 

Brooke, Pendleton Christ Church Clarksburg 1870 

Brown, Benjamin St. Peter s New Kent 1799 

Brown, R. T Rappahannock.... 1839 

Bryan, John Wicomico Northumberland.. 1792 

Bryan, John L Christ Ch. Norborne.. Berkeley 1817 

Bryan, C. Braxton Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1879 

Bryant, William Christ Church Lancaster 1839 

Buchan, Robert Overwharton Stafford 1785 

Buchanan, John Henrico Henrico 1785 

Bulkeley, Alcott Lyttleton Cumberland 1844 

Bunting, Oscar (ass t) Epiphany Danville 1878 

Burgess, H.John Southwark Surry 1785 

Butler, Samuel Southwark Surry 1790 

Butler, William C. (ass t).... Antrim Halifax 1859 

Byrd, S. M Bath Dinwiddie 1862 

CLERGY SINCE 1*785. 351 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Cain, Thomas W St. Philip s Richmond 1880 

Cairns, William D Ware and Abingdon.-Gloucester 1827 

Caldwell, David Lexington Amherst 1842 

Callaway, C. McK St. Andrew s Jefferson 1851 

Cameron, John Bristol Prince George 1785 

Cameron, William Manchester . Chesterfield 1789 

Carmichael, Jas. (chaplain) 863 

Carpenter, S. T St. George Accomac 1838 

Carraway, G.S Kingston Mathews 1846 

Carson, T.;M Winchester 1866 

Carter, Jesse Drysdale Caroline 1785 

Castleman, R. A Christ Church Clarksburg 1853 

Castleman, T.T St. Andrew s Brunswick 1839 

Chapin, Sewell Westover Charles City i?9 6 

Chesley, J. W St. James Mecklenburg 1852 

Chevers, Mark L Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1825 

Chevers, J. M Grub Hill Amelia 1853 

Chisholm, James Officiating in Albemarle 1841 

Claiborne, R. R Missionary in Greensville 1880 

Claphamjosias St. Paul King George 1822 

Clark, Jonas B St. John s Wheeling 1874 

Clark, William M St. James Parish Mecklenburg 1881 

Clay, Charles Manchester Chesterfield 1785 

Clemens, J.J Hungar s Northampton 1871 

Clopton, Reuben St. David King William 1790 

Clover, L. P Grace Church Lexington 1852 

Cobbs, Nicholas H .....Russell Bedford 18^5 

Cobbs, R. A St. John s Charleston 1876 

Cofer, James M Tillotson . Buckingham 1836 

Coffin, W. H St. John s Brooke 1853 

Cooke, Giles B St. Stephen s Petersburg... 1871 

Cooke, John.. St. Martin s Hanover 1825 

Cole, H. H Richmond county 1875 

Cole, John { S Geo y rg l~?} 829 

Coleman , 1858 

Colton, Channing (D. D.).... Newport Isle of Wight 1857 

Cosby, John St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1859 

Cowpland, Joshua St. John s Wellsburg 1867 

Craig, James Cumberland Lunenburg 1785 

Craighill, J. B Hungar s Northampton 1869 

352 CLERGt SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Craik, James Kanawha Kanawha 1840 

Crawford, Charles Lexington Amherst 1790 

Crawford, William Amherst Amherst 1796 

Crawford, William Louisa C. H 1838 

Croes, Robert B. (ass t) Monumental Richmond city 1825 

Cuttler, Benjamin C Shelburne Loudoun 1831 

Cummins, Geo. D Christ Church Norfolk 1847 

Curtis, J. F St. Paul s Weston 1866 

Currie, C. George St. Matthew s Wheeling 1868 

Currie, A. H Tillotson Buckingham 1871 

Dabney, J. B , Moore Campbell 1862 

Dalrymple, E. A, St. Paul s Hanover 1844 

Dame, Geo. W Officiatingin Prince Edward.... 1841 

Dame, Geo. W.,Jr, (ass t) St. James Richmond city.... 1879 

Dame, Nelson P Montgomery Montgomery 1878 

Dame, William M Meade Fauquier 1870 

Dana, Charles B Christ Church Alexandria 1835 

Darneille, Isaac Amherst Amherst 1790 

Dashiell, Alfred New London 1818 

Dashiell, T. G Cople Westmoreland .... 1859 

Davenish, Godfrey King William 1805 

Davenport, Jos Charles York 1785 

Davies, Price Blissland New Kent 1785 

Davis, D. C. T St. Paul s Albemarle 1855 

Davis, R. T Trinity Martinsburg 1855 

Davis, Thomas St.Stephen s Northumberland.. 1785 

Denison, H. N Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1846 

Derby, Henry L Albemarle Sussex 1872 

Dick, Archibald St. Margaret s Caroline 1785 

Dickenson, James Littleton Cumberland 1799 

Disbrow, C. W St. Paul s Suffolk 1844 

Doughen, James St. James -Northam..Goochland 1829 

Downing, J. B Newport Isle of Wight 1847 

Dresser, Charles Antrim Halifax 1829 

Ducachet, Henry W Christ Church Norfolk 1826 

Dudley, T. U Emmanuel Harrisonburg 1868 

Dunbar, John Westover Charles City 1786 

Duncan, Thomas Leeds Fauquier 1857 

Dunn, John St. John s King William 1797 

Duval, Wm. (missionary) Richmond city 1846 

Earnest, Jos St. Thomas Orange 1841 

CLERGY SINCE 1785. 353 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Easter, George W Ashland Hanover 1865 

Elliot, James Cople Westmoreland .... 1799 

Ellerby, Richard Leighton Cumberland 1875 

Emerson, Arthur Suffolk Nansemond 1785 

Empie, Adam Bruton Williamsburg 1828 

Estill, Reverdy Trinity Portsmouth 1879 

Everett, William B Westover Charles City 1880 

Fackler, David M Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1838 

Fackler, St. M , Berkeley Spotsylvania 1841 

Fisher, Andrew Southam Powhatan 1845 

Flower, Thomas P Christ Church Lancaster 1847 

Forrest, Douglas F Theological Sem ary 1872 

Freeman, Silas .Lexington Amherst 1824 

Friend, William St. Margaret s Caroline 1833 

Galusha, M. H Bath Dinwiddie 1859 

Gatewood, R. (missionary) Norfolk 1859 

Gardiner, W. F Piedmont Fauquier 1865 

Gibbons, George A St. Stephen s Bedford 1874. 

Gibbs, George S Officiating in Pulaski 1877 

Gibson, C. J Officiating in Petersburg 1842 

Gibson, Isaac (ass t) Zion Church Charlestown 1865 

Gibson, Robert A Bath Dinwiddie 1871 

Gillette, Charles Alexandria 1842 

Glazebrook, Otis A St. Andrew s Brunswick 1870 

Goldsmith, Z. H St. George Accomac 1829 

Good, Caleb J St. Margaret s Caroline 1829 

Good, W. H Norborne Berkeley 1845 

Goodrich, Charles, D. D.... St. Thomas , Abingdon 1874 

Goodwin, Edward L Franklin Franklin 1881 

Goodwin, Fred. D Kanawha Kanawha 1832 


Goodwin, R. A St. James , &c Mecklenburg 1876 

Gordon, W. B. (missionary) Norfolk 1872 

Graham, Richardson Missionary to Africa 1845 

Grammer, Julius E Grace Church Jefferson 1856 

Grammer, John Bath Dinwiddie 1827 

Grammer, James Tillotson Buckingham 1864 

Gravatt, J. J St. John s Hampton 1877 

Gray, Arthur P. (ass t) St. Paul s Lynchburg 1879 

Gray, Samuel Botetourt Botetourt 1796 


354 CLERGY SINCE 1*785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Greaves, J. A St. Paul s Albemarle 1874 

Green, Richmond county. 1851 

Greene, W. W St. Luke s- Mecklenburg 1860 

Gregory, Edward S St. Martin s Hanover 1880 

Greer, D. H Christ Church Clarksburg 1867 

Griffin, John Lexington Amherst 1860 

Griffith, David Fairfax Fairfax 1785 

Gunter, Stephen D Hungar s Northampton 1826 

Gurley, George St. Luke s Southampton 1785 

Gurley, Jos. (ass t) St. Luke s 1792 

Habersham, B. E St. Paul s Hanover 1869 

Hains, C. R Kingston Matthews 1860 

Halson, Geo., residing near Norfolk 1818 

Hammond, J. E Theological Sem ry 1868 

Hanckel, J.S Christ Church Charlottesville ..... 1869 

Hansbrough, J. S Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1860 

Harrison, J. H St. John s Brooke 1842 

Harrison, W. D Meherrin Greensville 1850 

Hart, W. H St. John s Henrico 1816 

Harlow, E. H St. John s Hampton 1857 

Hatch, Fred. W Fredericksville Albemarle 1830 

Hawley, William St. Stephen s Culpeper 1815 

Hay, Alex Antrim Halifax 1791 

Hayden, H. E Christ Church Point Pleasant 1868 

Hedges, Chaplin S Newport Isle of Wight 1832 

Henderson, James Westover Charles City 1790 

Henderson, D. J , Kanawha 1855 

Henning, E. W Missionary to Africa 1844 

Hepbron, S. S St.John s Fairfax 1870 

Hill, John H Athens Greece 1837 

Hodges, William Bruton Williamsburg 1838 

Hoff, J. F Christ Church Millwood 1848 

Hopkins, Charles St. James -Northam..Goochland 1790 

Horrell, Thomas Norborne Berkeley 1817 

Howard, C. R St.John s Harper s Ferry.... 1855 

Hoxton, William Emmanuel Pittsylvania 1869 

Hubard.E. W Botetourt Botetourt 1869 

Hubard, J. R Norfolk . . 1862 

Hubbard, John P Trinity Shepherdstown... 1876 

Hudson, A. J. M St. Mark s Kanawha 1859 

Hundley, J. Hervey St. David King William 1872 

CLERGY SINCE 1785. 355 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Hughes, Thomas ,....St. David King William . 1797 

Hunter, Moses H St. Paul s King George 1880 

Hull, J. C Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1842 

Hutchinson l %4 

, ,-,, T [Christ Church,") Brooke, Mar- \ T o.- 
Hyland,WilhamL { Trinity ;} sha]1 J. f l8 5 

Ingle, E. H St. Thomas Abingdon 1865 

Irish, William N St. Thomas Frederick 1850 

Jackson, Johannes E Frederick Frederick 1826 

Jackson, William St. Paul s Alexandria 1827 

Jackson, Thomas Shelburne Loudoun 1829 

Jackson, William M. (ass t)..Frederick Frederick 1832 

Jackson, Robert F Missionary Wheeling 1877 

Jackson, H. Melville Montgomery Montgomery 1874 

Jackson, J. E Cedar Run Fauquier 1881 

Jacobs, W. F. M Trinity Marshall 1859 

James, Fleming St. Luke s Hospital... New York 1868 

Jarratt, Devereux Bath Dinwiddie 1785 

Jarrett, William St. John s Hampton 1873 

Jervis-Edwards, T Emmanuel Harrisonburg 1880 

Johns, Leonard H St. Margaret s Caroline 1827 

Johns, Arthur S. (ass t) St. George Fredericksburg... 1874 

Johnson, Stephen Meherrin Greensville I79 1 

Johnson, W. P. C Norborne Berkeley 1832 

Johnson, R. P St. Andrew s Brunswick 1849 

Johnson, J. T St. Paul s Alexandria 1836 

Johnson, William H Johns Loudoun . 1876 

Jones, Alex St. Andrew s Jefferson 1825 

Jones, Joseph R Christ Church Middlesex 1858 

Jones, William G. H Newport Isle of Wight 1827 

Jones, E. Valentine Trinity Huntington 1873 

Jones, Richard H Bath Dinwiddie 1874 

Jones, Edwin B Trinity Church Brunswick 1875 

Jones, W. Strother Grace Church Fauquier 1877 

Jope, Robert St. John s Portsmouth 1856 

Joyner, John R Christ Church Gordonsville 1879 

Keeble, James W St. John s Hampton 1876 

Keeling, Jacob Suffolk Nansemond 1812 

Keith, Reuel Bruton Williamsburg 1821 

Keith, Cleveland Missionary to China 1851 

Kepler, H. S St. John s Richmond city 1849 

356 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date~ 

Kepler, John H 1852 

Kershaw, Henry J 1857 

Kimball, W. W Moore Campbell 1881 

Kinckle, William H Cornwall Charlotte C. H 1840 

King, William Trinity Staunton 1812 

Kinsolving, O. A St. Stephen s Bedford *....... 1847 

Klug, Samuel Christ Church Middlesex 1785 

Lacy, T. H Bath Dinwiddie 1873 

Laird, William H St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1870- 

Lamon, Arch d H St. Stephen sChurch..Culpeper 1834 

Lanston, Joel Becksford Shenandoah 1820 

Latan6, James A Trinity Staunton 1857 

Latan<*, W. C St. Peter s Church Westmoreland 1876 

Lawrence, J. P St. Luke s Amherst 1876 

Lea, John W Wickliffe Clark 1873 

Lea, J. R Missionary, to Africa 1844 

Leacock, B. B St. Paul s King George 1852 

Leavell, William T Westover Charles City 1840 

Lee, H. B St. Paul s Church Goochland 1876 

Lee, William B Officiating in Gulp, and Mad 1879 

Lee,F. D Wilmer Prince Edward.... 1880 

Lee, H. T St. Thomas Abingdon 1853 

Lee, William F St. James -Northam.. Goochland 1826 

Leigh, William Dale Chesterfield 1785 

Leland, John Wicomico Northumberland.. 1785 

Lemon, George Hamilton Fauquier 1816 

Lewis, N.H 1868 

Lindsay, J. S. (ass t) Trinity Portsmouth 1870 

Lippitt, E. R Norborne Berkeley 1821 

Locke, Thomas E Cumberland Lunenburg 1838 

Lockwood, William Theological Semi ry...Fairfax 1843 

Logan, Mercer P St. Paul s Petersburg 1881 

Low, Samuel Wicomico Northumb land.... 1812 

Lowe, Enoch M Norborne Berkeley 1819 

Lloyd, John J Cople Westmoreland 1877 

Lloyd, Arthurs, (ass t) Wilmer Prince Edward.... 1881 

Lundie, Thomas St. Andrew s Brunswick 1785 

Lynd, W. J. (ass t) St. Paul s Church Alexandria 1853 

Mackenheimer, George L...Brunswick King George 1860 

Macrae, Christopher Lyttleton Cumberland 1785 

Madison, James James City James City 1785 

CLERGY SINCE 1785. 35 f 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Magill, J. W St. John s Petersburg..., 1875 

Mann, Charles Christ Church Alexandria 1831 

Marbury, J. S Russell Bedford 1841 

Marshall, Herbert St. Stephen s Culpeper 1822 

Marshall, William Leeds Fauquier 1827 

Martin, T. F Lexington Amherst 1853 

Mason, Richard R Rivanna Fluvanna 1858 

Mason, R. H Christ Church Bath 1868 

Mason, Landon R Cornwall Charlotte 1874 

Mason, John K Missionary in Shenandoah 1877 

Massey, J. A King William Powhatan 1842 

Maury, Matthew Fredericksville Fredericksville.... 1794 

Maury, J. A King William Powhatan 1842 

Maury, Thompson Charlottesville 1863 

Maury, Magruder, chaplain 1864 

May, James (D. D.) Theological Sem ry 1843 

May, G. S Christ Church Lancaster 1869 

Mayer, G. W 1860 

Mayo, Charles J. S. (ass t)...St. John s Hampton 1881 

McCabe, John C Newport Isle of Wight 1848 

McCabe, James D Holston Washington 1847 

McCarty, J. B St. John s Hampton 1870 

McCormick, M. T 1871 

McCroskey, Samuel S Hungar s Northampton 1785 

McBryde, R. J Lexington Amherst 1870 

McDonough, A. A Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1873 

McElroy Agent Bible Soc y Staunton 1841 

McFarland, Alex Shelburne Loudoun 1796 

McFarland, Malcolm Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1842 

McGillJohn Chaplain (C. S. A.) 1863 

McGuire, Edward C St. George s Fredericksburg... 1815 

McGuire, John P St. Ann s Essex 1826 

McGuire, Francis B Christ Church Lancaster 1837 

McGuire, E. B Meherrin Greensville 1843 

McGuire, William Cople & Washing n.... Westmoreland 1848 

Mcllhinney, J. J. (D. D.) Theological Sem ry 1873 

McKim, R. H Chaplain (C S. A.) 1863 

McLure, Edward Cornwall Charlotte 1872 

McMechen, James M Officiating in Wood 1840 

McNabb, John St. Thomas Abingdon 1877 

McNaughton, Daniel Christ Church Lancaster 1796 

358 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. 

McNaughton, Duncan St. Stephen s Northumberland.. 1805 

Mead, Zachariah St. Anne s Albemarle 1830 

Meade, William Christ Church Alexandria 1812 

Meade, William H. (ass t)...Christ Church Charlottesville .... 1863 

Meade, Everard South Farnham Tappahannock 1877 

Meade, F. A Newport Isle ofWight 1875 

Mee, C. B St. Mark s Kanawha 1872 

Meredith, W. C Tillotson Cumberland 1847 

Meredith,]. M Aquia Stafford 1868 

Micklejohn, John Mecklenburg 1818 

Miller, Benjamin M St. Paul s Church Norfolk 1839 

Minnigerode, Charles Wm. & Mary Col ge..Williamsburg 1846 

Minnigerode, J. G St. Paul s Rappahannock.... 1873 

Minor, Launcelot B Africa 1838 

Mitchell, William H St. George s Accomac 1835 

Mitchell, J. A Cornwall Charlotte 1864 

Mitcheson, R. M Missionary in Norfolk ~ 1850 

Moore, James St. John s Wheeling 1860 

Morris, Charles Ashland Hanover 1877 

Morris, James St. Bride s Norfolk I79 1 

Morrison, J. Horace Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1839 

Mortimer, George E Northam Goochland 1863 

Morrow, W. B St. John s Wheeling 1868 

Mower, B. F St. Andrew s Brunswick 1855 

Munford, William Ware Gloucester 1878 

Murdaugh, E. C Brandon Prince George 1855 

Murray, E. W St. John s Church Prince George 1856 

Nash, Sylvester Hampshire Hampshire 1824 

Nash, F. B St. Mark s Kanawha 1845 

Nash, R. S Christ Church Lancaster 1850 

Nelson, George W Banister Pittsylvania 1875 

Nelson, C. K Trinity Nelson 1840 

Nelson, Robert Grace : Lexington 1846 

Nelson, William M St. Ann s Albemarle 1853 

Nelson, Kinloch Leeds Fauquier 1869 

Nelson, G.W N. Farnham Richmond co 1835 

Nelson, Peter St. Martin s Hanover 1789 

Newell, Chester Chaplain U. S. N 1842 

Newman, Lewis C Missionary in Richmond city 1856 

Newton, John B South Farnham Essex 1872 

Nock, Joseph A St. John s Charleston 1868 


Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Jorris, Alexander Westover Charles City 1834 

Norris, Oliver Christ Church Alexandria 1814 

Northam, Robt. E Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1837 

Norton, G. H Hamilton Fauquier 1847 

Norwood, Wm.(ass t) Monumental Richmond 1837 

Norwood, John J St. John s Hampton 1872 

Nowlin, R. W ...Lexington Amherst 1857 

Nugent, Theophilus St. George Accomac 1786 

O Donnell, John Washington Westmoreland 1796 

Okeson, N. A St. John s Prince George 1847 

O Neil, Charles St. Thomas Orange 1797 

Osgood, Nahum G Moore Campbell 1829 

Overby, Alexander Vauter s Church Essex 1874 

Packard, Thomas J.. Roanoke Halifax 1881 

Packard, Joseph Theological Sem ry 1838 

Page, John E St. Stephen s Culpeper 1838 

Page, Carter Hanover 1848 

Page, James J Missionaryin Richmond city 1852 

Page, Charles H Kanawha 1823 

Page, C. Randolph Ravenswood Jackson J 873 

Page, Frank Officiating in Fairfax 1879 

Parker, Ira Christ Church Lancaster 1824 

Parks, M. P Christ Church Norfolk 1837 

Payne, John Missionary to Africa 1838 

Pearson, Charles C Whittle Fauquier 1880 

Peet, Edward W .St. Paul s King George 1829 

Pendleton, W. N Prof sor Newark CoL.Delaware 1838 

Pendleton, W. H Botetourt Botetourt 1844 

Penick, C. C Emmanuel Goodson 1870 

Penick, Edwin A Officiating in Princess Anne 1878 

Perkins, E. T Missionary to Parkersburg 1848 

Perkins, Wm..S Wickliffe Clarke 1858 

Peterkin, Joshua Wickliffe ....Clarke 1851 

Peterkin, George W. (ass t). St. James Richmond 1869 

Phelps, Gerard W St. Paul s Suffolk 1872 

Phillips, John Cumberland Lunenburg 1829 

Phillipsjohn St. Martin s Hanover 1815 

Phillips, R. H Virginia Female Ins..Staunton 1850 

Phillips, S. H Abingdon Gloucester 1869 

Phillips, Henry L Winchester 1871 

Phillips, P. P Grace Church Berryville 1880 

360 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Platt, Wm. H St. Paul s Petersburg 1856 

Points, J. T St. Peter s New Kent 1857 

Poindexter, J. E 1870 

Polk, Leonidas (ass t) Monumental Richmond city .... 1831 

Pollard, J. H. M Officiating in Alexandria 1879 

Powell, John D Wickliffe Clarke 1855 

Powers, William H. H Whittle Fauquier 1873 

Powers, Pike (ass t) St. Paul s Richmond city 1874 

Prestman, Stephen W Dumfries Prince William 1823 

Price, James Abingdon Gloucester 1791 

Prout, Robert Princess Anne 1823 

Randolph, Charles E Kingston Matthews.... 1877 

Randolph, A. M. (ass t) St. George Fredericksburg ... 1859 

Ravenscroft, John S St. James Mecklenburg 1817 

Rawson, James (D. D.) Hungar s Northampton 1851 

Reed,B. E Brandon, &c Prince George 1869 

Reed, J. B. T Winchester 1867 

Reed, Theodore Christ Church Loudoun 1876 

Reynolds, John St. Ann s Essex 1820 

Reynolds, John H Hardy 1796 

Richmond, J. B Christ Church Lancaster 1845 

Ridout, Samuel St. Ann s Albemarle ,.. 1860 

Robertson, John J Norborne Berkeley 1822 

Robinson, Needier St. Bride s ....Norfolk 1787 

Robertson, Christopher Cumberland Lunenburg 1796 

Robert, P. G Meherrin Greensville 1851 

Roberts, S. C } Missionary in S. E. f g6 

J Convocation I 

Rodman, E. M St. James , &c Mecklenburg 1855 

Rodefer, C. P Chaplain C. S. A 1863 

Roller, Robert D St. Martin s Hanover 1877 

Rooker, W. Y Kingston Matthews 1842 

Rowling, J. H Amherst . . 1868 

Rumney, T. S Cople Westmoreland 1850 

Russell, J. A St. Paul s KingGeorge 1853 

Sale, Nelson Amherst Amherst 1836 

Sams, J. Julius Meade Memorial Manchester 1874 

Saul, James (ass t) St. Paul s Richmond city 1861 

Saunders, John H Southam Powhatan 1785 

Sawyer, Julien E Alexandria 1837 

Scott, F. G Officiating in .Orange 1875 

CLERGY SINCE 1785. 361 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Scott, H. Roy St. Paul s KingGeorge 1860 

Semple, James St. Peter s New Kent 1785 

Seward.John St. Stephen s Northumberland... 1796 

Sewell, Wm St. James Prince William 1837 

Sharp, Henry T St. Paul s Weston 1870 

Shields, J. W., (ass t) St. Johns Richmond city 1875 

Shield, Charles H Bloomfield Rappahannock .... 1850 

Shield, Samuel St. Asaph s Caroline 1785 

Shiras, Alexander Wickliffe Clarke 1840 

Simpson Lynnhaven Princess Ann 1785 

Skyring, William St. John s King William 1785 

Slack, S. R Fredericksville Albemarle 1849 

Slaughter, Phillip Dettingen & Leeds. ..Prince William.... 1835 

Smith, Aristides Petersburg 1841 

Smith, Armstead Kingston Gloucester 1793 

Smith, Benjamin B , St. George s Accomac 1821 

Smith, Franklin G St. Paul s Lynchburg 1825 

Smith, George A Christ Church Norfolk 1825 

Smith, Thomas Newport Isle of Wight 1837 

Smith, Joshua Africa 1840 

Smith, George A Fairfax Institute Alexandria 1840 

Smith, Leonidas Norfolk 1843 

Smith, Jonathan Newport Isle of Wight 1845 

Smith, Thompson L St. John s Kanawha 1855 

Smith, Joseph H St. John s Wheeling 1858 

Smythe, Thomas H St. Paul s , Lewis 1857 

Sothoron, Levin J Cumberland Lunenburg 1873 

Sparrow, Wm. (D. D.) Theological Sem ry 1841 

Spencer, Thomas (ass t) Grace Petersburg 1877 

Spierin, George St. Asaph s Caroline 1796 

Spooner, John J Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1790 

Sprigg, D. F Meherrin Greensville 1847 

Steel, William Dettingen Prince William.... 1816 

Stewart, Annesley 1832 

Stephens, Daniel Augusta Staunton 1820 

Stephenson, James St. Mark s Culpeper 1785 

Steel, William St. James Mecklenburg 1837 

Steptoe, C. Y St. Mark s Culpeper 1870 

Stewart, K. J St. Paul s KingGeorge 1856 

Stewart, William G St. Mark s Kanawha 1868 

Strebeck, George St. George s Spotsylvania 1812 

362 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Stringfellow, Horace ......... Frederick Frederick 1836 

Stringfellow, Horace, Jr St. John s Harper s Ferry.... 1851 

Stringfellow, Frank St. Luke s, &c Powhatan 1877 

Stringfellow, J. H Meade- Memorial Ch. Manchester 1879 

Suter, Henderson Grace Clarke 1859 

Sutton, George C Officiating in.... Petersburg 1877 

Swift, Job Sidney (miss y) .. 1832 

Syle, E. W Missionary to China 1845 

Syme, Andrew Bristol Dinwiddie 1837 

Syme, Andrew South Farnham Essex 1792 

Taliaferro, Charles C Cumberland Lunenburg 1832 

Talley, Elkanah... St. Paul s Hanover 1789. 

Taylor, James.... St. Asaph s Caroline 1787 

Taylor, Richard Truro Fairfax 1821 

Temple, H. W. L Essex 1842 

Tennant, J. C St. James Accomac 1858 

Thornton, Thomas Brunswick Stafford 1785 

Thompson, C. W West Russell Bedford 1847 

Thompson, P. D Charlotte 1865 

Tidball, T. A Trinity Portsmouth 1873 

Tinsley, Peter, (chaplain) 1862 

Tizzard, A. B Goochland 1847 

Tompkins, S. D Moore Campbell 1842 

Tongue, Thomas O Missionary to Wheeling 1871 

Totten, Silas D. (D. D.) William & Mary CoLWilliarnsburg 1852 

Towles.John New Kent 1838 

Treadway, Amos C Lynchburg 1823 

Tucker, Wright Bath Dinwiddie 1805 

Tucker, Dallas Christ Church Richmond 1873 

Tucker, Beverly D Lunenburg Richmond county, 1874 

Turner, Byrd T. (ass t) St. James Mecklenburg 1879 

Turner, Job Miss y to Deaf Mutes 1880 

Tyler,Jo,D {a P nTi P u a lLs D y ^}staun t on },8 4O 

Tyng, Dudley A Zion Jefferson 1851 

Ufford, J. Hungar s Northampton 1844 

Vere, William St. George s Accomac 1790 

Wade, Anderson (M. D.).... Patrick Henry 1848 

Walke, Anthony Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1790 

Walke, Lewis St. Paul s King George 1845 

Wall, Edward (ass t) St. James Richmond 1875 

CLERGY SINCE 1785. 363 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Wall, Henry Grace Church Caroline 1853 

Walker, A. R Leeds Fauquier 1867 

Walker, C Lexington Amherst 1846 

Walker, Charles D Lexington Amherst 1876 

Walker, W. W Wickliffe Clarke 1879 

Waller, William J. (M. D)...St. Ann s Albemarle 1846 

Ward, Edward H Missionary to.. Petersburg 1874 

Ward, H. W .....Kanawha Kanawha 1845 

Ward, William N Clarksburg Harrison 1835 

Ware, Albert St. Stephen s Bedford 1877 

Ware, J. W Hungar s Northampton 1879- 

Ware, S. S Officiating in Halifax 1879 

Waugh, Abner St. Mary s Caroline 1791 

Webb, Wellington E Missionary to Goochland 1846 

Weddell, A. W Emanuel Harrisonburg 1871 

Weed, Ambler St. George s Accomac 1847 

Wellman, Edwin H Officiating in Accomac i88r 

Wharton, D. M Russell Bedford 1835 

Wharton, John A Officiating in Bedford 1847 

Wharton, Lyman Cornwall Charlotte 1859 

West, Officiating in Kanawha 1844 

Whitehead, Alexander Elizabeth River Norfolk 1789 

Whitehead, James Elizabeth River Elizabeth River... 1797 

Wheat, J. A. (ass t) Trinity..... Staunton 1851 

White, J.Campbell 1851 

White, Robb Wythe Wythe 1876 

Whittle, F. M Kanawha Kanawha 1848 

Wickes, William Christ Church Norfolk 1824 

Wilcoxon, H. T.... Newport Isle of Wight 1851 

Williams, W. W St. James Leesburg 1859 

Williams, George T St. Paul s Suffolk 1860 

Williams, J. H St. John s Fairfax 1869 

Willing, M.E Norfolk 1867 

Wilmer,Simon Hungar s Northampton 1821 

Wilmer, Wm. H Fairfax Alexandria 1814 

Wilmer, R. H St. Paul s Goochland 1839. 

Wilmer, George T Botetourt Botetourt 1846 

Wilmer, Joseph P. B St. Ann s Albemarle 1835 

Wilson, Francis Washington Westmoreland 1785 

Winchester, Thomas W St. George Accomac 1843 

Winchester, Jas. R. (ass t)...St. James Richmond city 1878- 

364 CLERGY SINCE 1785. 

Clergyman. Parish. County. Date. 

Wingfield, John H Antrim Halifax 1821 

Wingfield, J. H. D. (ass t)... Trinity Portsmouth 1859 

Winn, D. Watson { Officiating in } "Sj^fuSS } 88 

Wise, Henry A. {ass t) St. James Richmond city.... 1859 

Withers, Edmund Albemarle Sussex 1844 

Woart, J. Loring 1832 

Woodbridge, George Christ Church Richmond city 1834 

Woodville, John St. George Spotsylvania 1791 

Woodville, John W St. Mark s Culpeper 1835 

Woods, H. W Missionary to China 1845 

Woods, John Trinity Moundsville 1865 

Wroth, Peregrine Kingston Mathews 1873 

Wroth, Edward W., Jr Trinity Rappahannock.... 1876 

Wydown, Samuel S St. Martin s Hanover 1819 

Young, George Lunenburg Richmond county, 1797 

Zimmer, William J St. George Accomac 1855 


Lay-man, Parish. County. Date. 

Abbott, William R St. Stephen s Bedford 1874 

Adams, Dr. John Henrico Henrico 1813 

Adams, Francis Christ Church Alexandria 1816 

Adams, Samuel G Henrico Henrico 1817 

Adams, Richard H Montgomery Montgomery 1878 

Addison, E. B St. James Richmond city 1876 

Adkisson, Jesse Epiphany Danville 1861 

Aisquith, Grandison Christ Church Alexandria 1819 

Alexander, Charles H Shelburne Loudoun 1825 

Alexander, Gerard Russell Bedford 1827 

Alexander, Gus. B St. Paul King George 1832 

Alexander, William F Christ Church Alexandria 1834 

Alexander, William Brunswick King George 1797 

Alexander, Lawrence G Dettingen Prince William 1817 

Allen, William Southwark Surry 1789 

Allen, Thomas G Aquia Stafford 1815 

Allen, Benjamin St. Andrew s Jefferson 1816 

Allen, John J St. Paul s Lynchburg 1868 

Allen, G. R. C Christ Church Clarksburg 1853 

Allman, Albert Henrico Henrico 1821 

Allmand, John .Christ Church Norfolk 1845 

Ambler, Thomas M Moore Campbell 1830 

Ambler, Thomas M Leeds Fauquier 1838 

Ambler, John James City James City 1790 

Ambler, Thomas Henrico Henrico 1818 

Ambler, John J St. Thomas Orange 1854 

Ambler, Charles E St. Thomas Frederick 1848 

Ambler, Richard C Leeds Fauquier 1852 

Ambler, P. St. George Lexington Amherst 1856 

Amiss, William H Bloomfield Madison 1875 

Anderson, Matthew Petsworth Gloucester. 1785 

Anderson, Bartlett St. Paul s Hanover 1785 

Anderson, Garland St. Martin s Hanover 1786 

Anderson, S. W Christ Church Bath 1874 

Anderson, Richard St. James Powhatan 1850 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Anderson, Joseph R St. Paul Richmond city 1859 

Anderson, Robert N Nelson Nelson 1859 

Anderson, Richard Westover Charles City 1877 

Andrews, M. Page Trinity Shepherdstown.... 1869 

Apperson, John C St. Peter s New Kent 1852 

Archer, Abraham York-Hampton York 1789 

Archer, Richard F King William Powhatan 1875 

Armistead, W. S St. John s Elizabeth City 1828 

Armistead, A Accomac Accomac 1786 

Arthur, Joseph Norborne Berkeley 1834 

Ashton,JohnN.,Jr Trinity Portsmouth 1852 

Ashton, Burditt Hanover King George 1785 

Ashlin, Robert W Rivanna Fluvanna 1859 

Atkinson, Roger B Cumberland Lunenburg 1831 

Atkinson, Thomas Cumberland Lunenburg 1835 

Atkinson, J. W Monumental Richmond city 1856 

Atkinson, B. M Cumberland Lunenburg 1861 

Avery, Isaac Hungar s Northampton 1790 

Ayres, George C Camden Pittsylvania 1877 

Bacon, Edmond P Cumberland Lunenburg 1805 

Bacon, John L Christ Church Richmond city 1841 

Bailey, Samuel M St. James Richmond city 1863 

Baker, Hilary Christ Church Richmond city 1831 

Baker Jerman Dale Chesterfield 1787 

Baker, Richard Upper Suffolk Nansemond 1785 

Baker, J. M Raleigh Amelia 1856 

Baker, R. H., Jr St. Paul s Norfolk 1865 

Ball, James Christ Church Lancaster 1789 

Ball, David Wicomico Northumberland.. 1787 

Ball, Wm. Lee Wicomico Northumberland.. 1813 

Ball, Joseph Wicomico Northumberland.. 1813 

Baldwin, Dr. C Christ Church Winchester 1868 

Banister, Dr. Monroe Raleigh Amelia 1873 

Bankhead, William..... Grace Caroline 1846 

Banum, Richard Ware Gloucester 1805 

Barbour, Thomas St. Thomas Orange 1785 

Barbour, B.Johnson Green Spring Louisa 1860 

Bargamin, A Grace Richmond city 1875 

Barksdale, George A St. Paul s Richmond city 1873 

Barksdale, John Antrim Halifax 1840 

Barnes, Richard Lunenburg Richmond 1797 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Barnes, Henry L Bloomfield Madison 1836 

Barrett, John B Wythe Wythe 1865 

Barraud, Otway B St. Paul s Norfolk 1841 

Barr, W. F , St. Thomas Abingdon 1867 

Barren, Samuel St. John s Richmond county. 1876 

Barton, W. S St. George s ..Fredericksburg... 1867 

Barton, David W St. Thomas Middletown 1846 

Barton, Dr. H. F - Clarke Clarke 1856 

Baskervill, H. E. C St. Paul s Richmond 1869 

Baskervill,W. R St. James Mecklenburg 1860 

Bassett, Burwell Bruton Williamsburg 1821 

Bassett, Burwell Blisland New Kent 1785 

Bassett, Burwell Blissland New Kent 1785 

Bassett, George W St. George s Fredericksburg.... 1832 

Bastable, George M St. Stephen s Fauquier 1880 

Batten, C. N St. Paul s Suffolk 1880 

Baughman, Charles C Christ Church Richmond city 1878 

Baxter, William E St. John s Brooke 1870 

Bayley, William M Cumberland Lunenburg 1842 

Baylor, John R Trinty Church Caroline 1858 

Baylor, Colonel R W Zion Charlestown 1867 

Baylor, John St. Asaph Caroline 1787 

Bayne, Walter D St. George s Accomac 1836 

Beacham, Abraham St. Stephen s Northumberland.. 1796 

Beale, John Y Zion Charlestown 1860 

Beall, Reuben Bromfield Culpeper 1785 

Beall, Upton Grace Church Caroline 1835 

Beatty, Thomas B Shelburne Loudoun 1827 

Beckwith, Thomas S., Jr Grace Church Petersburg 1872 

Bell, James M,. St. Stephen s Culpeper 1835 

Bentley, William Southam Powhatan 1805 

Berkeley, Nelson St. Margaret s Caroline 1828 

Berkeley, Parke F Antrim Halifax 1829 

Berkeley, Dr. Edmond St. Margaret s Caroline 1842 

Berkeley, Lewis T Shelburne Loudoun 1832 

Berkeley, Edward Berkeley Spotsylvania 1833 

Berkeley, Lewis St. James Leesburg 1841 

Berkeley, William Henrico Henrico 1799 

Berkeley, Lewis Frederick Frederick 1816 

Berkeley, Carter N St. Martin s Hanover 1799 

Berkeley, Landon C Cople Westmoreland .... 1850 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Berkeley, Lewis Dettingen Prince William 1818 

Berkeley, Landon C, Jr Trinity Rappahannock 1872 

Berkeley, R. C Trinity Monongalia 1877 

Berkeley, Col. N Montgomery Montgomery 1877 

Berkeley, Carter N Raleigh Amelia 1878 

Berry, Taylor Lexington Amherst 1868 

Besye, Isaac Wicomico Northumberland.. 1790 

Beveridge, John W St. Mark s Richmond 1870 

Beverley, Robert St. Ann s Essex 1785 

Beverley, Robert Whittle Fauquier 1875 

Birckhead, Dr. E. F Buck Mt Church Albemarle 1877 

Bird.H.D Grace Petersburg 1879 

Blackford, Benjamin Beckford Shenandoah 1816 

Blackford, William M Norborne Berkeley 1827 

Blair, John Bruton James City 1785 

Bland, Edward Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1790 

Blackford, C. M St. Paul s Lynchburg 1867 

Blackford, L. M Nelson Nelson 1867 

Blackford, William M East Russell Bedford 1847 

Blake, Benjamin R St. Paul s Hanover 1852 

Blair, William Raleigh Amelia 1866 

Bland, Richard Nottoway Nottoway 1793 

Blankenship, W. S Meade Memorial Manchester 1876 

Blunt, Benjamin St. Luke s Southampton 1786 

Blume, John A Christ Church Bath 1870 

Bogart, G. W St. James Cumberland 1876 

Boggs, Hugh L St. John s Spotsylvania 1878 

Boggs, Lewis A Berkeley Spotsylvania 1834 

Boiling, Thomas Dale Chesterfield 1797 

Boiling, William H Wythe Wythe 1876 

Boiling, Robert Bristol Prince George 1785 

Boiling, William St. James -Northam..Goochland 1827 

Boiling, Philip A Tillotson Buckingham 18^9 

Boiling, Robert Bristol Prince George ... 1831 

Boiling, R P Meade Fauquier 1859 

Boiling, R. B Meade Fauquier 1865 

Bondurant, George Tillotson Buckingham 1881 

Bonham, Robert C St. Matthew s Wheeling 1852 

Booth, Dr. E. G Nottoway Nottoway 1871 

Bouldin, Thomas T St. Thomas Orange 1835 

Bouldin R B Meade Fauquier 1865 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Bouldin, Thomas T Cornwall Charlotte 1872 

Bourdon, Thomas C Bath Dinwiddie 1877 

Boush, John Elizabeth River Norfolk 1789 

Bossieux, Cyrus St. John s Richmond city 1881 

Bowen, Henry W St. Mark s Botetourt 1844 

Bowen, Fordyce F Henrico Henrico 1826 

Bowie, John St. Paul s Hanover 1797 

Boyle, Thomas M St. Margaret s Caroline 1838 

Boyle, Thomas M Johns Loudoun 1853. 

Brackenridge, Botetourt Botetourt 1797 

Bradford, S. S St. Stephen s Culpeper 1850 

Bradley, James A Southwark Surry 1791 

Brady, S St. Matthew s Wheeling 1876 

Bramham, B. W St. John s Louisa 1845 

Branham, John B Lunenburg Richmond county, 1834 

Braxton, Carter St. John s King William 1785 

Braxton, Carter, Jr St. John s New Kent 1792 

Braxton, E. M North Farnham Richmond county, 1859 

Breckenridge, John B Augusta Staunton 1832 

Breckinridge, Gary St. Thomas Botetourt 1849 

Brend, Alexander Littleton Cumberland 1797 

Brent, Dr. A. L Falls Church Fairfax 1850 

Brice, Archibald St. James -Northam..Goochland 1790 

Bridges, David Grace Richmond] 1880 

Britton, H. C Martin s-Bran n,&c...Prince George 1880 

Broadus, William St. Mark s Culpeper 1805 

Brock, Joseph St. George s Spotsylvania 1785 

Brockenbrough, Newman...South Farnham Essex 1785 

Brockenbrough, Dr.W.S. R.Cople Westmoreland .... 1841 

Brockenbrough, John W.... Grace Lexington 1843 

Brockenbrough, W. A North Farnham Richmond county, 1851 

Brockenbrough, J. B Grace Lexington 1860- 

Broadnax, David W St. Andrew s Brunswick 1843 

Brodnax, W. E St. Andrew s Brunswick J 794 

Brodnax, Alexander St. Andrew s Brunswick 1831 

Brodnax, General W. H....Bath Dinwiddie 1828 

Brooke, F. E Grace Church Caroline 1856 

Brooke, William H St. Ann s Essex 1846 

Brooks, Dr. J. N... St. Paul s .-; Lynchburg 1839 

Brooks, John N St. Thomas Middletown 1840 

Brown, Henry Blissland New Kent 1799- 



Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Brown, James St. Andrew s Jefferson 1832 

Brown, Alexander Nelson Nelson 1833 

Brown, William Hanover King George 1843 

Brown, Hiram D St. Matthews Wheeling 1858 

Brown, Dr. A. P Meade Fauquier 1873 

Brown, Dr. Hugh Emmanuel Albemarle 1874 

Brown, R. T Zion Charlestown 1874 

Brown, John Thompson Nelson Nelson 1876 

Brown, A. L Meade Fauquier 1879 

Browne, William James City James City 1794 

Browne, William Bruton Williamsburg 1827 

Brower, Dr. D. R Bruton Williamsburg 1873 

Browning, John A Bloomfield... Madison 1869 

Bruce, John Christ Church Winchester 1838 

JBryan, Dr. C. P Grace Church Pocahontas 1874 

Bryan, John R Ware Gloucester 1843 

Bryan, Joseph Emmanuel Henrico 1872 

Bryce, William M St. James Goochland 1849 

Buford, Thomas Cumberland Lunenburg 1785 

Buford, R. D St. John s Bedford 1861 

Buford, John Cumberland Lunenburg 1814 

Buford, Abraham St. Andrew s Brunswick 1840 

Burch, Thomas Christ Church Loudoun 1873 

Burks, Edward C Heber Bedford 1865 

Burns, Dr. A. P Emmanuel Church. ..Albemarle 1865 

Burrus, Dr. J. L Trinity Louisa 1869 

Burwell, Nathaniel St. David s King William 1790 

Burwell, Philip Frederick Frederick 1832 

Burwell, Thomas N Botetourt Botetourt 1834 

Burwell, Lewis St. James Mecklenburg 1785 

Burwell, Nathaniel St. David s King William 1790 

JBurwell, Dr. Philip Ravenswood Jackson 1874 

Butler, George C Grace Caroline 1848 

Butler, Charles T Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1850 

Butt, Robert B Trinity Portsmouth 1827 

Cabanis, Charles H Antrim Halifax 1839 

Cabell, William D Nelson Nelson 1858 

Cabell, William J St. Luke s Amherst 1851 

Calhoun, Charles H St. Paul s Lynehburg 1858 

Cameron, William Grace.... Petersburg 1863 

Cameron, William : Bristol Dinwiddie 1814 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Campbell, James Bristol Prince George 1790 

Campbell, Ferdinand Bruton Williamsburg 1815 

Campbell, James Washington Westmoreland .... 1822 

Campbell, W.W St. Luke s Powhatan 1880 

Campbell, Samuel J Grace Lexington 1866 

Cannell, Isaac St. Paul s Alexandria 1824 

Cannon, James G Emmanuel Pittsylvania 1874 

Cassell, V. O Portsmouth Portsmouth 1865 

Carey, Dudley Kingston Gloucester 1793 

Carey, Dr. Samuel. Ware Gloucester 1871 

Carmichael, Daniel Washington Westmoreland 1814 

Carr, Dr. F St. Ann s Albemarle 1822 

Carr, Dr. Frank. Christ Church Charlottesville 1839 

Carraway, George A St. Paul s Norfolk 1840 

Carrington, Mayo Littleton Cumberland 1786 

Carrington, Edward Southam Powhatan 1789 

Carrington, Joseph Littleton Cumberland 1793 

Carrington, Codrington Littleton Cumberland 1812 

Carrington, George M St. John s Richmond city 1819 

Carrington,H Cornwall Charlotte 1856 

Carrington, Theo Raleigh Amelia 1859 

Carrington, H. C Cornwall Charlotte 1875 

Carrington, Isaac H Banister Pittsylvania 1864 

Carter, Charles Overwharton Stafford 1785 

Carter, H. L Banister Pittsylvania 1860 

Carter, Charles Westover Charles City 1789 

Carter, Robert W Lunenburg Richmond county, 1815 

Carter, Raleigh D Christ Church Lancaster 1847 

Carter, Robert H St. Ann s Albemarle 1849 

Carter, Dr. Charles Christ Church Charlottesville 1854 

Carter, A. L Christ Church Lancaster 1857 

Carter, Robert Westover Charles City 1877 

Carter, W. Fitzhugh Westover Charles City 1879 

Carter, AddisonB Meade Fauquier 1869 

Carter, Hill Westover Charles City 1871 

Cary, Archibald Dale Chesterfield 1785 

Gary, Richard Warwick Warwick 1785 

Cary, Wilson Miles Elizabeth City Elizabeth City 1785 

Cary, Dr.S Abingdon Gloucester 1856 

Cary, Charles E Ware Gloucester 1876 

Catlett, R. G. R St. Peter s Port Royal 1845 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Catlett, R. H Grace Church Lexington 1857 

Catlett, N. P Trinity Staunton 1858 

Catlett, G.W St. Peter s Port Royal 1859 

Cazenove, William G Christ Church Alexandria 1867 

Chalmers, William M St. Stephen s Bedford 1872 

Chamblin, Chas. T St. James Leesburg 1870 

Chamberlayne, Ed. P St. John s King William 1799 

Chambliss, George F St. Andrew s Brunswick 1850 

Chapline, Isaac Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1832 

Chapman, William J Christ Church Norfolk 1842 

Chase, Moses B Portsmouth Norfolk 1821 

Chase, W. T Christ Church Lancaster 1873 

Cheatham, Matthew Manchester Chesterfield 1815 

Cheatwood, Daniel St. Luke s Amherst 1876 

Chesewood, Hiram Trinity Bedford 1852 

Chew, S. J Leeds Prince William.... 1881 

Chewning, James Christ Church Middlesex 1821 

Chewning, John Christ Church Lancaster 1838 

Chilton, William Leeds Fauquier 1797 

Chinn, Bart C North Farnham Richmond county, 1834 

Chinn, Jos. W North Farnham Richmond county, 1871 

Christian, S. B St. Luke s Amherst 1874 

Christian, J. D St. Peter s New Kent 1860 

Claggett, Henry Shelburne Loudoun 1829 

Claggett, Thomas H St. James Leesburg 1843 

Claggett, H. O St. James Leesburg 1875 

Claiborne, Thomas Meherrin Greensville 1785 

Claiborne, William D St. John s King and Queen.. 1787 

Claiborne, Dr. James W..... Grace Petersburg 1874 

Claiborne, John H St. James Richmond 1875 

Clapham, Josias Shelburne Loudoun 1819 

Clark, Dr. A. J Grace Church Lynchburg 1877 

Clark, W. T Epiphany Danville 1873 

Clark, George W St. Luke s Halifax 1835 

Clark, William Antrim Halifax 1828 

Clark, W. L Christ Church Winchester 1845 

Clark, Charles A Roanoke Halifax 1845 

Clark, John T Antrim Halifax 1830 

Clark, George W { St c ^g^. ^ } Halifax 1876 

Clarke, William L Christ Church Winchester 1870 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Claughton, William St. Stephen s Northumberland.. 1797 

Claxton, J. W Fairfax Fairfax 1854 

Clay, Junius A Tillotson Buckingham 1829 

Close, James A Tillotson Buckingham 1836 

Coakeley, John St. George s Fredericksburg.... 1857 

Cobbs.JohnC Trinity Bedford 1851 

Cochran, Dr. William B Johns Loudoun 1864 

Cocke, E. R Leighton Cumberland 1875 

Cocke, J. Preston St. James Richmond city 1875 

Cocke, Thomas L. P Leighton Cumberland 1867 

Cocke, Harrison H Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1854 

Coffield, William St. Paul s Suffolk 1828 

Coke, W. W Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1881 

Cole, John Meherrin Greensville 1843 

Cole, Robert Bruton Williamsburg 1846 

Cole, William H Grace Petersburg 1873 

Coleman, Thomas G Camden Pittsylvania 1833 

Coleman, Gordon Antrim Halifax 1828 

Coleman, J Antrim Halifax 1790 

Coleman, Henry E Antrim Halifax , 1792 

Coleman, Daniel St. Margaret s Caroline 1797 

Coleman, Dr. Charles W.... Bruton Williamsburg 1880 

Coleman, Henry E Antrim Halifax 1837 

Coles, Walter St. Ann s Albemarle 1831 

Coles, John B ..St. Ann s Albemarle 1836 

Coles, Tucker St. Ann s Albemarle 1822 

Colston, Raleigh Fredericksville Albemarle 1852 

Colston, Edward Norborne Berkeley 1822 

Conrad, D. H Trinity . Martinsburg 1853 

Conway, John F Bloomfield Madison 1834 

Conway, H. R Aquia Stafford 1860 

Conway, G. S Bloomfield Madison 1854 

Conway, Dr. C. C Emmanuel Culpeper 1877 

Cook, Dr. James St. Peter s Caroline 1865 

Cooke, Giles P Christ Church Norfolk 1836 

Cooke, Dr. A. M St. Paul s Norfolk 1848 

Cooke, James C St. Martin s Hanover 1868 

Corbin, Gawin L York Hampton York 1799 

Corbyn, S. Wellford Brunswick King George 1880 

Corbyn, Francis Christ Church Middlesex 1792 

Cordelle, L. C Zion Charlestown 1866 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Corse, General M. D St. Paul s Alexandria 1875 

Corse,]. D St. Paul s Alexandria 1859 

Cosby, Dabney Antrim Halifax 1850 

Cosby, John Antrim Halifax 1858 

Cosby, Charles E Rivanna Fluvanna 1877 

Cotton, Dr. John T St. John s Kanawha 1876 

Cox, Peter P Cople Westmoreland 1815 

Cox, Fleet W Cople Westmoreland 1858 

Craighill, Nathaniel St. Andrew s Jefferson 1819 

Craighill, R. T St. Paul s Lynchburg 1869 

Craven, John H Fredericksville Albemarle 1837 

Crease, Anthony Christ Church Alexandria 1813 

Crenshall, Colonel John Heber Bedford 1854 

Crenshaw, John... West Russell Bedford 1842 

Crenshaw, Joseph Westover Charles City 1868 

Croxton, Richard South Farnham Essex 1825 

Crutchfield, Robert St. John s Spotsylvania 1839^ 

Cunningham, Dr. John A. ..St. James -Northam..Goochland 1840 

Cunningham, Richard H....St. James Culpeper 1843 

Curd, John St. James 1805 

Currie, Dr. Ellyson A Christ Church Lancaster 1840 

Curtis, GeorgeD Trinity Marshall 1870 

Cuthbert, James E St. Paul s Petersburg 1878 

Dabney, Chiswell Emmanuel Pittsylvania 1881 

Dabney, Aug. L Ware & Abingdon... Gloucester 1827 

Dabney, J. B Moore Campbell 1854 

Dabney,. Robert K St. James Powhatan 1843 

Dabney, William St. David s King William 1796 

Dade, C. J St. Paul s King George 1814 

Dade, Lee Cotocton Church Loudoun 1874 

Dade, Townsend St. Paul s King George 1785 

Dangerfield, Henry W Christ Church Mathews 1848 

Dangerfield, John South Farnham Essex 1817 

Dangerfield, John E Wickliffe Clarke 1842 

Dangerfield, Leroy P Christ Church Bath 1867 

Dangerfield, Frederick Frederick 1834 

Daniel, J St. Thomas Orange 1790 

Darby, Nathaniel Hungar s Northampton 1796 

Davenport, William Wicomico Northumberland.. 1799 

Davidson, B. W Tillotson Buckingham 1859 

Davies, Henry L Lexington Amherst 1833 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Davies, Samuel D St. James Richmond 1879 

Davies, J. J Dettingen Prince William 1880 

Davies, Mayo Russell Bedford 1863 

Davis, Beverly Lexington Amherst 1828- 

Davis, Robert J Grace... Lynchburg 1878 

Davis, F. Eugene St. Paul s Petersburg 1879= 

Davis, Eugene Christ Church Charlottesville 1852 

Davis, J. A. G Christ Church... Winchester 1840- 

Davis, Peter B St. Paul s Petersburg 1853 

Davis, William F Monumental Richmond 1854 

Dawson, George W St. Ann s Albemarle 1868 

Dawson, J Berkeley Spotsylvania 1785 

Day, Benjamin St. George s Spotsylvania 1815 

Deane, James..... Littleton Cumberland 1794 

Deneale, George Christ Church Alexandria 1812 

Dennison, Henry Falls Church Fairfax 1843 

Derby, Charles A Truro Fairfax 1850 

Deshields, Henry C Wicomico , Northumberland.. 1878^ 

DeWitt, Thomas H St. James Richmond city 1847 

Dickinson, Wm. J Grace Church Caroline 1860 

Dickinson, Festus St. Margaret s Caroline 1827 

Digges, Edward Hamilton ...Fauquier 1818 

Digges, Ludwell Hamilton Fauquier 1832 

Diggs, William C St. Margaret s Caroline 1878 

Dillard, R. F St. Luke s Nottoway 1872 

Dixon, John A St. Paul s Alexandria 1872 

Dixon, John S Ware , Gloucester 1832 

Donaghe, W. W Trinity Staunton 1841 

Douthat, Robert Westover Charles City 1852: 

Dove, John Henrico Henrico 1825 

Downman, R. W Cedar Run Fauquier 1859 

Downman, Raleigh W Christ Church Lancaster 1794 

Downman, W. Y Christ Church Lancaster 1856 

Driver, John Upper Suffolk Nansemond 1791 

Drummond, William St. George s Accomac 1793 

Duffey, E. S Johns Loudoun 1871 

Dulany, Colonel R. H Meade Fauquier 1875 

Dunbar, Dr. P. W Galloway s Church... Nelson 1838 

Dunn, Thomas Grace Powhatan 1880 

Dunn, John St. Andrew s Brunswick 1796 

Dupuy, Linneus St. Paul s Lynchburg 1831 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Durfey, Goodrich Bruton Williamsburg 1848 

Duval, R. R St. James Richmond 1853 

Edmonds, Elias Hamilton Fauquier 1823 

Edmondson, John South Farnham Essex 1786 

Edmunds, Dr. John R Meade Fauquier 1845 

Edwards, William N Southard Surry 1857 

Edwards, Thomas W St. James Leesburg 1860 

Egerton, R. Oscar Grace Petersburg 1879 

Eley, William Suffolk Nansemond 1786 

Ellis, Richard S.Jr St. Peter s Buckingham 1849 

Ellis, Richards Lexington Amherst 1826 

Ellis, Thomas H 4 St. Paul s Church Richmond city 1847 

Ellis, Josiah Lexington Amherst 1789 

Emmerson, H. C Ashland Hanover 1869 

Entwisle, James, Jr Grace Church.., Alexandria 1856 

Eoff, Beverly M St. John s Wheeling 1870 

Eppes, Dr. Willie J Tillotson Buckingham 1846 

Eppes, J. S Merchants Hope Ch. Prince George 1856 

Eppes, Peter, Jr Cumberland Lunenburg 1799 

Estes, Joseph H Christ Church Richmond city 1879 

Estes, J. H Epiphany Danville 1868 

Eustace, W Christ Church Lancaster 1794 

Evans, Thomas D St. Marks Bedford 1877 

Ewell, B. C Bruton Williamsburg 1869 

Ewell, Jesse Dettingen Prince William .... 1785 

Fairfax, John Quantico Prince William.... 1880 

Fairfax, Dr. W. H Montross Westmoreland 1880 

Fairfax, Bryan Fairfax Fairfax 1785 

Fairfax, Henry Falls Church Fairfax 1840 

Fairfax, Dr. O St. Paul s Alexandria 1841 

Fairfax, Frederick Leeds Prince William.... 1843 

Farland, J.T South Farnham Essex 1874 

Fauntleroy, R. B St. Peter s New, Kent 1880 

Fenner B Merchants Hope Prince George 1880 

Ferguson, Austin H Westover Charles City 1848 

Ficklin, Joseph B St. George s Fredericksburg . . 1852 

Figgatt, C. M Grace Church Lexington 1881 

Finch, William T. L St. James Mecklenburg 1851 

Fisher, George D Monumental Richmond city 1849 



Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Fitzgerald, Robert Nottoway Nottoway 1794 

Fitzhugh, R. C Aquia Stafford 1867 

Fitzhugh, William Brunswick Stafford 1785 

Fitzhugh, Drury B St. Paul s King George 1853 

Fitzhugh, Burditt Ravenswood Jackson 1853 

Fitzhugh, Dr. Francis C St. Paul s King George 1831 

Fitzhugh, Austin Brunswick King George 1831 

Fleet, William St. Stephen s King and Queen.. 1796 

Fleming, William Manchester Chesterfield 1786 

Fleming, Tarlton St. James Goochland 1850 

Fletcher, Elijah Lexington Amherst 1816 

Floyd, Dr. Nathaniel Trinity Bedford 1849 

Fockler, Jacob Christ Church Winchester 1834 

Fontaine, Carter B Leeds Prince William.... 1823 

Fontaine, William St. Martin s Hanover 179 

Fontaine, Edmund St. Martin s Hanover 1835 

Foote, William Dettingten Prince William.... 1820 

Forbes, A St. Paul s Norfolk 1834 

Foster, Dr. N. K Christ Church Halifax 1871 

Foster, Patrick H Roanoke Fairfax 1839 

Foushee, William Henrico Henrico 1789 

Fowle, William H St. Paul s Alexandria 1845 

Fox, Charles J York-Hampton York 1848 

Fox, Thomas St. David s King William 1796 

Franklin, Thomas W Lamb s Creek King George 1877 

French, S. Bassett Manchester Manchester 1871 

Friend, Charles Grace Petersburg 1850 

Friend, Thomas Dale Chesterfield 1793 

Fryatt, Tillotson Norborne Berkeley 1820 

Funsten, David St. Paul s Alexandria 1861 

Fulwell, John J Hungar s Northampton 1791 

Gait, James St. James Northampton 1843 

Gait, William St. James Goochland 1845 

Gait, Alexander Christ Church Norfolk 1822 

Gait, W. R Trinity Church Botetourt 1854 

Gant, John W St. Ann s Albemarle 1840 

Gantt, Henry St. Ann s Albemarle 1854 

Garber, Albert J Trinity Staunton 1860 

Garber, William H Trinity Staunton 1847 

Gardner, John L St. John s Hampton 1836 

Garland, Samuel M Lexington Amherst 1860 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Garland, John St. Paul s Hanover 1794 

Garland, M. H St. Paul s Lynchburg 1838 

Garland, Daniel Lunenburg Richmond co 1835 

Garnett, Edgar M St. James Richmond city 1879 

Garnett, Thomas S St. Martin s Hanover 1863 

Garnett, Muscoe St. Anne s Essex 1827 

Garnett, James M St. Anne s Essex 1817 

Garnett, Robert S St. Anne s Essex 1817 

Garrett, B. F Christ Church Halifax 1856 

Garrett, Dr. R. M Bruton Williamsburg 1856 

Gaskins, Thomas Wicomico Northumberland.. 1785 

Gaskins, Richard Wicomico Northumberland.. 1805 

Gatewood, William South Farnham Essex 1792 

Gary, Adolphus Dale Chesterfield 1877 

Gee, James S St. John s Prince George 1841 

Gholson, Thomas S St. Paul s Petersburg 1856 

Gibboney, D. K Wythe Wythe 1874 

Gibbs, Charles R Bloomfield Madison 1835 

Gibson, Dr. William Grace Alexandria 1866 

Gibson, C. I St. Margaret s Caroline 1841 

Gibson, W. D Grace Richmond city 1871 

Gilchrist, Robert St. Mary s Caroline 1785 

Gilkeson, F. M Ridley Culpeper 1877 

Gill, Joseph Christ Church Richmond 1840 

Gilmer, W. W Fredericksville Albemarle 1857 

Gilmer, John Banister Pittsylvania 1877 

Gilliam, John Bristol Petersburg 1822 

Gilliam, Robert Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1843 

Gilliam, James S St. John s Church Prince George 1843 

Glen, John St. Stephen s Bedford 1876 

Godwin, John F Nelson Nelson 1875 

Godwin, Mills Suffolk Nansemond 1791 

Godwin, T. G Botetourt Botetourt 1859 

Gooch, John Nottoway Nottoway 1793 

Goodall, Park St. Paul s Hanover 1786 

Goode, Samuel ...St. James Mecklenburg 1786 

Goode, John Hamner Bedford 1862 

Goode, Colonel J. T St. James Mecklenburg 1876 

Goode, E. B St. James Mecklenburg 1877 

Goode, William O St. James Mecklenburg 1848 

Goodwin, John F St. Margaret s Caroline 1856 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Goodwin, George W Bath Dinwiddie.. i86a 

Goodwin, Peterson Bath Dinwiddie...., i79 2 

Goodwyn, Thomas H. P.... Suffolk Nansemond 1812 

Gordon, Wellington Green Spring Louisa 1859 

Gordon, William Nelson Nelson 1860 

Gordon, Dr. D. C St. James Warrenton 1869 

Grade, Archibald Bristol Prince George I79 2 

Graham, William C Trinity Staunton 1846 

Gramrner, John Bristol Dinwiddie 1799 

Grammer, John, Jr Bristol Petersburg 1824 

Grantham, J.J Norborne Berkeley 1867 

Gravatt, J. J St. Peter s Port Royal 1857 

Gray, John St. James Leesburg 1873 

Gray, John St. George s Fredericksburg ... 1819 

Gray, William F St. James Richmond city 1866 

Gray, William H St. James Leesburg 1839 

Gray, Dr. Joseph G Christ Church Winchester 1841 

Grayson, Dr. Coole St. Stephen s Culpeper 1868" 

Green, N. T Antrim Halifax 1854 

Green, John W St. Paul s Alexandria 1858 

Green, William S Lexington Amherst 1858 

Green, James W St. Stephen s Culpeper 1867 

Greenhow, Robert Bruton Williamsburg 1805 

Gregory, Jacob Tillotson Buckingham 1851 

Grice, Charles A St. John s Portsmouth 1850 

Griffin, Cyrus Christ Church Lancaster 1786 

Griffin, Thomas York-Hampton York 1796- 

Griggs, Thomas St. Andrew s Jefferson 1830 

Grubb, Curtis, Jr { ^urch^! } Loudoun l ^ 2 

Grymes, Philip L Christ Church Middlesex 1789 

Grymes, Joshua St. Bride s Norfolk 1793 

Grymes, Peyton St. Thomas Orange 1842 

Guthrie, J. G Grace Petersburg 1845 

Gwathmey, Joseph St. David King William 1794 

Habliston, W. M St. John s Petersburg 1880 

Hairston, Peter Christ Church Henry 1881 

Hall, B. H St. George s Fredericksburg... 1881 

Hall, George W Trinity Shepherdstown.... 1867 

Hall, William Ware Gloucester 1790 

Hall, Christopher Christ Church Norfolk 1853. 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Halsey, Don. P St. Paul s Lynchburg 1873 

Hamilton, John D Ridley Culpeper 1881 

Hamilton, Dr. George S Leeds Prince William.... 1867 

Hamilton, George Leeds Prince William 1858 

Hamilton, George St. George s Fredericksburg.... 1825 

Hammett, Samuel St. John s Pleasant 1853 

Hammond, James E Brandon & South rk.. Prince George 1863 

Hansbrough, P St. Mark s Culpeper 1827 

Hanson, Francis R Newport Isle of Wight 1832 

Hardy, John B St. Paul s Norfolk 1846 

Hardy, Hopkins Wicomico Northumberland... 1796 

Hardy, Thomas St. Paul s Appomattox 1881 

Harris, Dr. H St. Stephen s Bedford 1856 

Harris, William B St. Margaret s Caroline 1851 

Harris, Marshall L Lexington Amherst 1849 

Harris, James Grace Church Powhatan 1846 

Harris, Marshall Cornwall Charlotte 1845 

Harris, Hector Russell Bedford 1843 

Harris, Thomas King William Powhatan 1789 

Harris, John King William Powhatan 1787 

Harris, Dr. Hector Hamilton Fauquier 1829 

Harris, Hilary Emanuel Powhatan 1867 

Harris, Dr. Samuel G St. James Mecklenburg 1875 

Harrison, Col. Randolph.. ..Leighton Cumberland 1874 

Harrison, Henry Merchants Hope Prince George 1881 

Harrison, Julian St. James -Northam -Goochland 1865 

Harrison, Henry Trinity Staunton 1865 

Harrison, Powell St. James Leesburg 1869 

Harrison, Matthew St. James Leesburg 1871 

Harrison, George B Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1871 

Harrison, William H Merchants Hope Ch. Prince George 1871 

Harrison, Carter H Monumental Richmond city 1834 

Harrison, Carter B Southwark Surry 1785 

Harrison, Nathaniel Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1785 

Harrison, Carter H St. Anne s Albemarle 1837 

Harrison, R St. James Goochland 1841 

Harrison, Robert C Westover Charles City 1843 

Harrison, William M St. James Richmond city 1848 

Harrison, Richard Russell Bedford 1850 

Harrison, George F Lyttleton Cumberland 1852 

Harrison, Dr. E. J Leighton Cumberland 1856 


Layman, Parish. County. Date* 

Harrison, G. F St. James -Northam..Goochland 1856 

Harrison, B. H Brandon, &c Prince George 185$ 

Hart, J. C St. George s Spotsylvania 1875 

Harwood, Samuel F South Farnham Essex 1877 

Harvie, John B St. James Powhatan 1881 

Harper, John W Meade Fauquier 1868 

Harvey, Onesiphorus Wicomico Northumberland.. 1789. 

Harvey, Thomas Wicomico Northumberland.. 1799 

Harvie, Dr. John B Emmanuel Powhatan 1860 

Haskins, Dr. Richard E St. Andrew s Brunswick 1860 

Hatton, E. A St. John s Portsmouth 1867 

Hatton, John G Trinity Portsmouth 1843. 

Hawley, James O St. Paul s Weston 1852 

Hawes, Samuel St. Margaret s Caroline 1785 

Haxall, Dr. Robert W St. Paul s Richmond 1871 

Hayden, Charles B Newport Isle of Wight 1877 

Haymond, Luther D Heber Bedford 1866 

Haythe, J. G Grace Lynchburg 1879 

Helm, Strother M Norborne Berkeley 1819 

Helm, Erastus Hamilton Fauquier 1860 

Henderson, David E Zion Church Charlestown 1872 

Henderson, Thomas Piedmont Fauquier 1866 

Henderson, Dr. Thomas.. ..Hamilton Fauquier 1815 

Henderson, Dr. Robert Lyttleton Cumberland 1859 

Henry, John Roanoke Halifax 1844 

Hepburn, William St. James Mecklenburg 1786 

Herndon, Edward Berkeley Spotsylvania 1796 

Heth, Stockton Montgomery Montgomery 1876 

Hilbers, William Emanuel Albemarle 1879 

Hildreth, S. P St. Matthew s Wheeling 1875 

Hill, Thomas St. Stephen s King and Queen.. 1786 

Hill, John H St. Paul s Alexandria 1829 

Hite, Cornelius St. Thomas Frederick 1839 

Hite, E. B Emmanuel Fauquier 1873 

Hite, Isaac F St. Thomas Middletown 1847 

Hobson, Thomas L St. James Powhatan 1848 

Hobson, Dr. Joseph St. James -Southam..Powhatan 1854 

Hodges, Willam Antrim Halifax 1836 

Hoge, Isaac Trinity Marshall 1852 

Hogeman, William H St. John s Charleston 1869 

Hoggard, Thurmer Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1823, 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Holland, Charles L.... Epiphany Danville 1876 

Holliday, W. L Berkeley Spotsylvania 1840 

Holliday, James R St. John s Spotsylvania 1848 

Holman, William Leighton Cumberland 1878 

Holmes, Jason St. Paul s Hanover 1846 

Hooe, Abram B St. Paul s King George 1835 

Hooe, Robert T Fairfax Fairfax 1791 

Hooe, Rice St. Stephen s Fauquier 1850 

Hooff, John St. Paul s Alexandria 1816 

Hoomes, John St. Asaph s Caroline 1791 

Hooper, John M Tillotson Buckingham 1854 

Hord, Robert ..St. Peter s Caroline 1837 

Horner, Dr. Frederick St. James Warrenton 1850 

Horner, Dr. Fred k Whittle Fauquier 1871 

Horseley, John Tillotson Buckingham 1873 

Howard, John i.. Ashland Hanover 1877 

Howard, H. R Point Pleasant Mason 1870 

Howell, John Cotocton Loudoun 1878 

Howerton, Philip Antrim Halifax 1851 

Hubard, James R St. Paul s Norfolk 1858 

Hubard, Robert T Tillotson Buckingham 1867 

Hubard, Philip H Tillotson Buckingham 1870 

Hubard, William B Tillotson Buckingham 1860 

Hudson, Dr. R. H Trinity Louisa 1881 

Hudson, John Portsmouth Norfolk 1785 

Huger, Benjamin Whittle Fauquier 1872 

Hunter, James St. Ann s Essex 1814 

Hunter, Edward P Norborne Berkeley 1847 

Hunter, Robert W Christ Church Winchester 1878 

Huntington, William Henrico Henrico 1822 

Huntington, William Cornwall Charlotte 1857 

Hurst, Thomas Wicomico Northumberland... 1796 

Hurst, Joseph Grace Petersburg 1843 

Hutter, Edward S St. Stephen s Bedford 1848 

Ingle, J. Lowrie Salem Roanoke 1869 

Ingram, Dr. T. L Cumberland Lunenburg 1880 

Irby, James J St. Paul s Lynchburg 1865 

Irwin, Marcus Clarke Clarke 1871 

Isaacs, William B Grace Richmond 1868 

Jackson, General J. J Trinity Parkersburg 1867 

Jackson, William G Augusta Staunton 1833 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Jacob, Henry St. Patrick s Prince Edward.... 1878 

Jacobs, W. F St. John s Harper s Ferry 1851 

James, Joseph S Abingdon Gloucester 1872 

Jameson, John St. Mark s Culpeper 1797 

Jett, J. Baily Cople Westmoreland. ... 1859 

Jett, Peter Hanover King George I79 6 

Johnson, Dr. J. T St. James Richmond 1870 

Johnson, T. W St. George Fredericksburg ... 1876 

Johnson, George N Monumental Richmond city 1852 

Johnson, Dr. Peter St. Thomas Orange 1872 

Johnston, Bradley T Grace Richmond 1874 

Johnston, George St. Paul s.. ....Alexandria 1874 

Johnston, Col. W. Preston.. ..Grace Church Lexington 1874 

Jones, W. S St. Thomas, &c Frederick 1874 

Jones, Dr. George W Ashland Hanover 1866 

Jones, William Ellis St. Mark s Richmond 1868 

Jones, General Samuel Raleigh Amelia 1869 

Jones, Hilary P St. Martin s Hanover 1871 

Jones, John St. Andrew s Brunswick 1787 

Jones, Charles B St. Andrew s Brunswick 1793 

Jones, Cave St. George s Accomac 1793 

Jones, Strother Frederick Frederick 1820 

Jones, William S Christ Church Winchester 1831 

Jones, Catesby Ware Gloucester 1833 

Jones, William S Christ Church Winchester 1836 

Jones, George H Bristol Petersburg . . 1838 

Jones, Benjamin M Raleigh Amelia 1844 

Jones, Strother St. Thomas Middletown 1845 

Jones, Dr. Joseph Cople Westmoreland ..... 1846 

Jones, John R St. Andrew s Brunswick 1848 

Jones, F. B Christ Church Winchester 1851 

Jones, Thomas W St. James Culpeper 1851 

Jones, Joseph Moore Campbell 1852 

Jones, John W Woodville Botetourt 1855 

Jones, J. F Piedmont Fauquier 1857 

Jordan, William V Heber Bedf6rd 1855 

Joynes, Levin St. George s. Accomac 1785 

Joynes, Levin S St. George s Accomac 1831 

Joynes, Thomas R St. James Accomac 1857 

Kean, Dr. O. W Woodville Botetourt 1849 

Keeble, James W Southwark, &c Surry 1866 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Keech, Alexander St. Mary s Caroline 1816 

Keen, James T Grace Petersburg 1869 

Kello, Samuel B Ch. of Our Saviour...Southampton 1877 

Kelly, George Elizabeth Norfolk 1785 

Kennon, William N St. Luke s Powhatan 1881 

Kent, Charles Grace Petersburg 1846 

Kerr, Dr. George Hungar s Northampton 1857 

Kerrich, H. B Leeds Fauquier 1873 

King, Michael Suffolk Nansemond 1790 

King, Dr. N. C St. Paul s Norfolk 1849 

Kinney, Dr. T. H St. Paul s Hanover 1866 

Kirk, Thomas Christ Church Brooke < 1853 

Knorr, Anthony M .Meade Memorial Manchester 1872 

Knox, William A St. George s Fredericksburg ... 1816 

Krayton, George T Mount Zion Ch Hedgesville 1877 

Lacy, R. T.,Jr St. Peter s New Kent 1876 

Laidley, A. T St. John s Charleston 1869 

Lambeth, George Christ Richmond 1842 

Lamb, William St. Paul s Norfolk, 1867 

Lane, Dr. Thomas B Kingston Matthews 1874 

Latan6, William C South Farnham Essex 1825 

Latand, Thomas L South Farnham Essex 1822 

Latand, Henry W South Farnham Essex 1867 

Latan6, Hugh W.,Jr. South Farnham Essex 1851 

Lawrence, John G St. Margaret s Caroline 1829 

Lawrence, Roderick S Cople Westmoreland .... 1857 

Lawson, Fabius M Monumental Ch Richmond city 1838 

Lay, John F St. Luke s Powhatan 1867 

Lee, General Robert E Grace Lexington 1868 

Lee, Edmund I Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1870 

Lee, Colonel C. H Emmanuel Loudoun 1873 

Lee, Edmund I Christ Church Alexandria 1814 

Lee, Baldwin M Washington Westmoreland 1814 

Lee, Henry Jr Washington Westmoreland 1816 

Lee, Ludwell Shelburne Loudoun 1823 

Lee, Cassius F Christ Church Alexandria 1840 

Lee, Charles H Norborne Berkeley 1841 

Lee, Richard Henry Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1847 

Lee, William F St. James Warrenton 1855 

Lee, G. W. C Grace Church Lexington 1880 

Lee, William James City James City 1785 


Layman. Parish. County. Date, 

Lee, Ludwell Fairfax Fairfax 1797 

Lefebvre, H. P St. James Richmond city 1854 

Leftwitch, William C West Russell Bedford 1838 

Leigh, B. Watkins Henrico Henrico 1816 

Leigh, B. W St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1876 

Leigh, Thomas Antrim Halifax 1857 

Letcher, John D Epiphany Danville 1878 

Lewis, Warner Abingdon Middlesex 1794 

Lewis, Thomas Abingdon Gloucester 1787 

Lewis, John M Salem Roanoke 1875 

Lewis, John F Emmanuel Ch Harrisonburg 1869 

Lewis, Andrew Emmanuel Ch Harrisonburg 1872 

Lewis, James T St. Paul s Albemarle 1880 

Lewis, Fielding St. Ann s Albemarle 1846 

Lewis, Robert. St. George s Fredericksburg ... 1818 

Lewis, John M St. Paul s Albemarle 1874 

Lewis, Merriwether South Farnham Essex 1848 

Lewis, James H South Farnham Essex 1849 

Lewis, George W St. Peter s Westmoreland.... 1850 

Lewis, Samuel H Augusta Staunton 1835 

Lightfoot, J. B St. Peter s Port Royal 1871 

Lightfoot, Thomas B St. Peter s Caroline 1876. 

Lindsay, Reuben Fredericksville Albemarle 1794 

Lindsay, James St. John s Louisa 1849 

Lippett, Dr. Charles E Clarke Clarke 1878 

Lippit, Thomas B Bristol Petersburg 1827 

Lockridge, James T Madison Pocahontas 1877 

Logan, James T Salem Roanoke 1872; 

Logan, Robert Salem Roanoke 1875 

Logan, James T St. Mark s Botetourt 1845. 

Lomax, Thomas L St. Margaret s Caroline 1831 

Lomax, John Tayloe Lunenburg Richmond co 1815. 

Long, Gabriel St. John s Spotsylvania 1841 

Louseley, Vincent Moore Campbell 1877 

Loraine, Edward Grace Richmond city 1859. 

Lord, John St. John s King William 1799 

Lovell, William. St. George s Spotsylvania 1796 

Lovell, John St. Thomas Frederick, 1876 

Lovell, John T ...Calvary Front Royal 1876 

Low, Samuel Hamilton Fauquier 1815 

Loyall, B. P Christ Church Norfolk 187$ 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Luckett, W. H St. Paul s Loudoun 1880 

Lumsden, William C Grace Petersburg 1870 

Lyne, William Drysdale Caroline 1785 

Lynes, G. B... St. Paul s- Albemarle 1881 

Lynn, George, Jr Hampshire Hampshire 1833 

MachenJ. P. St John s Fairfax - 1859 

Macon, Thomas Monumental Richmond city 1840 

Macon, William H St. Peter s..- New Kent 1785 

Macon, George W Walker s Church Albemarle 1878 

Macon, Dr.W. H St.,Paul s Hanover 1881 

Magill, Archibald- Norborne Berkeley 1831 

Mahan, Milo Nelson Nelson 1841 

Major, Henry St. Andrew s.- - 1836 

Mallory, Col. C. K St. Paul s Hampton 1874 

Mallory, Philip Leeds Fauquier 1785 

Markham, George Manchester- Chesterfield 1787 

Markham, Vincent Southam- Powhatan 1785 

Marr, James R St. James Warrenton 1867 

Marsden, B- A St. Paul s- Norfolk 1878 

Marshall, R. C St. John s Portsmouth 1879 

Marshall, W. C Leeds Fauquier 1876 

Marshall, John Monumental Richmond city 1814 

Marshall, Jacqueline A Leeds & Hamilton. ..Fauquier 1825 

Marshall, Thomas Leeds Fauquier 1829 

Marshall, F. L Westover Charles City- 1847 

Marshall, Charles Hamilton Fauquier 1805 

Marshall, Lewis Piedmont Fauquier 1856 

Marshall, J. A Hamilton Fauquier 1841 

Marshall, James K Leeds Fauquier 1834 

Marshall, F. L Piedmont Fauquier 1859 

Marston, Oliver J Christ Church Middlesex 1871 

Martin, W. B St. Luke s Norfolk 1879 

Martin," Hudson- Amherst Amherst 1797 

Martin, T. F Trinity Botetourt 1850 

Marye, Dr. J. B St. Peter s Westmoreland 1859 

Mason, John K Meherrin Greensville 1871 

Mason, J. S Emmanuel Fauquier 1877 

Mason, J. J Hanover.- King George 1880 

Mason, Edward - Meherrin Greensville 1848 

Massie, N. H Christ Church Charlottesville .... 1859 

Mathews, Thomas ~ St. Ann s Essex 1845 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Matthews, Thomas ............ Elizabeth River ....... Elizabeth River.... 1797 

Matthews, Thomas ............ St. Anne s ............... Essex ................. 1814 

Maury, Richard B .............. St. Paul s ................ Norfolk .............. 1833 

May, David ...................... St. Paul s ................. Petersburg ......... 1840 

Mayo, William .................. Monumental ............ Richmond city ..... 1819 

Mayo, William .................. Frederick .............. Frederick ............ 1814 

Mayo, P. H ....................... Monumental ............ Richmond city ..... 1875 

Mayo, Robert, Jr ............... Cople ..................... Westmoreland ..... 1840 

McCandlish, R. J ............... St. Paul s ................ Weston ............. 1853 

McCargo, James M ............. Cornwall ................ Charlotte ............ 1861 

McCarty, Daniel, Jr ............ Washington ............. Westmoreland ..... 1793 

McCarty, William D ........... North Farnham ....... Richmond county, 1839 

McCaw, Dr. J. B ................. St. Paul s ............... ..Richmond city..... 1879 

McCormick, Edward ......... Grace ..................... Berryville ........... 1855 

McCulloh, Roderick .......... Lexington ............... Amherst- ............ 1786 

McCluney, Colonel James...St. Matthew s ........... Wheeling ............ 1870 

McClurg, Dr. James L ....... Monumental ............ Richmond city 1814 

McDaniel, Balda ............... Russell ................... Bedford.- ............ 1826 

McDonald, Alexander ....... St. Paul s ................. Lynchburg .......... 1869 

McDonald, Marshall .......... Grace ...... . .............. Lexington ........... 1871 

McFarland, James ............. Littleton .................. Cumberland ........ 1813 

McFarland, Malcolm ......... Cumberland ............ Lunenburg ......... 1832 

McFarland, William H ...... Christ Church ......... Norfolk .............. 1833 

McGuire, D. H .................. Clarke ..................... Clarke ............... 1881 

McGuire, Edward .............. St. George s ............ Spotsylvania ........ 1814 

McKenney, C. P ............... Fredericksville ......... Albemarle.. .. ...... 1838 

McLean, Anthony .............. St. Paul s ................. Alexandria ......... 1877 

McNamara, Hugh .............. Henrico .................. Henrico .............. 1827 

McNeer, James .................. All Saints ............... Monroe .. ............ 1875 

McRae, Alexander ............ Bristol ..................... Prince George ...... 1793 

Meade, N. B ..................... Christ Church .......... Winchester ......... 1865 

Meade, John ..................... Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George ..... 1839 

x Meade, Hodijah ................ Raleigh .................. Amelia ~ ........ .".... 1837 

Meade, Philip N ................ Wickliffe ................. Clarke ................ 1837 

Meade, William W ......... { "tSStfS*^ } Clarke ................ ,,, 

Meade, P. N ..................... St. Stephen s ........... Culpeper ............ 1849 

Meade, Hodijah ................. Raleigh ................... Amelia ............... 1875 

Meade, Drayton G ............. Whittle .................. Fauquier ............ 1874 

Meade, Benjamin L ............ Raleigh...... ............ Amelia ............... 1828 

Meaux, Dr. Thomas...., ..... Grace Church .......... Powhatan- .......... 1843 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Meem, J. G Beckford Shenandoah 1878 

Meem, G. S Beckford Shenandoah 1878 

Mercer, Hugh St. George s Spotsylvania 1814 

Mercer, Charles F Shelburne Loudoun 1815 

Meredith, J. M Aquia .Stafford 1859 

Meriwether, Charles J Fredericksville Albemarle 1841 

Meriwether, James A Hamner Bedford 1857 

Merrick, W. G St Anne s Albemarle 1880 

Metcalfe, John St. George s Fredericksburg ... 1841 

Meuse, Hudson St. Stephen s Northumberland... 1785 

Micklebrough, Robert St. Margaret s Caroline 1787 

Miller, Dr. M Abingdon & Ware....Gloucester 1854 

Miller, R. L Grace Church Lynchburg 1880 

Miller, John M Grace Lynchburg 1870 

Millson, John S Wickliffe Clarke 1848. 

Minge, Dr. John Westover Charles City 1841 

Minnigerode, Charles Bruton Williamsburg 1845 

Minor, Garrett Trinity Louisa 1785 

Minor, Franklin Christ Church Charlottesville 1858: 

Minor, William G St. Margaret s Caroline 1831 

Minor, B. B St. James Richmond city.... 1845 

Minor, Berkeley St. Martin s Hanover 1869 

Minor, C. L. C St. Paul s Lynchburg 1871 

Minor, L. B Falls Church Fairfax 1836 

Mitchell, J. C Lunenburg Richmond county, 1856 

Mitchell, Samuel P Grace Church Richmond city 1861 

Moncure, J. C Aquia Church Stafford 1856 

Moncure, Dr. James D Trinity Huntington 1872 

Moncure, W. P Aquia Stafford, 1870 

Moncure, George V Aquia Stafford 1874 

Moncure, R. C. L St. James Richmond city 1864 

Moncure, H. W Monumental Richmond city 1839 

Moncure, John Overwharton Stafford 1797 

Montague, William Christ Church Lancaster 1799 

Montague, T. C Overwharton Stafford 1879 

Montgomery, Robert G North Farnham Richmond county, 1850 

Montgomery, J. F Bruton Williamsburg 1835 

Montgomery, Hugh Bristol Petersburg 1826 

Montgomery, R. G Shelburne Loudoun 1834 

Montgomery, Jos. F Nelson Nelson 1834 

Moore, Thomas Truro Fairfax 1873 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Moore, Dr. S. P Grace Richmond 1867 

Moore, William St. Thomas Orange 1786 

Moore, S. J. C Grace Berryville 1859 

Mordecai, William Emanuel Henrico 1865 

Morgan, William A Trinity Shepherdstown.... 1858 

Morgan, Morgan Norborne Berkeley 1785 

Morgan, William G Norborne Berkeley 1847 

Morgan, Jacob Trinity Church Shepherdstown ... 1845 

Morgan, Daniel Trinity Church Shepherdstown ... 1836 

Morris, R. O St. John s Louisa 1857 

Morrison, Dr. E. A Bath Dinwiddie 1829 

Morse, Jacob B Trinity Portsmouth 1840 

Morson, William St. Paul s Prince William.... 1873 

Morton, Jeremiah St. Thomas Orange 1833 

Mosby, Armistead Augusta Staunton 1825 

Mosby, William H Lexington Amherst 1861 

Moseley, Littlebury Southam Powhatan 1787 

Moseley, Edward H Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1791 

Moseley, William W St. Paul s Lynchburg 1843 

Mosely, James Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1813 

Moth, Alfred Johns Memorial Farmville 1881 

Moyler, Dr. J. Edward Grace Petersburg 1871 

Muir, James F Grace Church Alexandria 1880 

Munford, B. B Emmanuel Church. ..Pittsylvania 1880 

Munford, T. T., Hamner Bedford 1871 

Munford, William Monumental Richmond city 1818 

Murdaugh, James Trinity Portsmouth 1845 

Murdaugh, W. H Trinity Portsmouth 1877 

Murden, Joseph Portsmouth Norfolk 1834 

Murray, William Raleigh Amelia 1792 

Murray, Sterling St. James Leesburg 1878 

Myers, Barton Leeds Fauquier 1872 

Myers, Cromwell Mt. Zion Church Hedgesville ....... 1872 

Nalle, B. F Emmanuel Culpeper 1878 

Nalle, J. B. W St. Mark s Culpeper 1878 

Nalle, P. P St. Stephen s Culpeper 1856 

Nash, Sylvester Christ Church Berkeley 1819 

Nash, Norman Hampshire 1819 

Neblett, Sterling Cumberland Lunenburg 1875 

Neill, Dr. S. S Clarke Clarke 1867 

Nelson, Dr. R. W Christ Church Charlottesville 1877 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Nelson, Colonel William.. ..St. Martin s Hanover 1873 

Nelson, William N Cun ngham s Chap LClarke 1877 

Nelson, Thomas Monumental Richmond 1836 

Nelson, C K Fall s Church Fairfax 1838 

Nelson, Philip Christ Church Millwood 1841 

Nelson, Thomas F Christ Church Millwood 1842 

Nelson, Thomas Newport Isle of Wight 1843 

Nelson, F. K Walker s Albemarle 1843 

Nelson, Francis St. Peter s New Kent 1848 

Nelson, Dr. William Christ Church... Millwood 1848^ 

Nelson, Thomas St. Paul s Richmond 1849 

Nelson, Philip St. Martin s Hanover 1849 

Nelson, Captain Thomas. ..St. Martin s Hanover 1855 

Nelson, R. W Powhatan Powhatan 1858 

Nelson, Dr. R. E Rivanna Fluvanna 1860 

Nelson, Nathaniel York-Hampton York 1785 

Nelson, Hon. Hugh Fredericksville Albemarle 1815 

Nelson, Hugh York-Hampton... York 1786 

Nelson, William York-Hampton York 1787 

Nelson, Francis St. Martin s Hanover 1816 

Nelson, John, Jr St. James Mecklenburg 1817 

Nelson, Philip Frederick Frederick 1817 

Nelson, Francis Hampshire Hampshire 1825 

Nelson, Thomas Portsmouth Norfolk 1829 

Nelson, Thomas Monumental Richmond city 1832 

Nelson, George W St. Martin s Hanover 1832 

Nelson, Mann P Norborne Berkeley 1833 

Nelson, Nathaniel Westover Charles City 1833 

Nelson, Washington Frederick Frederick 1833 

New, Anthony St. Margaret s Caroline 1790 

Newton, Dr. J. B Cople Westmoreland 1869 

Newton, George St. Paul s Norfolk 1870 

Nicholls, James B St. Paul s Alexandria 1818 

Nicholson, Dr. George L...Christ Church Middlesex 1869 

Noel, John R St. Martin s Hanover 1843 

Noland, Thomas Christ Church Richmond 1871 

Noland, C. Powell Johns Loudoun 1877 

Noland, Burr P Johns Loudoun 1879 

Noland, C. St. George St. Martin s Hanover 1872 

Noland, R. H Johns Loudoun 1875 

Noland, William Meade Fauquier 1851 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Noland, R.W. N Fredericksville Albemarle 1860 

Norvell, W St. Paul s Hanover 1790 

Norwood, William, Jr All Saint s Monroe 1874 

Old, W. VV Christ Church .Norfolk 1880 

Oley, John H Trinity Huntington 1877 

Oliphant, D. C St. Margaret s Caroline 1840 

Oliver, William St. James Mecklenburg 1850 

Osborne, Charles F Bristol Dinwiddie 1837 

Osborne, Dr. N. M Littleton Cumberland 1845 

Osgood, Nahum St. Paul s Lynchburg 1827 

Overstreet, John H Littleton Cumberland 1792 

Owen, Dr. John W St. Thomas Middletown 1849 

Page, Frederick W Walker s Albemarle 1872 

Page, Richard L Christ Church Norfolk 1876 

Page, Mann Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1879 

Page, Carter Newport Isle of Wight 1840 

Page, Nelson Lyttleton Cumberland 1840- 
Page, John E Christ Church Millwood 1845 

Page, Dr. Mann Walker s Albemarle 1849 

Page, William B Christ Church Winchester 1828 

Page, John E St. James Mecklenburg 1830 

Page, John W Hampshire Hampshire 1831 

Page, John W Lunenburg Richmond county, 1838 

Page, Mann A St. Thomas Orange 1834 

Page, Charles H., Sr Walker s Albemarle 1854 

Page, T Lyttleton Cumberland 1856 

Page, Archie C Littleton Cumberland 1854 

Page, Dr. John R Ware Gloucester 1857 

Page, John St. Martin s Hanover 1858 

Page, Thomas W St. John s Louisa 1858 

Page, Carter B St. Peter s Port Royal 1858 

Page, John Abingdon , Gloucester 1785 

Page, John, Jr St. Asaph s Caroline 1785 

Page, Charles St. Paul s Alexandria 1815 

Page, Robert Frederick Frederick 1819 

Palmer, Dr. William P St. James Richmond 1873 

Parish, Henry J Wilmer Prince Edward 1867 

Parker, Richard Christ Church. Winchester 1869 

Parker, F. A St. Paul s Norfolk 1837 

Parker, Nicholas W Christ Church Norfolk 1824 

Parker, Jacob Hungar s Northampton 1821 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Parker, John S Hungar s Northampton 1870 

Pate, Cornelius Lee Bedford 1874 

Patrick, Dr. Spicer St. John s. Kanawha 1856 

Patterson, David Manchester Chesterfield 1787 

Patterson, James A Manchester Chesterfield 1805 

Patton, John M St. John s Louisa 1869 

Paul, Samuel B St. Paul s Petersburg 1879 

Paxson, West F Christ Church Loudoun 1877 

Payne, Richard St. James Warrenton 1859 

Payne, John M Trinity Bedford 1878 

Payne, Inman H St. James Warrenton 1857 

Peachy, William D Beekford Shenandoah... 1876 

Peachey, William Farnham Richmond 1785 

Peachey, Thomas G Bristol Prince George 1791 

Peake, Humphrey St. Paul s Alexandria 1823 

Pearle, Thomas N St. John s Hampton 1857 

Peebles, Lemuel St. Paul s Petersburg 1868 

Peebles, Samuel St. Paul s Petersburg 1844 

Pegram, Edward S Christ Church Norfolk .1840 

Pendleton, Col . Edmund. ...Trinity Church Botetourt 1873 

Pendleton, William H Norborne Berkeley 1840 

Pendleton, Dr. F. W Lunenburg Richmond co 1841 

Pendleton, Hugh N Wickliffe Clarke 1851 

Pendleton, William Norborne Berkeley 1853 

Pendleton, John St. Paul s Hanover ,.. 1785 

Pendleton, William Norborne Berkeley 1815 

Pendleton, James St. Mark s Culpeper 1785 

Penn, Edmund Lexington Amherst 1824 

Perkins, William A Littleton Cumberland 1862 

Peterson, John A Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1837 

Petterson, R. M Pulaski Pulaski 1880 

Peyton, John H Augusta Augusta 1834 

Peyton, Robert E Piedmont Fauquier 1852 

Peyton, Francis Shelburne Loudoun 1797 

Peyton, Rowzee Aquia Stafford 1816 

Phillips, Dr. D. B St. James Warrenton 1868 

Phillips, A. K St. George s Fredericksburg.... 1877 

Phillips, G. R. C St. John s Halifax 1878 

Pickrell, Z. W St. James Richmond 1869 

Pinckney, Charles C Clarke Clarke 1834 

Pittis, Jabez Accomac Accomac 1785 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Plummer, W. T St. Paul s Petersburg 1871 

Poindexter, Samuel Trinity Portsmouth 1838 

Poindexter, Thomas Christ Church Richmond 1876 

Poindexter, Samuel St. Paul s Lynchburg 1840 

Pollard, Benjamin St. Paul s Norfolk 1839 

Pollard, Robert : Monumental Richmond city 1831 

Pollock, William St. George s Fredericksburg ... 1843 

Pope, Claiborne A St. Andrew s Brunswick 1872 

Potts, Thomas Monumental., Richmond city 1881 

Powell, Charles L Christ Church Alexandria 1872 

Powell, William A Shelburne Loudoun 1836 

Powell, William C Bath Dinwiddie 1857 

Powell, Cuthbert, Jr Meade Fauquier 1840 

Powell, John H St. James Richmond city 1877 

Powell, John D St. James Leesburg 1850 

Powell, D. Lee St. James Richmond 1859 

Powell, Alfred H Henrico Henrico 1818 

Powers, Philip H Wickliffe Clarke 1872 

Powers, William H Monumental Richmond 1871 

Powers, Pike Trinity Staunton 1851 

Prentiss, Joseph St. Paul s Suffolk 1831 

Preston, Thomas L Holston Washington 1860 

Pretlow, C. F Ch. of Our Saviour. ..Southampton 1880 

Price, Professor T. R Ashland Hanover 1876 

Price,.Thomas R St. Paul s Richmond 1856 

Pruden, C. O St. John s Nansemond 1879 

Pryor, Samuel Bath Dinwiddie 1830 

Pryor, Samuel St. Paul s Lynchburg 1857 

Puckett, John St. Paul s Goochland 1859 

Purdie, Dr. John R Newport Isle of Wight 1846 

Radford, Dr. John B Montgomery Montgomery 1860 

Radford, William Russell Bedford 1832 

Ragland, E Antrim Halifax 1790 

Ragsdale, Edward Cumberland Lunenburg 1790 

Ragsdale, Drury St. John s 1794 

Randolph, Brett Southam Powhatan 1796 

Randolph, Edmund Southam Powhatan 1797 

Randolph, Robert Hamilton Fauquier 1816 

Randolph, B. Harrison Monumental Richmond city 1835 

Randolph, Thomas M St. James -Northam..Goochland 1786 

Randolph, Edmund Henrico Henrico 1785 


Layman. Parish. County. Date 

Randolph, D. C St. John s Richmond city 1857 

Randolph, Dr. Robert Christ Church Millwood 1852 

Randolph, A. C Frederick Frederick 1856 

Randolph, Robert L Hamilton Fauquier 1847 

Randolph, Richard Bruton Williamsburg 1847 

Randolph, Buckner St. James Warrenton 1865 

Randolph, Beverly Grace Church Fauquier 1881 

Randolph, David C Grace Church Cumberland 1881 

Randolph, Dr. Lewis St. Ann s Albemarle 1866 

Ransom, James L Zion Church 1836 

Ravenscroft, John S Cumberland Lunenburg 1816 

Rawlings, Lewis St. John s Spotsylvania 1837 

Redd, James T Emmanuel Henrico 1860 

Reid, John St. George s Accomac 1796 

Reynolds, John H Hampshire Hampshire 1799 

Ribble, F. J Salem Roanoke 1866 

Ribble, Dr. William A Nelson Nelson 1881 

Rice, Dr. C. D Emmanuel Albemarle 1870 

Richards, William B St. Paul s Alexandria 1830 

Richards, Charles J St. James Richmond city 1842 

Richardson, John D Clarke Clarke 1870 

Richardson, Arch Upper Suffolk Nansemond 1791 

Richardson, William H St. James Richmond city 1843. 

Riddick, W. L, St. Paul s Suffolk 1865 

Riddick, Willis Upper Suffolk Nansemond 1785 

Rieley, F. W St. John s Halifax 1869 

Roane, Spencer South Farnham Essex 1785 

Robb, Philip L St. Peter s Caroline 1875 

Robertson, Thomas L Christ Church Norfolk 1826 

Robertson, William Bristol Prince George 1789 

Robertson, Moses T Christ Church Norfolk 1857 

Robertson, John R Raleigh Amelia 1840 

Robinson, R. K Trinity Martinsburg 1873 

Robinson, P Nottoway I79 1 

Robinson, Starkey Charles 1791 

Robinson, C. A Christ Church Richmond 1880 

Rogers, John D , Brunswick King George 1874 

Rogers, General Asa Johns Loudoun 1866 

Rogers, A. L Emmanuel Loudoun 1867 

Rogers, John St. Luke s Southampton 179 

Rootes, Thomas St. Margaret s Caroline 1789* 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Rose, Hugh Lexington Amherst 1786 

Rose, Robert Kanawha Kanawha 1834 

Rose, Charles A Grace Church Lexington 1848 

Rothrock, George W St. Paul s Suffolk 1829 

Rowan, Dr. Marcus Christ Church Middlesex 1845 

Rowe, John St. Paul s Hanover 1796 

Rowlett, John St. Paul s Petersburg 1847 

Rowzee, Edward Vauter s Church Essex 1829 

Royster, W. W King William Powhatan 1843, 

Royster, William Grace Caroline 1845 

Royal, John Raleigh Amelia 1790^ 

Rudder, James. Portsmouth Norfolk 1825 

Ruffin, George Martin s-Brandon ....Prince George 1792 

Ruffin, James St. John s King William 1797 

Russell, Joseph A St John s Harper s Ferry.... 1850 

Rust, Benjamin D North Farnham Richmond county, 1836 

Ryan, Thomas St. George s Spotsylvania 1787 

Sale, Nelson Russell Bedford 1835, 

Sale, Dr. John W Heber Bedford 1873 

Sale, L. A St. John s Liberty 1857 

Sale, T. N West Russell Bedford 1874 

Sale, Charles F St. Anne s Essex 1876 

Saunders, Fleming Moore Campbell. 1866 

Saunders, Peter Franklin Franklin i86a 

Saunders, George Lunenburg Richmond county, 1836 

Saunders, Robert C Moore .Campbell 1874 

Saunders, Major St. James -Northam..Goochland 1787 

Scarbrough, James W Martin s-Brandon Prince George 1846 

Schermerhorn, John Christ Church Richmond 1877 

Sclater, L. H St. John s Hampton 1872 

Scott, John L Bath Dinwiddie 1874 

Scott, Thomas H Trinity Bedford 1837 

Scott, Thomas Russell Bedford 1857 

Scott, Edward King William Powhatan 1854 

Scott, R. B Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1878 

Scott, R. J. Taylor St. James Warrenton 1872 

Scott, Anderson St. Stephen s King& Queen 1785 

Seabury, A. L St. Paul s Norfolk 1851 

Selden, Wilson C Shelburne Loudoun 1814. 

Selden, Miles C Powhatan Powhatan 1855 

Seldon, Beverly R St. James Powhatan 1874 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Semmes, T. M Grace Church Lexington 1878 

Semple, Dr. George W St. John s Hampton 1872 

Service, H. H Grace Alexandria 1876 

Seymour, Hugh G St. George s Accomac 1837 

Shafer, Charles G Moore-Memorial Richmond 1880 

Shanks, Thomas Botetourt Botetourt 1835 

Sharp, William Christ Church Norfolk 1816 

Sharpe, George Hampshire Hampshire 1824 

Sheffey, Hugh W Trinity Staunton 1840 

Sheldon, Jacob C Bruton Williamsburg 1832 

Shelton, Samuel W St. Paul s Lynchburg 1845 

Shelton, R. C Amherst Amherst 1878 

Shelton, Abraham Camden Pittsylvania 1785 

Shelton, Joseph Amherst Amherst 1796 

Shelton, Ralph Lexington Amherst 1837 

Shepherd, Abram St. Andrew s Jefferson 1817 

Shepherd, Solomon Suffolk Nansemond 1785 

Shepherd, Dr. William St. John s Nansemond 1848 

Sherman, Martin Christ Church Lancaster 1789 

Sherman, J. W West Russell Bedford 1851 

Sherrard, Joseph Christ Church Winchester 1866 

Shield, Dr. Samuel R St John s Hampton 1843 

Shields, Dr. Thomas B Leighton Cumberland 1861 

Shield, Robert Charles York 1785 

Shields, J. W St. John s Richmond 1876 

Shore, John Bristol Prince George 1787 

Shultice, Dr. William St. James Goochland 1869 

Silver, Francis Norborne Berkeley" 1830 

Sims, William H Roanoke Halifax 1880 

Skinner, James H Trinity Staunton 1878 

Skipwith, George N Grace Powhatan 1850 

Skipwith, Thomas B Genito Powhatan 1862 

Slack, Samuel R Falls Church Fairfax 1848 

Slaughter, Robert St. Mark s Culpeper 1786 

Slaughter, Samuel St. Stephen s Culpeper 1815 

Slaughter, Philip, Jr St. Stephen s Culpeper 1831 

Slaughter, Charles D .....Moore Campbell 1844 

Slaughter, W. B St. Stephen s Culpeper 1852 

Smith, William H St. Thomas Abingdon 1877 

Smith, Sidney Bruton Williamsburg 1879 

-Smith, Thomas Christ Church Fairfax 1835 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Smith, Aug. J Trinity Shepherdstown ... 1865 

Smith, Charming M Meade Fauquier 1872 

Smith, Dr. W. G Hungar s Northampton 1875 

Smith, John T Piedmont Fauquier 1850^ 

Smith, Edward J Wickliffe Clarke 1858 

Smith, Dr. William G Hungar s Northampton l ^3^ 

Smith, Francis H Grace Church Lexington 1842 

Smith, John A Monumental Richmond 1846- 

Smith, Ed. J Wickliffe Clarke 1847 

Smith, Thomas Kingston Gloucester 1785. 

Smith, Thomas Ware Gloucester 1821 

Smith, Yeaman St. George s Fredericksburg.... 1824 

Smith, Franklin G Christ Church Alexandria 1824 

Smith, Thomas St. Paul s King George 1828 

Smith, John A. W Hamilton Fauquier 1830 

Smith, Dr. William G Hungar s Southampton 1831 

Smith, Cruger W., Jr Christ Church Clarksburg 1870 

Smith, John M Christ Church Lancaster 1812 

Smoot, W. A Grace Church Alexandria 1871 

Snead, W. T St. James Accomac 1859 

Southall, S. O Dale Chesterfield 1881 

Southall, Dr. P. F Dale Chesterfield 1874. 

Southall, Dr. James Newport Isle of Wight 1852 

Southgate, John Christ Church Norfolk 1828- 

Southgate, Wright Christ Church Norfolk 1816 

Spiller, William St. David s King William 1786 

Spotswood, George W St. Thomas Orange 1816 

Stanard, Major John B St. Stephen s Culpeper 1873 

Staples, E. W Emmanuel Wood 1873 

Starke, Dr. Powell B Westover Charles City 1861 

Steed, Robert E Christ Church Norfolk 1825 

Steele, Thomas G Christ Church Marion 1870 

Steger, John O St. James Richmond city 1861 

Stephens, G. B Fredericksville Albemarle 1859 

Stephenson, John Cumberland Lunenburg 1791 

Steptoe, Robert C Russell Bedford 1845 

Stevens, Joseph M St. Mark s Richmond 1866 

Stevens, William Grace Lexington 1850 

Stevens, William Woodville Botetourt 1844 

Steward, W. P St. Paul s Norfolk 1845 

Stewart, John St. Paul s Richmond city 1847 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Stewart, Daniel Emmanuel Henrico 1861 

Sthreshley, Henry B St. Anne s Essex 1835 

Stillman, Samuel Rivanna Fluvanna 1851 

Stith, Drury St. Andrew s Brunswick 1785 

Stith, John St. Paul s King George 1815 

Stokes, Allen Y St. John s Richmond 1864 

Stokes, J. H Cumberland Lunenburg 1862 

Stokes, Henry Cumberland Lunenburg 1787 

Stone, George. St. Andrew s Brunswick 1837 

Stone, William S St. George s Spotsylvania 1812 

Stovin, Charles J St. Stephen s Fauquier 1848 

Strachan, Robert G Bristol Dinwiddie 1836 

Stratton, John Hungar s Northampton 1797 

Street, David Cumberland Lunenburg 1833 

Stribling, Dr. F. T St. Mark s Culpeper 1842 

Stribling, R. M Leeds Fauquier 1869 

Stringfellow, Horace Bloomfield Madison 1833 

Stringfellow, M. S St. Paul s Culpeper 1876 

Stringfellow, F Truro Fairfax 1869 

Stuart, Dr. R. H.. St. Paul s King George 1850 

Stuart, John St. Paul s King George 1839 

Stuart, Jacob W St. Paul s King George 1843 

Stuart, Richard St. Paul s King George 1814 

Stuart, William G St. Paul s King George 1822 

Stuart, John St. Paul s King George 1829 

Sturtevant, Dr. Charles St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1852 

Sublett, James M Powhatan Powhatan 1863 

Suydam, Abraham Trinity Cabell 1870 

Tabb, T. T Raleigh Amelia 1880 

Tabb, W. H. A Kingston Mathews 1869 

Taliaferro, J. R Raleigh Amelia 1865 

Taliaferro, Dr. Alfred St. Stephen s Culpeper 1874 

Taliaferro, Francis W Grace & St. Mary sCaroline 1839 

Taliaferro, William T Ware Gloucester 1839 

Taliaferro, Lawrence H St. Thomas Orange 1840 

Taliaferro, G. B Ware Gloucester 1840 

Taliaferro, Benjamin B Trinity Franklin ; 1842 

Taliaferro, JacqulineP St. Thomas Orange 1847 

Taliaferro, Benjamin B Henrico Henrico 1829 

Taliaferro, Warner T Ware Gloucester 1831 

Taliaferro, Benjamin F St. Mary s Caroline 1834 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Taliaferro, J Brunswick King George 1856 

Taliaferro, Dr. B. F St. Thomas Orange 1850 

Tallant, Henry St. John s Wheeling 1853 

Tankard, John Hungar s Northampton 1792 

Tarry, Edward St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1850 

Tarry, George St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1860 

Tarry, Samuel ....St. Luke s Mecklenburg 1877 

Tatum, Dr. R. H Genito Amelia 1863 

Tatum, Rives Grace Church Powhatan 1872 

Tatum, H Sapony Dinwiddie 1848 

Tayloe, William H Lunenburg Richmond co 1845 

Tayloe, George P St. Mark s Botetourt 1848 

Tayloe, Edward T Brunswick King George 1831 

Taylor, Tazewell Christ Church Norfolk 1840 

Taylor, Thomas P Hamner Bedford 1866 

Taylor, Samuel B Ware Gloucester 1875 

Taylor, Walter H St. Luke s Norfolk 1875 

Taylor, James Elizabeth Norfolk 1785 

Taylor, G. K Bristol 1794 

Taylor, George Henrico Henrico 1820 

Taylor, J St. Peter s Port Royal 1856 

Taylor, Charles S St Paul s Alexandria 1867 

Temple, Benjamin St. David s King William 1785 

Temple, Arthur South Farnham Essex 1839 

Temple, Henry W. L South Farnham Essex 1837 

Temple, Samuel St. Margaret s Caroline 1793 

Temple, G. W St. John s Hampton 1848 

Terrell, Dr. Uriel St. Thomas Orange 1849 

Thorn, Dr. William A Hungar s Northampton 1880 

Thorn, ReubenT St. George s Fredericksburg 1836 

Thorn, John St. Mark s Culpeper 1816 

Thomas, John L Norborne Berkeley 1829 

Thomas, J. L Christ Church Isle of Wight 1876 

Thomas, R. S Newport Isle of Wight 1878 

Thomas, J. O Newport Isle of Wight 1881 

Thompson, William M St. Stephen s Culpeper 1822 

Thompson, William H Christ Church , Norfolk 1829 

Thompson, Colonel F Wythe Wythe 1863 

Thompson, Judge Geo. W...St. Mathew s Wheeling 1872 

Thompson, William Cotocton Loudoun 1876 

Thompson, George G St. Stephen s Culpeper 1877 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Thompson, Philip R St. Mark s Kanawha 1836 

Thompson, William Washington Westmoreland 1799 

Thompson, Robert Nelson Nelson 1832 

Thompson, Francis St. Mark s Kanawha 1853 

Thompson, William H Christ Church Norfolk 1848 

Thornton, Dr. George Fairfax Alexandria 1814 

Thornton, Addison F St Margaret s Caroline 1832 

Thornton, George F St. Margaret s Caroline 1832 

Thornton, Champe B St. Peter s Church. ...Caroline 1872 

Thornton, Francis, Jr St. George s Spotsylvania 1789 

Thornley, Aaron Hanover King George 1796 

Thornley, Dr. John Grace ... Caroline 1849 

Thorpe, Arthur S St. Paul s Prince William 1878 

Thrift, George N Bloomfield Madison 1840 

Tidball, Josiah Leeds Fauquier 1836 

Tinsley, Thomas St. Paul s Hanover 1787 

Tinsley, William St. Paul s Hanover ; 1793 

Todd, Mallory M Newport Isle of Wight 1827 

Toler, W. D Meade Memorial Manchester 1875 

Tomlin, Robert W St. Paul s Hanover.. 1845 

Tompkins, C. W St. Margaret s Caroline 1869 

Tompkins, R. T Hamilton Fauquier 1845 

Tompkins, Francis St. Margaret s Caroline 1845 

Tompkins, Christopher Kingston.. Matthews 1821 

Tompkins, R. R St. James Warrenton 1856 

Trent, Alexander Littleton Cumberland 1799 

Triplett, F. M St. John s Pleasants 1870 

Tucker, Dr. S. H St. Andrew s 1844 

Tucker, James H Newport Isle of Wight 1848 

Tucker, Beverley Bruton Williamsburg 1849 

Turberville, Major John Cople Westmoreland 1815 

Turnbull, Robert St. Andrew s Brunswick 1880 

Turner, Thomas , Hamilton Fauquier 1838 

Turner, George Trinity Staunton 1812 

Turner, Richard H Hanover King George 1860 

Turner, Albert Hanover King George .... 1832 

Turpin, Thomas King Wiliiam Powhatan 1787 

Twiford, Robert St. George s Accomac 1791 

Twyman, Anthony St. Thomas Orange 1841 

Tyler, John H Monumental Richmond city 1866 

Tyler, Robert H St. Paul s Prince William 1876 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Tyler, John Westover Charles City 1785 

Tyler, George Berkeley Spotsylvania 1833 

Tyler, George G Leeds Prince William 1850 

Tyree, Samuel St. Paul s Lynchburg 1863 

Underwood, Thomas St. James -Northam..Goochland 1785 

Upshur, Dr. John N Christ Church Richmond- 1872 

Urquhart, Charles St. Peter s Church.... Port Royal 1843 

Valentine, Edward Augusta Staunton 1821 

Veasy, George W St. John s Brooke 1853 

Valentine, Edward St. John s Church Hampton 1834 

Vest, Walker W Bruton James City 1860 

Wade, Anderson Camden Pittsylvania 1844 

Waite, Obed Frederick Frederick i8i& 

Walke, David M Lynnhaven Princess Anne 1832 

Walke, Richard St. Paul s Norfolk 1835 

Walke, Richard D Christ Church Norfolk 1860 

Walker, James Norborne Berkeley 1818 

Walker, Francis Fredericksville Albemarle 1790 

Walker, Robert Bath Dinwiddie 1785 

Walker, Johri Fredericksville Albemarle... 1785 

Walker, David N ,.St. Paul s Richmond 1866 

Waller, Thomas W St. Margaret s Caroline 1870 

Waller, William M Lexington Amherst 1834 

Walthall, W.T Westover Charles City 1846 

Ward, Joel Norborne Berkeley i8i& 

Ward, Rowland Nottoway Nottoway I79 1 

Ward, Seth Lynchburg Lynchburg 1824 

Ward, William N St. Paul s Lynchburg 1832 

Ward, Henry T St. John s Richmond county, 1874 

Waring, Henry St. Ann s Essex 1825 

Waring, Robert P St. Ann s..... Essex 1821 

Waring, Epaphroditus Washington Westmoreland 1820 

Warwick, Robert D Armory Church Richmond city 1849 

Warwick, Peter C Emmanuel Henrico 1869 

Washington, Dr. Walker Grace Church Caroline 1875 

Washington, Bushrod C St. Andrew s Jefferson 1823 

Washington, Geo. Fayette..Henrico Henrico 1820 

Washington, George F St. Paul s Alexandria 1819 

Washington, Needham St. Paul s King George 1818 

Washington, Bushrod.. Christ Church Alexandria 1815 

Watkins, Wash. L St. Paul s Petersburg 1850 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

Watkins, Stephen D St. Paul s Petersburg 1845 

Watson, W. E Christ Church Fairmount 1877 

Webb, Walker W Bruton Williamsburg 1828 

Webb, Edwin W Lexington Amherst 1842 

Webb, J. P St. John s Nansemond 1873 

Webb, Dr. R. H St. Paul s Nansemond 1859 

Weddell, Alex. W Grace Petersburg 1865 

Weir, Robert South Farnham Essex 1817 

Weir, E. V Trinity Prince William 1879 

Weir, William J Dettingen Prince William 1843 

Weisiger, Joseph K St. James Goochland 1846 

Wellford, R. Carter St. John s Richmond county, 1881 

Wells, John S Isle of Wight 1786 

Werth, James R Dale Chesterfield 1875 

Westcote, William Portsmouth Norfolk 1786 

Whitcomb, H. D Trinity Staunton 1862 

White, J. W .Cornwall Charlotte 1876 

White, S. T Grace Church Jefferson 1876 

White, W. H Epiphany Church.. ..Danville 1872 

White, Joseph D St. Margaret s Caroline.... 1837 

White, Nathan S Zion Charlestown 1858 

White, T St. Paul s Hanover 1790 

Whitfield, John F Powhatan Powhatan 1875 

Whiting, William H Christ Church Clarke 1855 

Whiting, CarlyleF Christ Church Norfolk 1820 

Whiting, Isaac N Lynchburg Lynchburg 1823 

Whiting, Peter B Ware Gloucester 1797 

Whittaker, John E Christ Church Richmond 1875 

Whitten, William B Russell Bedford 1834 

Whittle, James Banister Pittsylvania 1875 

Whittle, Conway St. Paul s Norfolk 1871 

Whittle, Francis W Cumberland Lunenburg 1847 

Whittlesey, Joseph H Christ Church Winchester 1871 

Wiatt, Richard St. Margaret s Caroline 1797 

Wiatt, Francis J Christ Church Norfolk 1818 

Wicker, Francis St. John s Henrico 1831 

Wigginton, Benjamin Christ Church Winchester 1830 

Wigginton, Benjamin Russell Bedford 1830 

Wight, William W St. James Goochland 1879 

Wilkins,JohnL St. Andrew s Brunswick 1833 

Wilkinson, Nathaniel Henrico Henrico 1786 


Layman. Parish. County. Date. 

William, R. A St. Mark s Richmond 1867 

Williams, George W Monumental Richmond city ...... 1863 

Williams, J. L St. Mark s Richmond 1869 

Williams, W. B Emmanuel Goodson 1868 

Williams, Lewis B St. Thomas Orange 1843 

Williams, Philip Christ Church Winchester 1843 

Williams, John J Christ Church Winchester 1876 

Williams, William Monumental Richmond city 1840 

Williams, Allen Wickliffe Clarke 1840 

Williams, Dr. Thomas J Roanoke Halifax 1857 

Williams, Orrin St. John s Richmond city 1839 

Williams, John St. James Richmond city 1839 

Williams, Walter Christ Church Norfolk 1854 

Williams, Philip Beckford Shenandoah 1818 

Williams, John G Monumental Richmond city 1824 

Williamson, Thomas H Grace Church Lexington 1845 

Willis, A. Murat Bloomfield Rappahannock 1858 

Willis, F. L Emmanuel Culpeper 1880 

Wilkins, Nathaniel Hungar s Northampton 1799 

Wilmer, Joseph St. Anne s . Albemarle 1869 

Wilson, George M Trinity Chesterfield 1876 

Wilson, Major George. Epiphany Pittsylvania 1854 

Wilson, John , St. Peter s Westmoreland .... 1874 

Wilson, Holt Trinity Portsmouth 1847 

Wilson, Goodrich Lyttleton Cumberland 1849 

Wilson, George Newport Isle of Wight 1833 

Wilson, Benjamin Littleton Cumberland 1785 

Wilson, Samuel Littleton Cumberland 1813 

Wilson, John Norborne Berkeley 1832 

Wingfield, John H Antrim Halifax 1820 

Wingfield, R. C. M Trinity Portsmouth 1876 

Winslow, Beverly Berkeley Spotsylvania 1785 

Winston, Isaac St. Stephen s Culpeper 1829 

Winston, John St. Martin s Hanover 1785 

Winston, Walter C St. Stephen s Culpeper 1843 

Winston, B. L St. Paul s Hanover 1869 

Winston, Wm. C St. Martin s Hanover 1861 

Winston, Isaac, Jr St. Stephen s Culpeper 1817 

Wirt, Dr. Wm St. Peter s Westmoreland .... 1869 

Wise, Tully St. George s Accomac 1785 

Withers. A. C St. Pauls Suffolk 1876 


Layman. Parish. County. Date* 

Withers, Edward B Moore Campbell 1829* 

Withers, Thomas, Jr Bath Dinwiddie 1827 

Withers, RobertE St. Paul s Lynchburg; 1868 

Withers, Dr. T. T St. James Warrenton 1854 

Withers, Dr. E. D Camden Pittsylvania 1857 

Withers, William Bath Dinwiddie 1786 

Wood, Robert St. Margaret s Caroline 1836 

Wood, Governor Frederick Frederick 1797 

Wood, James Frederick Frederick ^787 

Woods, Andrew P St. Mathew s Wheeling 1848 

Woodville, James L Botetourt Botetourt 1834 

Woodward, James A Fall s Church Fairfax... 1846 

Woolfolk, John St. Asaph s Caroline 1796 

Word, William E. M Botetourt Botetourt 1863 

Wormeley, Ralph Christ Church Middlesex 1786 

Wray, George Elizabeth City Elizabeth City 1785 

Wrenn, C. F Newport Isle of Wight 1880. 

Wrenn, Virginius Newport Isle of Wight 1879 

Wright, T. R. B SouthFarnham Essex 1875 

Wright, Franklin Grace Petersburg 1880 

Wright, Edward S 1843 

Wyatt, William Accomac Accomac 1839 

Wyatt, Francis J St. John s Spotsylvania 1836 

Yancy, Charles Trinity Louisa 1785 

Yeatman, Milton Lunenburg Richmond co 1875 

Yeaton, William C Christ Church Alexandria 1875 

Yonge, Philip St. Andrew s Prince Edward 1877 

Young, Henry St. Stephen s King and Queen... 1785 

Young, Henry South Farnham Essex 1823 

Young, William D Portsmouth Norfolk 1832 

Young, Dr. Robert W Newport Isle of Wight 1839 

Young, Dr. W. B Trinity Staunton 1863 

Young, J. Thornton Trinity Martinsburg 1876 


In bringing to a close these extracts from our official 
TeCords, it may not be out of place to add a few things con 
nected with our history since 1865. 

When Virginia, with the other members of the Southern 
Confederacy, emerged from the wreck and confusion of a 
long and devastating war, she was quite certainly the 
greatest sufferer of all the States from material losses. 
She had been, more than any other State, the battle 
ground; her contributions of men and means had ex 
ceeded those of any of her sisters; she was reduced to a 
condition that for a time was deplorable. Any remarkable 
Church growth was hardly to be expected. Still, for the 
purpose of encouraging our own hearts, and of strengthen 
ing our faith in the promises of God, let us see what pro 
gress has been made since that memorable year. 

Our Seminary and High School buildings were in such a 
condition, and the poverty of the Church so dire, that the 
resuscitation of those Institutions appeared well nigh hope 
less. Of the Faculty, the Kev. Dr. Sparrow and Kev. Dr. 
Packard survived. The Kev. Cornelius Walker, D. D., was 
elected, in 1865, to fill the Chair of Ecclesiastical History, 
vacated by the death of the lamented Dr. May. The Kev. 
William F. Gardiner, who felt it necessary to cease for a 
time from parochial work, undertook to revive the High 
School. When he was able to resume parochial duties he 
resigned that important post, and the High School, in 
September, 18*70, was committed to the care of Mr. L. M. 
Elackford, who is still its Principal. 


In May, 1872, the Rev. J. J. Mcllhinney, D. D., was 
elected fourth professor of the Theological Seminary. In 
1874, the Rev. Dr. Sparrow was taken away by death, and 
in June, 1876, the Rev. Kinloch Nelson was elected a mem 
ber of the Faculty, and put in charge of the Chair of Eccle 
siastical History. Under their present instructors, both the 
Seminary and High School have greatly prospered. To 
Grod be the praise. 

In September, 1865, there were reported to the Council 
3,261 communicants. Of course that is only a partial report,, 
but it is quite probable that we would not have numbered 
many more, even if we had been able to discover as many 
as 5,000. Since that day West Virginia, which was a part 
of the Diocese, has been set apart as a new Diocese, taking 
from us not less than 1,200 communicants. In the part of 
the Diocese that is left, our Church has grown until at 
the Council of 1881, we numbered 12,778 communicants. 
Since 1865 there were reported, in addition to churches 
built and not consecrated churches consecrated, 63 ; there 
were persons ordained deacons, 136 ; deacons ordained 
priests, 119 ; persons confirmed, 16,174. The contribu 
tions, not reckoning the many gifts to private charity, of 
which there has been no record, and also not taking into 
account many contributions sent out of the State, have been 
not less than $2,500,000. This includes offerings for paro 
chial maintenance as well as those to missions and similar 
Church objects. May that grace which has signally blessed 
us in the past "always prevent and follow us, and make us 
continually to be given to all good works through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen." 


ACCESSION of Sir Thomas Dale 2 

ADDRESS to the Church in Virginia by the Convention of 1785 30 

of Bishop Madison in 1791 cause of decay of the Church.. 41 
duty of ministers to preach how ministers must preach 
coldness in preaching to be avoided theatrical manner 

to be avoided 42 

reading of the service to be well done duty of attention to 
infant baptism psalmody to be encouraged duty of re 
ceiving the sacrament regularly godly discipline to be 

exercised 43 

ministers to be patterns of all good works... 44 

intemperate zeal to be avoided respect for Christians of 

every denomination 45 

duty of supporting ministers 46, 47 

Bishop Madison, 1793 observable encouragement duty of 
ministers to visit parishioners to distribute Church 
literature to introduce family prayers to cherish fra 
ternal connections 50 

to resist the proselytism of our members to hope for the 

union of all Christian bodies in one 51 

burden of the pastoral office how the laity can lessen 

that burden 52 

Bishop Madison, 1799 strict observance of canons 57 

dilapidated churches duty of giving pastors regular sup 
port 58 

duty of laity to maintain public worship plans proposed 
to vestries and other laymen minister should consult 

with laymen 59 

Bishop Moore, 1815, 1819, 1825 85, 71, 97 

importance of obedience to rubrics injury done by, neg 
lect of rubrics support of the Episcopate 97 

advantages of a travelling missionary reasons why the 
Church should support one 98 

410 INDEX. 


Bishop Moore in 1835 meagre support of clergy rule for 
giving 119 

Bishop Meade in 1838 (old churches) 133 

Bishop Meade in 1842 (death of Bishop Moore) 159 

Bishop Meade in 1843 increase of the Church 167 

danger of hasty confirmations increase of students of 
theology need of legal protection for bequests 168, 169 

Bishop Johns in 1843 preaching of the Virginia clergy 170 

Bishop Meade, 1844 removals by clergy value of the Sem 
inary in supplying ministers need of funds for learning 
help to be expected outside of Virginia application to the 
Legislature for act of incorporation 171, 172, 173 

Bishop Johns, 1844 dispute concerning Yeocomico Church 
dangers and purposes of tractarians 173, 174 

Bishop Meade in 1845 colonial Church its character 179 

its difficulties lack of a bishop 180 

want of discipline defective preaching 181 

dissent increasing suspicions 182 

election of Dr. Griffith and Dr. Madison as bishops opin 
ion of General Convention as to the Church in Virginia, 183 

allusion to Bishop Moore 184 

character of clergy progress of the Church 185 

change in affairs how brought about 186 

standard of piety raised 187 

change in feeling of Christian bodies toward us 188 

difficulty of attracting the poor to the Church conten 
tion to be avoided 190 

Bishop Meade in 1846 purchase of the old church in Nor 
thumberland 195 

Bishop Johns, 1847 overture from William and Mary Col 
lege 197 

Bishop Johns, 1849 proposal of William and Mary College.. 203 
vote on same 205 

Bishop Meade, 1851 the True Churchman 212 

Bishop Meade, 1856 depression of the early Church in 

Virginia 2 5 T 

prejudices that followed her reasons for the Church s 

success 252 

requirements for confirmation emigration from Vir 
ginia 253 

present condition and prospects 254 

INDEX. 411 


Bishop Meade, 1857 Messrs. Aspinwalls offer to the Sem 
inary 256 

rubrical relaxation 257 

comprehensiveness of our services 258 

clergy not obliged to use morning prayer litany and 
ante-communion service all upon the same occasion.... 259 

Bishop Meade, 1861 remarks upon the coming war 268-271 

Bishop Johns, 1863 proceedings of General Council 280 

spirit of General Council Bruce legacy 281 

division of the Diocese 292 

assistant bishop 293 

prosperity of the Seminary in 1868 proceedings of Lam 
beth Conference 296 

ritualism ." 299 

scanty support of the clergy 303 

altars in churches disapproved 312 

round dancing condemned 313 

delivers a pastoral upon the holy communion 316 

Bishop Whittle on the death of Bishop Johns 322 

on flowers, altar-cloths, etc , 326- 

on the division of the diocese and an assistant bishop 332 

on Mrs. Buford s work in Brunswick county 334 

godly admonition on innovations in ritual correspond 
ence with parishes on the same 335 

deprecating agitation concerning frequent Episcopal visi 
tation recommends that an assistant be elected upon the 

ground of extent of territory 341 

ADJOURNMENT of Council in 1864 284. 

AGENTS for collection of funds Bishops Moore and Meade give 

their opinion concerning 143; 

ALTARS in churches disapproved 312 and 314 

ARRIVAL of the first colonists . i 

Rev. Mr. Hunt 2 

Rev. Mr. Bucke 2 

Lord De La War... , 2 

ASSISTANT in the parish allowed to Bishop Moore 81-96-99- 

fund collected for the 101 

ASSISTANT BISHOP to be elected to Bishop Madison 63 

asked for by Bishop Moore 105 

approval of Bishop Moore s request 106 

resolution to elect in 1829 succession to the Bishopric of 
the Diocese not to be allowed 108- 

412 INDEX. 


election of Rev. William Meade, D. D 109 

resolution concerning the succession rescinded in and 112 

asked for by Bishop Meade 161 

action of Convention upon Bishop Meade s request 163 

Rev. John Johns, D. D., chosen 164, 165 

salary of, in 1842, 1843 1 66 and 170 

inquiry as to expediency of electing 290 

asked for by Bishop Johns 293 

report in 1867 concerning expediency of electing 293 

Rev. Francis M. Whittle chosen 294 

resolution to apply for permission to elect an, upon ground 

of extent of territory, and vote upon it , , 339 

remarks of Bishop Whittle upon the subject of. 332 

recommendation of Bishop Whittle that General Conven 
tion be applied to for permission to elect, and Council s 

action 341 

ASSISTANT BISHOPS Resolution to request General Conven 
tion to adopt a rule concerning 109 

ASSISTANT S expenses provided for 81 

ASSOCIATIONS commended 113 

bishops to arrange districts and to assign ministers 104 

BISHOP motion to amend Article V of Constitution, on election 

of a 295 

action upon the motion 297 

Bishop Madison, election of. 40 

date of consecration 41 

death 65 

Bishop Moore, election 68 

death 159 

Bishop Meade, election 109 

death 273, 274 

Bishop Johns, election 164, 165 

death 322 

Bishop Meade, Treasurer of Council ordered to pay the 

funeral expenses of 274 

tribute to the memory of. 276 

resolution of sympathy with, in 1853 243 

committee to have a monument erected to 296 

committee report the monument erected 304 

thanks to the committee 311 

Bishop Johns, resolutions of confidence in 277 

salary of $10,000, Confederate currency, 1864 283 



correspondence about confirmations in West Virginia 283 

resolutions of affection for and sympathy with 313 

Bishop Wilmer, consecration of. 273 

Bishop Whittle, election of 294 

BISHOP and assistant Bishop, assessment to provide salary for 151 

Bishop and assistant Bishop, salary allowed in 1830 112 

BISHOP S travelling expenses, provision for in 1791 4& 

Bishops of the Church to confine themselves to their own 

Dioceses 3*5 

BIBLE SOCIETY of Virginia endorsed 105, 117, 212, 341 

BROTHERHOOD of Virginia established 35 

approved by the Council 3 10 

report in 1880 342 


assets in 1868 297 

CANDIDATES for orders action taken concerning their prepara 
tion in 1791 4& 

number of, in 1843 171 

candidates admitted, in 1816 75 

CATALOGUE of doctrinal and practical works to be published in 

the Southern Churchman 153 

CHARGES against the Episcopal Church by some speakers of the 

present day 21 

CHRIST CHURCH, Alexandria occupancy by Federal military... 290 
CHURCH EDIFICES wrongfully kept from the Episcopal Church 

in Virginia , 23 

CHURCHES organized in the Diocese in 1831 about 100 113 

CHURCH MUSIC resolution concerning 314 

report concerning 316 

CHURCH PLATE put in possession of the Council by Rev. John 

Grammer 245 

ordered to be placed in the Seminary library 246 

ordered to be given to vestry of Bruton parish 265 

edifices not to be used for military processions, &c 116 

attendance, canons upon, 1817 , 80 

Church of England, her liturgy to be used with necessary 
alterations ; her canons not binding upon the Church 

in Virgina 3 

CLERGY recommended to receive ministerial students into their 
families, to assist them in studies and to furnish them 
missionary work 81 

414 INDEX. 


list from 1607 to 1785 7 

list from 178510 1881 349 

in 1616 5 

in 1619 6 

number in 1831... 113 

duty of, to give instruction concerning the Church 115 

duty of, to give instruction concerning giving 311 

duty of, to show why we prefer a liturgy to extemporane 
ous worship 115 

deficiency in the number of plans to increase the force 

of 115, 116 

not to be absent from their parishes, &c., without leave 

from the Bishop 317 

support of, committee to report concerning 292 

report of committee 295 

report of committee on parishes delinquent in supporting... 297 

report of committee in 1869 301 

scanty support and frequent changes by 303 

list since 1785 349 

CLERICAL SUPPORT Committee on, made a Standing Com 
mittee 311 

CONSTITUTION AND CANONS to be published in tract form 

for circulation 104 

Canon X proposed amendment to 289 

Canons and Constitution motion to revise in 1867 290 

report on revision in 1867 292 

report on revision in 1877 334 

changes in 1868 297 

Canon IX proposed amendments to 301 

Canon XIX proposed amendment to 304 

adopted as standing at present 314 

amendment to concerning neglect of communion 317 

Canons and Constitution motion to revise and publish 1872.. 312 

committee appointed to revise in 1878 331 

report presented and laid over 341 

Canon X motion to repeal laid over 314 

Constitution new one adopted 341 

Canons report brought over from last Council again laid 
over 343 


proceedings concerning 99 

INDEX. 415 


collections to be made for 117 

endorsed and commended to aid of the Church 210 

COLORED PEOPLE instruction of. 152, 155,255, 256 

efforts to teach them. 157 

laity urged to instruct them 261 

information asked concerning their instruction 262 

vestrymen in churches, for 264 

missionary services with 264 

report of a plan for instruction of. 267 

baptism of their children 268 and 272 

appeal to the laity to work for their benefit 288 

their organization into congregations encouraged 291 

their representation in council provided for 291 

petition of St. Stephen s Church, Petersburg 300 

action in the case of St. Stephen s Church 300 

committee appointed to devise some better plan for the re 
ligious well-being of the 300 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke s work commended 320 

"Zion Union" movement in Southern Virginia 334 

"Zion Union" work 340 

appointment of evangelist to labor with the Zion Union 

Church 342 

report of work with the Zion Union Church 345 

CONFEDERATE STATES committee appointed to confer with 

other Dioceses in the 272 

report from committee 275 

adoption of Constitution of Church in the 275 

election of delegates to a General Council of Church in the.. 275 

instructions to the delegates 275 

prayer for, in the Council 282 

delegates to General Council in the 288 

CONFIRMATIONS number reported in 1843 171 

number reported in 1855 250 

number reported in 1856 256 

number reported in 1862 277 

CONTINGENT FUND amount of in 1826 101 

delinquent list to be published 154 

$300 of, assumed by Bishop Moore 154 

assessment for, in 1842 166 

amount in 1843 I 7 l 




number of communicants to be reported first day of Con 
vention to determine amount to be paid to 192, 200 

motion to reduce assessment for 210 

amount of, in 1865 288 

amount of, in 1866 291 

committee to report concerning amount, &c. 343 

report presented and laid over 343 

CONTROVERSY between rector and vestry of Fredericksville 

Parish 297 

CONVENTIONS after the Revolution 20 

Convention of 1785 28 

Conventions of 1856, 1857, 1858 25 

time of holding 113 and 114 

canonical residence necessary for seat in Council 283 

week previous to, appointed as a season of thanksgiving 

and prayer 114 

canon of 1803 concerning 60 

a list of places adopted 120 

biennial sessions proposed 131 

excuse required when clergy fail to attend 146 

governor and judges invited seats in 33 


steady progress of the Church 118 

only infallible security against the fanatical inventions of 

men in the worship of God 118 

clergy expected to instruct the colored people 118 

energy seen in Church members instructions in Sunday 

schools and Bible classes 120 

causes of apathy in the Church in 1836 political excite 
ment and spirit of speculation 121 

over-excitement of some religionists 122 

report in 1837 external condition of the Church en 
couraging not so much improvement in its spiritual 

state 128 

a time of danger reaction from great commercial pros 
perity day of supplication recommended dissatis 
faction with the requirement of church-membership 

for lay delegates 129 

parsonages colored work 157 

Oxford Tracts Diocesan missions 158 

INDEX. 41*7 


prosperity of the Diocese new churches built (1844) sup 
plies of men from the Seminary Oxford Tracts 177 

wordliness and religious controversies service for thanks 
giving 197 

introduction of foreign manners, &c., deprecated 202 

Sunday schools for colored children commended 255 

report in 1862 Seminary and High School broken up 277 

armed interference with ministers and congregations 
Southern churches taken by Federal chaplains mis 
sion work with the army 278 

altars round dancing 314 

"Zion Union" movement 340 

COMMITTEE to prepare rules, &c., for the government of the 

Church in 1787 35 

COMMON PRAYER action concerning, in 1786 33 

CONSECRATION of Dr. Griffith measures for the same 38 

CONVOCATIONS recommended 288 

proposition to arrange them by canon 331 

CORRESPONDENCE with Rev. Thomas G. Addison 283 

COUNCIL Change of name from Convention to Council 275 

special meeting in 1865 285 

committee to inquire concerning change of time of meeting, 290 
committee to inquire concerning change of places of meet 
ing 290 

recommendation as to change of places 292 

recommendation as to change of time 292 

ought to remain together over Sunday 295 

motion to open daily sessions at 9 A. M. with full service ... 296 

DAY of humiliation, fasting and prayer in 1832 114 

DEACONS ordained in 1816 75 

ordained in 1817 ) 80 

DEATH of Bishop Madison date of 65 

DEPUTIES elected to General Convention in 1785 30 

elected to General Convention in 1785 31 

1786 36 

1792 48 

1793 49 

J794 : 53 

1796 54 

1813 66 

1815 73 


418 INDEX. 



1818 .............................................................................. 84 

1819 .............................................................................. 85 

1821 .............................................................................. 90 

1822 .............................................................................. 92 

1823 ............................................................ .................. 93 

1826 .............................................................................. 101 

apropriations to defray their expenses .............................. 101 

DESTITUTE parishes in 1805 how to supply ............................. 63 

parishes in 1813 how to supply ....................................... 67 

DESTRUCTION of Jamestown ................................ . ................. i 

DIOCESAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY Constitution adopted ....... 108 

report in 1830 ................................................................. 112 

Executive Committee enlarged in 1830 .............................. 112 

employs Rev. Mark L. Chevers ........................................ 113 

report number of churches and clergy in 1831 ................... 113 

report of money and a horse in 1833 ................................. 116 

aided five missionaries in 1836 ......................................... 123 

aided six missionaries in 1837 .......................................... 126 

change of name to Society for Promotion of Christianity... 150 
surplus funds to go to Foreign and Domestic Missions ...... 150 

report in 1840 ................................................................ 155 

missionaries at Danville and Abingdon ............................. 157 

report upon Southwest Virginia in 1842 ............................ 165 

change of name back to Diocesan Missionary Society ........ 167 

report in 1844 ................................................................. 176 

Prayer Books and Tracts ordered to be distributed ............ 176 

report of 1846 contrasted in 1839 ...................................... 196 

report of 1847 ................................................................. 201 

report in 1848 ................................................................. 202 

report in 1849 .................................................... ............ 205 

report in 1850 ................................................................. 210 

report in 1851 ................................................................. 211 

report in 1854 ................................................................. 247 

aid to Rev. Lewis Walke during yellow fever pestilence ..... 251 

recommend appointment of an evangelist ........................ 265 

work with the soldiers in 1862 .......................................... 278 

missionaries to the hospitals ............................................ 280 

Bibles, Prayer Books and Tracts published for the army ..... 280 

parishes asked to pay not less than fifty cents for each 
communicant ...... .................................................... 301 

INDEX. 419 


convocation presidents honorary members of the Execu 
tive Committee 333 

DIOCESAN MISSIONS candidates for orders urged to assist in.. 150 
calling on rectors and parishes to aid destitute fields with 

services 243 

how settled presbyters may help destitute fields 254 

Bishop s pastoral asked for in 1866 291 

settled ministers asked to do missionary work 301 

report upon in 1878 332 

DIOCESES Council agrees to amendment concerning new 255 

DISABLED CLERGY plan to be reported for relief of 242 

committee of laymen appointed to report a plan for re 
lief of. 248 

report made and laid over 249 

report upon the scheme for relief of. 255 

assets in 1867 292 

1866 297 

DISCIPLINE Canon upon (1817) 80 

resolutions concerning (1817) 76 

canon upon (1849 XlXxn) 206 

vote upon 207 

reconsidered and postponed 207 

vote upon, in 1850 208 

absentees record their votes 208 and 209 

opponents record their reasons 210 

motion to have it publicly administered 304 

ordinance concerning (1815) 73 

DISCUSSION by letter irregular 52 

DISPENSING with Greek and Latin in the cases of Messrs. Brown 

and Foster 53 

DISTRICTS laid off by the Convention of 1786 35 

DIVISION of the Diocese motion for 161 

action of Convention in 1842 163 

committee of inquiry concerning 290 

Bishop Johns remarks upon 292 

report of committee upon 1867 293 

motion looking to a 305 

resolutions of West Virginia Convocation 323 

petition from delegates South of James river 323 

action of Council (1877) in case of West Virginia 327 

action of Council (1877) in case of Southside 327 

420 INDEX. 


remarks of Bishop Whittle upon 332 

proposition to get the sense of Diocese upon 339 

DONATION to the Episcopal Fund by the widow of Devereux 

Jarratt 84 

DRAFT for creation of Bishopric in Virginia 18 

EARLY HISTORY of the Church in Virginia 179 

EDUCATION SOCIETY depressed condition 196 

collection asked in Richmond churches for 241 

united effort to aid 245 

Bishop asked to issue pastoral in 1866 291 

EFFECT of the Revolution upon the Church in Virginia 20 

ELECTION of Rev. David Griffith" to the bishopric in 1786 36 

of Standing Committee in 1787 38 

of Assistant Bishop appointed in 1806 64 

of Rev. Dr. Bracken to the bishopric 66 

EPISCOPAL Church during the revolution 21 

visitations proposition to have them required every two 

years 342 

fund in 1834 117 

interest ordered to be paid to the Bishop in 1837 129 

residence movement to purchase an 303 

purchase of. 305 

EPISCOPATE plan to raise permanent fund for 89, 99 

refusal to make any change concerning fund for the 146 

condition of permanent fund in, (1822) 91 

amount of permanent fund in, (1826) 101 

contingent fund to supply support for the, (1837) 130 

ERRATA Read Convocation for Convention 323 

read five for four fifth line from bottom 324 

EVANGELIST recommended by Diocesan Missionary Society 265 

employment of two recommended 312 

report upon measures for support of. 317 

appointed to work with the "Zion Union" 342 

Bishop requested to appoint one or two 342 

EVIDENCES of Church growth in Virginia 24 

EXPENSES of Bishop Madison s consecration provided for 40 

of trial of Rev. T. T. Castleman 261 

FEDERAL RELATIONS report on 329 

FIRST religious service in Virginia i 

communion in Virginia I 

marriage service in Virginia i 

church erected , i 

INDEX. 421 

FOREIGN MISSIONS Rev. Dr. Milner invited to speak upon 121 

sermon ordered to be preached at each Council 317 

FORMAL establishment of the Church in the colony 6 

FOUNDING of the Church in Virginia i 

GENERAL CONVENTION of June, 1786, and October, 1786 re 
port upon 37 

to be invited to Richmomd 69 

representation of four of each order from each Diocese 

agreed to 254 

communication from, in 1827, as to changing, 

how the Psalter is appointed to be read 102 

how the rest of the Holy Scripture is appointed to be 

read 102 

preface to Confirmation office 102 

prayer in Confirmation office 102 

obligation of ministers to read Anti-Communion service... 103 

change in the Rubric after the Communion office 103 

amendment to eighth article of Constitution 103 

action of the Convention upon the above 107, 108 

two delegates of each order to be sent to 131 

proposal of Bishop Johns to the Diocese to return to the... 285 
report of committee upon proposal to resume connection 

with the 287 

resolution to resume connection with 289 

vote upon resumption of connection with 290 

communication from, 1881 344 

report of deputies to the General Convention of 1880 345 

GENERAL P. E. S. S. UNION endorsement of 125 

endorsement of rescinded 201 


elected in 1829 no 

elected in 1836 N 123 

relations of this Diocese to the 341 

report upon the relations to the 344 

GLEBES unjustly taken from the Church 22 

action concerning the Church s title 40 

resolution to memoralize the General Assembly 55 

committee to memoralize the General Assembly 56 

committee to consult eminent counsel as to defence of the 

Church s right to the glebes before the courts 57 

Bishop and Standing Committee authorized to defend the 
Church s right 62 

422 INDEX. 


funds to be raised to defend the Church s right 62 

inquiry as to which of them have been sold, &c 62 

HAMPDEN SIDNEY COLLEGE communication from 149 

reply to ,, 152 


HIGH SCHOOL establishment recommended 143 

establishment approved 146 

determination to establish 150 

Rev. William N. Pendleton to have charge of. 150 

spirit of religion there in 1840 154 

signs of failure 178 

Rev. E. A. Dalrymple to be engaged as Rector 192 

funds raised to assist 193 

under Mr. Dalrymple in 1846 196 

resignation of Rev. Dr. Dalrymple in 1853 244 

election of Rev. John P. McGuire as Rector 244 

election of Rev. Mr. Gardiner 406 

election of Mr. L. M. Blackford, Principal 406 

HISTORIOGRAPHER motion to elect 330 

elected and salary fixed , 339 

reports from 342, 345 

requested to prepare a list of parishes entitled to repre 
sentation since 1785 346 

HYMNAL proposed by General Convention committee to ex 
amine 312 

HYMNS favored by General Convention objections to 303 

INCORPORATION Act of, to be sought by the Standing Com 
mittee from the Virginia Legislature, or in Maryland, 

to protect the Widows and Orphans fund 120 

plans abandoned 123 and 126 

efforts renewed 170 

legacies lost for want of act of. 209 

act of, for the Seminary and High School obtained 245 

thanks to Rev. John Cole for his aid in procuring 245 

INFLUENCE of the Diocesan Conventions and Councils 24 

INSTITUTION of Rev. J. H. Rector of Trinity Church, 

Portsmouth in and 112 

of Rev. E. Boyden, as Rector of St. Paul s Church, Nor 
folk only two cases on record in the Diocese 117 

effort to have the office amended 319 

effort to have the office omitted from the Prayer Book 318 

INDEX. 423 

INSTRUCTIONS to deputies to General Convention by the Con 
vention of 1785 29 

to deputies by the Convention of 1786, concerning the 

Prayer Book and 39 Articles 33 

to deputies in 1792 to vote against giving the House of 

Bishops a full negative 49 

in 1795 to give wardens, &c-, power to permit services by 

clergy of this Church 53 

in 1871 concerning Ritualism, &c 309 

in 1874 concerning Ritualism, &c 3*8 

INSURANCE of Church property Plan proposed for 3S 

INTEMPERANCE Resolution concerning in 1829 no 

Bishop asked to issue a pastoral in 1876 325 

resolution concerning in 1878 330 

plan to be devised to suppress the evils of 34 

report and action upon the report 34 2 

society formed to suppress 344 

INVESTMENT of Church funds Inquiry into best plan of 210 

report upon same 2I1 

JO P PA endorsement of Miss Baldwin s work in 3*7 

JUDICIARY proposal to establish ecclesiastical 34 

KEITH, REV. REUEL elected to professorship in the Theologi 
cal Seminary, 1823 93-95 

Seminary deprived of his services 165 

LAITY importance of the cooperation of the 244 

LAMBETH CONFERENCE proceedings deposited with regis 
trar, 296 

LAY DELEGATES inquiry as to the propriety of requiring such 

to be communicants "7 

required to be communicants 120 

list of from 1785 to 1881 365 

LAY DISCIPLINE canons on (1818) 80 

LEGAL ADVISER to the Bishop appointed 33 1 

LOTTERIES, &c., condemned 3 2 

MARRIAGE State law concerning to be placed in the Journal... 247 

MARTIAL LAW to enforce religious observances 3 

MESSAGE from the Council to brethren absent in 1863 282 

MILITARY COMMISSIONS not to be allowed to the clergy 54 

MINISTERS AND VESTRIES to be addressed by the Standing 
Committee on the State of the Church and the necessity of 
canonical obedience 53 

424 INDEX. 

MINISTERS to visit families and catechize children 63 

special form of prayer for increase of. 241 

MISSIONS action concerning, in 1836 121 

action concerning, in 1838 prayers for during Convention.. 132 

jubilee service appointed in 1851 212 

call for cooperation in 249 

MISSIONARY JURISDICTION allowing a portion of a Diocese 

to be set off as a 316 

MODERATION of the Virginia clergy 170 

MORTUARY LIST of communicants 316 

NAME of " Frederick " parish changed to " Cunningham Chapel "... 289 
of "Leeds" parish, Prince William, changed to "Hay- 
market " 346 

"Luther" parish, Clarke county, changed to "Clarke" 242 

NEW DIOCESE proposition to form out of West Virginia and 

part of Pennsylvania 160 

NEW YEAR S DAY set apart for divine service 48 

OFFER of pecuniary assistance by the Domestic Missionary Com 
mittee, and reply to the same (1865) 288 

OFFICERS of the Conventions and Councils since 1785 347 

OLD CHURCHES account of by Bishop Meade 13310 143 

OPENING services of Council of 1881 344 

ORDINATIONS reported in 1815 69 

reported in 1818 84 

reported in 1819 85 

reported in 1820 88 

reported in 1821 90 

OXFORD TRACTS Bishop Moore s remarks upon 147 

Committee on the State of the Church concurring 151 

Church in Virginia not injured by 158 

refusal to strike out a censure of. 159 

PARISHES A list reported, 1869 312 


Woodville, Botetourt 196 

Shelburne, Loudoun 196 

St. James , Mecklenburg 196 

St. James -Northam, Goochland 205 

Martin s Brandon, Prince George 251 

Trinity, Portsmouth 202 

PAROCHIAL REPORTS Complaints, because not prepared ac 
cording to form complaints, because of their length 
and irrelevancy 103 

INDEX. 425 


form of, recommended in 1833 , 116 

to be returned when not properly prepared 193 

form changed in 1857 260 

received from twenty-five parishes in 1862 277 

received in 1864 only twenty-eight 285 

slightly changed in 1869 301 

motion to print them in tabular form 316 

motion to revise 330 

form amended so as to require report concerning rectors 

salaries 341 

PARSONAGES Importance of having them built 157 

parishes urged to provide them 263 

PRAYERBOOK and Tract Society to be formed in 1815 74 

accounts 76 

Society motion to extend 76 and 77 

Society motion to have auxiliaries 76 and 79 

Society selling books at half price 120 

PREPARATORY department of the Seminary 298 

PRIESTS ordained in 1816 75 

ordained in 1817 80 

PROTEST against allowing the House of Bishops an absolute veto, 53 

against State interference with the Church property 54 

PROTESTANT Episcopal Church Home Commended to the Sup 
port of the Diocese 342, 344 

Lots in Hollywood to be sold and grounds given to the 344 

REQUIRING ministers to attend Conventions 62 

parishes to contribute to the expense of Episcopal visita 
tions 48 

QUORUM difficulty in procuring, in 1864 283 

RE-BUILDING of Jamestown and the church 2 

RELINQUISHMENT of the Episcopate by Dr. Griffith 39 

REMOVALS by the clergy 171 

REPORT upon proceedings of General Convention of 1784 29 

of confirmations in 1793 49 

of confirmations, etc., by the Bishop in 1815 69 

of confirmations, etc., by the Bishop in 1817 75 

RESIGNATION of the bishopric by Dr. Bracken 66 

RESOLUTIONS touching the action of the General Conventions 

of June and October, 1786 35 

adopted since 1815, and reaffirmed in 1836 124-126 

REVIVAL OF THE CHURCH action concerning 77 

address of Convention concerning 78 

426 INDEX. 

RITUALISM Bishop Johns remarks, 1869 299 

resolution concerning 299 

report of committee upon, 1869 301 

deputies to General Convention instructed to work for the 

suppression of. 309, 310 

innovations to be guarded against 312 

report concerning in 1874 318 

innovations the subject of "godly admonition" 335 

Bishop Whittle s remarks in 1879 336, 337 

report upon the subject in 1879 338 

minority report upon same subject 338 

vote upon report of committee 339 

proposition to refer it to the General Convention 339 

ROMISH SCHOOLS danger of sending Protestant children to, 305-309 

ROUND DANCING discountenanced 312 

pronounced against 333 

RUBRICS duty of clergy faithfully to observe 98 

not many instances of inattention to, in Virginia 99 

RULES for the order, etc., of Protestant Episcopal Church in Vir 
ginia 33 

SABBATH pledge for observing 115 

resolutions concerning observance of (1837) 130 

SALARY allowed Bishop Madison in 1793 49 

of Bishop in 1836 assessment for 123 

of Assistant Bishop in 1842 166 

voted to the secretary 292, 321 

SCHEDULE of collections adopted 333 

SCHOOLS for Episcopal youths their establishment recom 
mended 129 

under church auspices inquiry concerning the establish 
ment of. 304 

SOUTHERN CHURCHMAN commended by Bishop Moore 119 

commended 121 

proposition to purchase 149 

report upon proposal to purchase 153 

recommended 202 

parents urged to send the paper to their children absent at 

college 245 

office changed in 1861 277 

limited circulation in 1861 277 

inquiry into its relations to the Diocese 311 

relations to the Diocese 320 

INDEX. 427 

STANDING COMMITTEE powers of in 1786 35 

in 1787 38 

on church property 298 

church schools 314 

STATE OFFICERS invited to seats in Convention 32, 33 

STATISTICS from 186510 1881 406 

SUPPORT of the Bishop and other pastors 48 

SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS resolutions forming a 239 

report concerning 242 

disapproved by the Convention . 261 

SUSTENTATION FUND resolution to establish 311 

report made, but no action taken 313 

TEMPERANCE REFORM meeting upon the subject of. 344 

TESTIMONIALS of good conduct required from a minister 

changing his parish 54 

THANKS to Presbyterian and Baptist congregations for the use of 

their churches 80 

THANKSGIVING DAY memorial to the Governor to appoint a, 241 

letter from Presbyterian Synod concerning 248 

action concerning the proposal of the Synod 248, 249 

THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY correspondence with Maryland 

and North Carolina concerning a 90 

appointment of John Nelson to solicit funds for 90 

established at Williamsburg 90 

constitution of (1822) 91 

subscriptions to (1822) 91 

trustees elected (1822) 92 

report of trustees (1823) 93 

trustees elected (1823) 94 

books requested for its library (1824) 94 

Alexandria recommended as the location of (1824) 95 

place near Alexandria purchased as location of. 106 

report of trustees ( 1824) 95 

election of Rev. Mr. Norris as professor of. 100 

ample room for the Virginia 100 

no conflict with the General Seminary 100 

Rev. E. R. Lippet elected to succeed Mr. Norris on the 

death of the latter 101 

doubt at the time of the first attempt 105 

doubts removed, &c 105 

some reason for the necessity of the 105 

expenses of a student in 1828 106 

428 INDEX. 


increased funds in 1829 no 

the Virginia Church must depend upon our no 

insufficient accommodations in 1832 114 

public meeting in behalf of, in 1832 114 

additional building urged in 1833 1 16 

a third professorship urged in 1833 116 

additional subscriptions reported in 1833, 116 

report of increasing encouragement and increasing needs... 118 

accommodations and funds in 1835 119 

vested funds in 1836 123 

report in 1837 Dr. Packard in position ardent hopes 

of the Seminary 127 

report in 1838 Reasons for small number of students 143 

purchase of a house and lot 143 

$3,000 pledged for Library 143 

establishment of a High School urged 143 

the Seminary a blessing to the Diocese and to Foreign 

Missions 156 

increase of students in 1843 168 

donation of books, by widow of Prof. Griswold 193 

increase of funds reported in 1845 , 193 

report in 1846 .- 196 

appointment of Committee in 1847 to raise additional 

funds 201 

extended usefulness of 202 

report in 1849 205 

report in 1850 210 

encouraging report in 1851 211 

report in 1852 241 

invested funds in 1853 244 

thanks to St. George s Church, New York, and to John 

Bohlen, Esq., Philadelphia 255 

offers of the Messrs. Aspinwall 256 

funds needed to complete the new buildings 262 

broken up by the war in 1861 277 

Prosperity after the war 296 

dean requested to make parochial report 296 

instructor appointed to preparatory department 298 

motion to bring the Seminary and High School under con 
trol of the Council 320 

condition in 1865 405 

INDEX. 429 


election of Rev. Dr. Walker as professor 405 

election of Rev. Dr. Mcllhinney as professor 46 

election of Rev. Kinloch Nelson as professor , 406 

THEOLOGICAL PROFESSORSHIP proposed at William and 

Mary College 75, 87 

THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS offer of Hampden Sydney Col 
lege to educate 149 

response to the offer 152 

decrease in students in 1849 206 

TIME of General Convention meeting changed in 1819 85 

TITLE of the Church to its property resolutions concerning 55 

opinion of eminent lawyers concerning 56 

TREASURERS in parishes their value 263 

TRIAL of a clergyman canon of, in 1824 94 

canon proposed and postponed 262 

canon adopted 268 

TRUSTEES of General Seminary in 1826 101 

elected 1829 no 

elected in 1836 123 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA asking for an Episcopal chaplain- 
approval of plan to send a chaplain to the 117 

VESTRIES to communicate with the Bishop, and to obtain visits 

from clergy to the vacant parishes 74, 75 

VESTRY motion to let none but males vote in election for 264 

three the minimum number of. 297 

qualification of voters for 295 

for Christ Church, Norfolk communication from 289 

VIRGINIA FEMALE INSTITUTE proposition from the trus 
tees of recommending the purchase of 209-211 

appointing trustees of. 211 

measures to raise balance due upon 241 

funds received for purchase of. 242 

action taken to have all the property transferred to the 

Convention 247 

committee to report plan for holding the title 248 

document signed in open Convention 249, 250 

funds raised for, in 1856 251 

final payment upon 256 

proposition to admit the rector to a seat in Convention 266 

rector admitted 272 

430 INDEX. 


committee to examine the title of the Diocese to 311 

report of act of incorporation 320 

entire property to be transferred to trustees for the benefit 

of the Diocese 316 

report made in 1873 ordered to be filed 317 

commended to the support of the Diocese 342 


remarks of Bishop Meade concerning 268 

remarks approved by the Convention 272 

WEST VIRGINIA petition to be set apart as a new Diocese 323 

petition granted 327 

property question with Virginia 330 

settlement of the question , 331 

communication from 331 

same replied to 331 

further consideration of property question 334 

WHITE COMMUNICANTS only to be assessed for Contingent 

Fund 167 

WIDOWS AND ORPHANS society for relief of same begun in 

1791-92 48 

WIDOWS FUND committee of inquiry, 1820 88 

WIDOWS AND ORPHANS FUND report upon the same in 

1821 89 

report upon the same in 1823 93 

report upon the same in 1829 104 

report upon the same in 1835 I2 

resolutions offered by Bishop Meade in 1837 126 

annuities to be paid to widows and orphans 146 

annuity to be paid the family of Rev. W. F. Lee 146 

relief for son of Rev. James Chisholm 251 

proposal to dissolve the Society 262 

compound interest to be paid to the late members of the 

Society 264 

proposal to consolidate the funds with those for the relief 

of disabled clergy refused 265, 266 

rule concerning appropriations 267 

WILL of Evan Ragland of Halifax county report concerning 70 

WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE Report to Convention of 

1847 on overture to Bishop Johns 199 

vote on proposal to Bishop Johns 205 

INDEX. 431 


proposal accepted by Bishop Johns 207 

Bishop John s acceptance approved 210 

WILMER, Rev. Dr. respect to the memory of. 106 

WOMAN S WORK in the Church Committee to report upon 315 

a report made in 1873 317 

WORLDLY AMUSEMENTS Mr. Edmund I. Lee s resolution, 

(1818) 82 

Mr. C. F. Mercer s substitute (1818) 82 

action concerning (1818) 84 

WORLDLINESS and intemperance 320